Cultural Crossings

University of Virginia . March 11–13, 2010


China and Beyond in the Medieval Period Conference



Digital Projects in Asian Art and Humanities Workshop













Ryūichi Abé is the Reischauer Institute Professor of Japanese Religions at Harvard University. His research and teaching interests center on Buddhist theories of language, Buddhism and literature, the history of Japanese esoteric Buddhism, Shinto-Buddhist interactions, and Buddhism and gender. Publications include Great Fool—Zen Master Ryōkan (1996), The Weaving of Mantra–Kūkai and the Construction of Esoteric Buddhist Discourse (2000) and numerous articles in Japanese and English. 

Wendi Adamek is a scholar of Chinese religions and Fellow at the Stanford Humanities Center. Her research interests include Buddhism and Daoism, Tang culture, donor practices, Buddhist art, ecology and network theory. She is currently writing a book on the Tang dynasty Buddhist community at Bao shan in Henan. Her first book, The Mystique of Transmission (2007), won an Award for Excellence from the American Academy of Religion.  

Marcus Bingenheimer is Assistant Professor and Director of the Library and Information Center at Dharma Drum Buddhist College in Taiwan, where he supervises various digital projects concerning Buddhist culture. His research interests include modern Chinese Buddhism, the role of relics in Buddhism, Āgama literature, and Ming-Qing-dynasty temple gazetteers. His publications include A Biographical Dictionary of the Japanese Student-Monks of the Seventh and Early Eighth Centuries: their Travels to China and their Role in the Transmission of Buddhism (2001), The Scholar Monk Yinshun 印順—His Relevance for the Development of Chinese and Taiwanese Buddhism (in German, 2004) and Chinese TEI—A Guide to Using TEI with Chinese Texts (editor, 2009). 

Suzanne Cahill is Adjunct Professor of Religious Studies at the University of California at San Diego. She is a specialist in Tang-dynasty China (618–907) and has published books and articles in the areas of history, religion, literature, gender studies, and material culture. Her current project is a study of material culture in the Tang dynasty, drawing evidence from a study of the "Monographs on Vehicles and Clothing" in the two official Tang histories, materials remains and other texts. Publications include Transcendence and Divine Passion: The Queen Mother of the West in Medieval China (1993) and Divine Traces of the Daoist Sisterhood (2006). 

Jonathan Chaves is Professor of Chinese in the Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures at George Washington University. In addition to classical Chinese poetry, he has also published extensively on the topic of Japanese poetry in Chinese (kanshi) including Japanese and Chinese Poems to Sing: The Wakan rōei shū (with J. Thomas Rimer, 1997), which won the 1998 Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission Prize, and a chapter in Ike Taiga and Tokuyama Gyokuran: Japanese Masters of the Brush (by Felice Fischer with Kyoko Kinoshita, 2007), which was selected as the 2008 Art Book of the Year by The Art Book, UK. 

Wiebke Denecke is Assistant Professor of Asian and Middle Eastern Cultures at Barnard College, Columbia University. Her research interests include the thought and literature of early and medieval China and Japan, and comparative studies of antiquity. Selected publications include “Chinese Antiquity and Court Spectacle in Early Kanshi” (2004), “‘Topic Poetry is All Ours’: Poetic Composition on Chinese Lines in Early Heian Japan” (2007) and The Dynamics of Masters Literature: Early Chinese Thought from Confucius to Han Feizi (forthcoming 2010).  

Nicola Di Cosmo is Professor of East Asian Studies at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. His research interests include the cultural, political and military history of China’s northern frontiers, the traditions of Inner Asian peoples, the historiography of frontiers, and questions of historical method in the study of Chinese dynasties of foreign origin. Recent publications include Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Powers in East Asian History (2002), Manchu-Mongol Relations on the Eve of the Qing Conquest (2003) and The Diary of a Manchu Soldier in Seventeenth-Century China (2006). 

Albert Dien is Emeritus Professor of Chinese History at Stanford University. His areas of specialization are the history, culture and archaeology of early medieval China, the history and culture of the nomads of Central Asia, and the Silk Road. Selected publications include “A New Look at the Xianbei and Their Impact on Chinese Culture” (1991), “Caravans and Caravan Leaders in Palmyra”(2005), “Observations Concerning the Tomb of Master Shi” (2007) and Six Dynasties Civilization (2007). 

