Center Director John Norton Moore; Associate Director Robert F. Turner; Distinguished Fellows Stewart A. Baker, "Spike" Bowman, Fred Hitz, Hays Parks, John Rizzo, Ruth Wedgwood; Senior Fellows James Kraska, Thomas Nachbar, Myron Nordquist, Guy Roberts, Gary Solis, James Terry; Senior Associate Samuel P. Menefee; and Fellows Ashley Deeks, Molly Bishop Shadel, and Christopher Swift all maintain a rigorous yearly schedule of teaching, publishing, researching, organizing national conferences, testifying before congressional committees, and meeting with law students.
Professor John Norton Moore, Director
Professor Moore is the Walter L. Brown Professor of Law at the University of Virginia School of Law and Director of the Center for National Security Law and the Center for Oceans Law and Policy.
He is the author or editor of thirty-eight books and over 170 scholarly articles and served for two decades on the editorial board of the American Journal of International Law, where he is currently an Honorary Editor. In addition to his scholarly career, Professor Moore has a distinguished record of public service. Among seven Presidential appointments, he has served two terms as the Senate confirmed Chairman of the Board of Directors of the United States Institute of Peace and, as the first Chairman, set up this new agency. He also served as the Counselor on International Law to the Department of State, and as Ambassador and Deputy Special Representative of the President to the Law of the Sea Conference, a Member of the National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere, Chairman of the National Security Council Interagency Task Force on the Law of the Sea, and as a Deputy Agent of the United States before the International Court of Justice in the Nicaragua case. He further served as the Legal Adviser to Kuwait during the Gulf War and as their Legal Adviser in the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission after the war. He prepared the first draft of what became the Community of Democracies for Freedom House. Viewed by many as the founder of the field of national security law, Professor Moore chaired the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on Law and National Security for four terms. His work today focuses on the origins and control of war, democracy and the rule of law, the oceans frontier, and national security challenges.
Professor Robert F. Turner, Associate Director
Bob holds both professional and academic doctorates from the Law School, where he co-founded the Center with Professor Moore in April 1981. He has served as its Associate Director since then, except for two periods of government service in the 1980s and during 1994-1995 when he was the Charles H. Stockton Professor of International Law at the U.S. Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. A former three-term chairman of the ABA Standing Committee on Law and National Security, Professor Turner was the first President of the U.S. Institute of Peace. He earlier served as national security adviser to a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, in the Pentagon as Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, as Counsel to the President's Intelligence Oversight Board at the White House, and as Principal Deputy and acting Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs. He served twice in Vietnam as an Army Lieutenant and Captain and is the author or editor of more than fifteen books and numerous articles.
Distinguished Fellows and Senior Fellows
The Honorable James E. Baker, Distinguished Fellow
Judge Baker retired from the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces in July 2015 after fifteen years of service, the last four as Chief Judge. Judge Baker is currently the Chair of the ABA Standing Committee on Law and National Security, and a visiting professor at Georgetown University Law Center. He previously served as Special Assistant to the President and Legal Adviser to the National Security Council (NSC) (1997-2000), Deputy Legal Adviser to the National Security Council (1994-1997) and as Counsel to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and Intelligence Oversight Board. Judge Baker has also served as an attorney adviser in the Office of the Legal Advisor, Department of State, a legislative aide and acting Chief of Staff to Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1985-1987), and as a Marine Corps infantry officer (1979-2000), resigning his Reserve commission upon joining the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. He is the author of In the Common Defense: National Security Law for Perilous Times (Cambridge: 2007) and, with Michael Riesman, Regulating Covert Action (Yale University Press: 1992).
The Honorable Stewart A. Baker, Distinguished Fellow
Stewart Baker has served as General Counsel to the National Security Agency (NSA), and was the first Assistant Secretary (acting as Under Secretary-equivalent) for Policy in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. He served as General Counsel of the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, and has been a member of the President’s Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration, the Commerce Department’s Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Information and Communications Technologies, Services, and Electronic Commerce; the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age; the Defense Science Board’s Task Force on Information Warfare; the Federal Trade Commission’s Advisory Committee on Online Access and Security; the President’s Export Council Subcommittee on Encryption; the International Telecommunication Union Experts Group on Authenticity; the International Chamber of Commerce Group of Experts on Electronic Commerce; and several other public and private sector groups. He is a former three-term chairman of the ABA Standing Committee on Law and National Security, and is widely recognized as one of the preeminent experts on issues of cyber warfare and cyber crime. Additional information.
M. E. "Spike" Bowman, Distinguished Fellow
Recently retired from the position as Deputy Director, National Counterintelligence Executive, Professor Bowman first achieved distinction while a Navy JAG officer. He was the first JAG officer assigned to the National Security Agency, where he served as military legal counsel to the Director. With the exception of the 1994 Aldrich Ames case, he played a key role in prosecuting every major espionage case in the past three decades, including those of Jerry Whitworth, John and Michael Walker, and Jonathan Pollard. He has also served as Head of the International Law Department at the Naval War College, and as Deputy Assistant Judge Advocate General of the Navy for Litigation. He has taught as well at George Washington Graduate School and lectures frequently at the George Mason Law School and at Duke Law School. After retiring from the Navy, he accepted a position in the Senior Executive Service at the Federal Bureau of Investigation as Senior Counsel for National Security Law and then as Chief, Intelligence Issues Group, National Security Branch. Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, he oversaw the expansion of the FBI’s National Security Law Branch from seven lawyers to more than fifty. Professor Bowman has for many years been a guest lecturer in the CNSL National Security Law Institute and contributed two key chapters to the Center's National Security Law casebook. Widely acclaimed as one of the nation's preeminent national security law practitioners, he has also served as Senior Research Fellow at the Center for Technology and National Security Policy at the National Defense University. His responsibilities at the Center include research and writing projects and continuing to assist with the Institute and other programs. Publications list
David Graham (U.S. Army, Ret.), Distinguished Fellow
Mr. Graham is the former Executive Director of the Army’s Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School (LCS), having served in that capacity for 14 years. He is a retired Army Officer with 31 years of experience as a Military Attorney, or Judge Advocate. He has an extensive background in International Law, with a mix of assignments in the United States, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East, and played a seminal role in developing