Sherry Fowler is Associate Professor of Art History at the University of Kansas.  She is a specialist in Japanese Buddhist art history. Recent publications include Murōji: Rearranging Art and History at a Japanese Buddhist Temple (2005), “Travels of the Daihōonji Six Kannon Sculptures” (2006) and “Views of Japanese Temples and Shrines from Near and Far: Precinct Prints of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries” (2008). 

Kam-Wing Fung is Associate Professor of Chinese at the University of Hong Kong. His research interests include history of science and technology in East Asia, history of Islamic science, cultural exchange between China and the West, and the intellectual history of modern China and Japan. Publications include History of Scientific Technology and Civilization in Asia (co-editor, 1995), “Mapping the Universe: Two Planispheric Astrolabes in the Early Qing Court” (2002), “The Transmission of Georg von Peurbach’s Theoricae novae planetarum in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century China” (2004) and “The Construction of Western Sun-dials and Transmission of Related Books in Late Ming: With Special Reference to Christopher Clavius’ Gnomonices [1581]” (2004). 

David Germano is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Virginia. His research focuses on Tibetan religious and intellectual movements from the eighth through the fourteenth century, as well as their broader historical contexts. Among his publications is Embodying the Dharma: Buddhist relic veneration in Asia (co-editor, 2004). Since 2000 he has been director of the Tibetan and Himalayan Library, a major international initiative aimed at stimulating and publishing innovative research on the region. He currently also directs the Tibet Center and, since 2008, the new SHANTI program that promotes innovation in social sciences, humanities, and the arts at the University of Virginia. 

Paul Groner is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Virginia. His research focuses on the Tendai school of Japanese Buddhism, monastic discipline and ordinations, and doctrinal issues such as Tendai views on the realization of Buddhahood with this very body (sokushin jōbutsu). Publications include Saichō: the Establishment of the Japanese Tendai School (1984), A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna (translator, 1990) and Ryōgen and Mount Hiei: Japanese Tendai in the Tenth Century (2002).  

Gustav Heldt is Associate Professor of Japanese at the University of Virginia. His research interests include early Japanese court fiction, classical poetry in China and Japan, and gender studies. Recent publications include “Writing Like a Man: Poetic Literacy, Textual Property, and Gender in the Tosa Diary” (2005), “Between Followers and Friends: Male Homosocial Desire in Heian Court Poetry” (2007) and The Pursuit of Harmony: Poetry and Power in Early Heian Japan (2008). 

Bruce Holsinger is Professor of English and Music and Associate Dean for Humanities and the Arts at the University of Virginia. He specializes in musical and literary relations in the European Middle Ages, with particular interests in liturgical studies, the history of sexuality, and the premodern roots of modern critical thought. Publications include Music, Body, and Desire in Medieval Culture: Hildegard of Bingen to Chaucer (2001) and The Premodern Condition: Medievalism and the Making of Theory (2005). His current long-term project is The Work of God: Liturgical Culture and Vernacular Writing in England, 650-1550.  

Mack Horton is Professor of East Asian Languages and Cultures at the University of California at Berkeley. He specializes in classical Japanese poetry and diary literature, focusing on issues of performativity, cultural context, poetics, and translation. His publications include Song in an Age of Discord: The Journal of Sōchō and Poetic Life in Late Medieval Japan (2002), its companion volume The Journal of Sōchō (2002), and Traversing the Frontier: The Man’yōshū Account of a Japanese Mission to Silla (forthcoming, 2010).  

Clarke Hudson is Assistant Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Virginia. His research specializes in Daoist self-cultivation literature (primarily the inner-alchemical texts of the Song and Yuan dynasties). Publications include “East Asian Buddhist Meditation” (2005) and “Reciting Scriptures to Move the Spirits” (forthcoming). He is currently writing a book on the Yuan-dynasty sexual alchemist Chen Zhixu. 

Venerable Huimin is Rector at the Dharma Drum Buddhist College, Professor at Taipei National University of the Arts, and Director of the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association. He has received training in traditional Chinese medicine and the Consciousness-Only School of Buddhism. Publications include A Study of the Meditative Object of Shravakabhumi (1993, 1997), Meditation and Life (1997) and Vinaya and Meditation (1999). In addition to teaching Buddhism at various levels as Rector of the Dharma Drum Buddhist College and Abbot of the Seeland Monastery in Taiwan, he has participated in several projects that integrate digital technology with the study of Buddhist culture. 

Anne Behnke Kinney is Professor of Chinese and Chair of the Department of East Asian Languages, Literatures and Cultures at the University of Virginia. She specializes in early Chinese literature and cultural history. Publications include The Art of the Han Essay: Wang Fu's Ch'ien-fu lun (1990), Chinese Views of Childhood (editor, 1995), Representations of Childhood and Youth in Early China (2004), and The Establishment of the Qin and Han Empires (co-author, 2005). She will soon be publishing a full translation of Liu Xiang’s Lienü zhuan (Traditions of Exemplary Women), in conjunction with her work as director of a digital research collection for the study of women in early China. 

Keith N. Knapp is Professor of Chinese History and Chair of the History Department at The Citadel Military College of South Carolina. He is a specialist in early Confucianism and the social and cultural history of medieval China. Publications include Selfless Offspring: Filial Children and Social Order in Medieval China (2005), “Creeping Absolutism: Parental Authority in Early Medieval Tales of Filial Offspring” (2006),  “Learning Confucianism through Filial Sons, Loyal Retainers, and Chaste Widows” (2008) and “Borrowing Legitimacy from the Dead: The Confucianization of Ancestral Worship” (2009).  

Takashi Koezuka is Emeritus Professor of Art History at Osaka University. He specializes in the arts of pre-Islamic South and Southeast Asia with a research focus on pictorial narratives, devaraja (heavenly kings) cult images, and Hindu and Buddhist iconography. His major publications include the Southeast Asia and India volumes in the History of World Art series (as editor, co-editor and co-author, 1999–2001), Reexamination of the “Indianization” Theory on the History of Southeast Asia (editor and co-author, 2005) and “The Reliefs of Sudhana’s Pilgrimage from Borobudur” (2008).  

Liying Kuo is Director of Studies for Chinese Buddhism at the Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient. Her research interests center on manuscripts, texts, rites and representations resulting from the adaptation of Buddhism in Central and East Asia. Publications include Confession et contrition dans le bouddhisme chinois (1994),  “Divination” (1994), “La récitation des noms de buddha en Chine et au Japon” (1995),  “Maṇḍala et rituel de confession à Dunhuang” (1998), “Apocryphes bouddhiques chinois” (2000), “Dakini/ḍākinī” (2003) and “Rite and diffusion of the Buddhoṣṇisavijayādhāraṇī ” (2007).  

Lewis Lancaster is Emeritus Professor of East Asian Languages and Cultures at the University of California at Berkeley. His research has focused on the history of the Chinese Buddhist canon. He is also the founder and Director of the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative. Current activities involve editorship of the Cultural Atlas of Chinese Religions, in coordination with the GIS Center of Academia Sinica in Taiwan; creation of visualizations for data retrieval from the digital Chinese Buddhist canons, in a joint effort with the School of Media Arts at City University of Hong Kong; and mapping of Buddhist archaeological sites and inscriptions of South India with the Archaeological Survey of India in Chennai. 

Karen Lang is Professor of Religious Studies and Director of the Center for South Asian Studies at the University of Virginia. Her areas of research and teaching are in Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Sanskrit, Pali and Tibetan. Publications include Four Illusions: Candrakirti's Advice on the Bodhisattva Path (2003), as well as numerous articles on Buddhist philosophy and literature. 

Yu-min Lee is Deputy Chief Curator of Painting and Calligraphy at the National Palace Museum. Her area of research specialization is Chinese Buddhist art. Publications include Visions of Compassion: Images of Kuan-yin in Chinese Art (2000), “Studies of Avalokiteśvara Images in the Northern and Southern Dynasties” (2002), “A Study of the Central Cave of the Binyang Group at Longmen” (2002), “An Investigation into the Early Buddhist Imagery of the Shantung Region from the Liu-Sung to the Northern Wei” (2004), “A Preliminary Discussion of the Ornamented Buddha of the T’ang Dynasty: Representing the Defeat of Māra” (2006) and “A Study of the Mural Paintings in Cave 321 at Dunhuang” (2008). 

Denise Patry Leidy is Curator in the Department of Asian Art at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Her work focuses on the interchanges between different artistic centers and practice traditions throughout Asia. She is currently finalizing a catalogue of the Buddhist and Daoist sculpture in the Museum’s collection and working on an exhibition focusing on Khublai Khan and the impact of the Mongols in China. Her publications include The Buddha of the Future: An Early Thai Sculpture of Maitreya (1994), Mandala: The Architecture of Enlightenment (1997), Defining Yongle: Imperial Art in Early Fifteenth-Century China (2005) and The Art of Buddhism: An Introduction to Its History and Meaning (2008).  

Janice Leoshko is Associate Professor of Art History and Asian Studies at the University of Texas at Austin and Chair of the American Institute of Indian Studies’ Center of Art and Archaeology. Her current research focuses on narratives in early Buddhist and Jain art and the significance of archives. Publications include Bodhgaya, the Site of Enlightenment (editor, 1988), Sacred Traces, British Explorations of Buddhism in the Nineteenth Century (2003) and “Assessing the Evidence of Ashokan-period Art” (forthcoming).  

Victor H. Mair is Professor of Chinese Language and Literature at the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests include Dunhuang manuscripts, particularly the earliest vernacular narratives called “bianwen” (“transformation texts”), Sino-Indian and Sino-Iranian cultural relations, the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age of Eastern Central Asia, and the origins and evolution of the Chinese script. In addition to over a hundred articles, he has published translations of the Mawangdui manuscripts of the Tao te ching (1990), the Zhuang Zi (1994) and the Sun Zi (2007).  

Worthy Martin is Associate Professor of Computer Science and Acting Director of the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia. He has been involved in numerous digital humanities projects, including Anne Kinney's “Traditions of Exemplary Women: Liu Xiang’s Lienü zhuan” and Dorothy Wong’s “Silk Road: The Path of Transmission of Avalokiteśvara.” 

Joan R. Piggott is Gordon L. MacDonald Chair in History at the University of Southern California and Director of the Project for Premodern Japan Studies at UCLA. Her current research concerns the history of court and monarchy, marriage practices, urbanism, and the estate (shōen) economy from classical into medieval times. Her publications include The Emergence of Japanese Kingship (1997), Teishinkōki: the Year 939 in the Journal of Regent Fujiwara no Tadahira (co-editor, 2008), and a forthcoming annotated translation of the Shinsarugakuki (New Monkey Music) by the scholar Fujiwara no Akihira (989–1066). 

Daniel Pitti is Associate Director of the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia. Since 1993, he has been the chief technical architect of Encoded Archival Description (EAD), an international standard for encoding library and archival finding. At IATH, he is responsible for project design in general, and Extensible Markup Language (XML), object-relational database design and development in particular. Some of the many projects he has been involved in designing and developing include the “Arapesh Grammar and Digital Language Archive,” “William Blake Archive,” “Lives of Exemplary Women,” “The Samantabadhra Archive” and “The World of Dante.”  

Eric Ramírez-Weaver is Assistant Professor of Art History at the University of Virginia.  His research involves the philosophical and art historical significance of scientific imagery from the early to late middle ages. Recent publications include “William of Conches, Philosophical Continuous Narration, and the Limited Worlds of Medieval Diagrams” (2009) and “Classical constellations in Carolingian codices: investigating the celestial imagery of Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, MS 3307” (2009).

Norman Harry Rothschild is Associate Professor of Chinese History at the University of North Florida. He has recently written Wu Zhao: China's Only Woman Emperor (2008), and has published a series of essays that explore various facets of the political authority of this unique female sovereign. 

Kurtis R. Schaeffer is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Virginia. His research focuses on the cultural and intellectual history of Tibet from the fourteenth through the eighteenth centuries. Recent publications include Himalayan Hermitess (2004), The Culture of the Book in Tibet (2009) and An Early Tibetan Survey of Buddhist Literature (with Leonard W. J. van der Kuijp, 2009). 

Neil Schmid is Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Religion at North Carolina State University. His research centers on the manuscripts and material culture of Dunhuang. Recent publications include “The Material Culture of Exegesis and Liturgy and a Change in the Artistic Representations in Dunhuang Caves, ca. 700–1000” (2006), “Revisioning the Buddhist Cosmos: Shifting Paths of Rebirth in Medieval Chinese Buddhist Art” (forthcoming) and “From Art to Artifice: Ritual, Verisimilitude, and Inalienability in Mogao Caves” (forthcoming).  

Tansen Sen is Associate Professor of Asian History and Religions at Baruch College and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Recent publications include Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade:The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600–1400 (2003) and China at the Crossroads: A Festschrift in Honor of Professor Victor H. Mair (co-editor, 2006). He is currently working on a monograph that examines cross-cultural trade in Asia during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a collaborative project on the Southern Silk Road, and a web archive of the history and experiences of the Chinese community in India. 

Juying Shih is a specialist in the digital archiving of Buddhist rubbings at the Institute of History and Philology at Academia Sinica, Taipei. Publications include “An Introduction of Management Systems for Rubbings Databases” (2005) and “Digital Archives of Buddhist Rubbings in the World” (2007).  

Henrik H. Sørensen is an Independent Scholar who has formerly taught at the University of Copenhagen and been a senior researcher at the National Museum in Denmark. His research interests include the relationship between religious practice and material culture in East Asian Esoteric Buddhism and issues relating to the definition, textual history, and iconography of early Esoteric Buddhism in China. Recent publications include “Esoteric Buddhism under the Koryǒ in the Light of the Greater East Asian Tradition” (2006), “Trends in the Study of Korean Buddhism in Europe from 1968–2006” (2007) and “Esoteric Buddhism and the Art of the Dazu Stone Carvings in Sichuan” (2008). 

David Summers is William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of the History of Art at the University of Virginia. Selected publications include Michelangelo and the Language of Art (1981), The Judgment of Sense: Renaissance Naturalism and the Rise of Aesthetics (1987, 2007), Real Spaces: World Art History and the Rise of Western Modernism (2003) and Vision, Reflection, and Desire in Western Painting (2007). He is currently completing a book entitled Cultural Time: An Introduction to the World’s Art.  

Susan Whitfield is Head of Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections at the British Library and Director of the International Dunhuang Project. In addition to her current research interests in the Eurocentric and Sinocentric historiographies of the Silk Road and histories of the Taklamakan kingdoms, she is involved in collaborative projects to conserve, catalogue, digitize and research archaeological artifacts and archives from the Eastern Silk Road. In 2009, her articles included “The Dunhuang Chinese Sky: A Comprehensive Study of the Oldest Known Star Map,” “A Place of Safekeeping? The Vicissitudes of the Bezeklik Murals,” “Was There a Silk Road?” and “Scholarly Respect in an Age of Political Rivalry” (on Russia and British explorers).  

Christian Wittern is Associate Professor of Chinese Studies at the Center for Informatics in East-Asian Studies at Kyoto University. His work focuses on methods for supporting research in the field of Chinese Studies using digital tools and resources, as well as development and maintenance of open standards and protocols, such as the Guidelines of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). He is convener of the Integrated Buddhist Archives network (IBA-net), a working group trying to improve interoperability among content holders with relevance to Buddhist Studies, and a member of the TEI Board of Directors. 

Dorothy C. Wong is Associate Professor of East Asian Art at the University of Virginia. Her area of specialization is in Buddhist art of medieval China, focusing on the links between art, religion and society. Publications include Chinese Steles: Pre-Buddhist and Buddhist Use of a Symbolic Form (2004), Hōryūji Reconsidered (editor, 2008), “Guanyin Images in Medieval China, Fifth to Eighth Centuries” (2007), “Early Transmission of Esoteric Images from China to Japan in the Seventh and Eighth Centuries” (2008) and “The Mapping of Sacred Space: Images of Buddhist Cosmographies in Medieval China” (2008). As a fellow at the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia, she is working on a digital project entitled: “Silk Road: The Path of Transmission of Avalokiteśvara.” 

Cong Zhang is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Virginia. Her research focuses on the social and cultural history of the Song period with a focus on travel, filial piety, and miscellanies. Publications include “Communication, Collaboration, and Community: Inn-wall Writing during the Song (960–1279)” (2005), “Sites, Places, and the Empire: Lu You’s Travel on the Yangzi River in 1170” (forthcoming) and Transformative Journeys: Travel and Culture in Song China, 960–1279 (forthcoming). 

Yuanlin Zhang is Research Fellow and Department Head of the Information Center of the Dunhuang Academy, China. His research interests include Buddhist iconography in the art of Dunhuang and Dunhuang art in relation to that of other regions. He currently chairs a research project entitled “Studies on the Art of the Lotus Sutra,” which is sponsored by the Chinese Ministry of Education. His major publications includeThe Art of Dunhuang Grottoes,volume 1(in Japanese, 2002) and Art of Western Wei: A Compendium of Mural Paintings at Dunhuang (2002).









Woman in embroidered hat and foreign clothes
China, Tang dynasty, ca. mid-7th c.
Painted earthenware
H. 52 cm
Unearthed in 1952 in Xianyang
Shaanxi History Museum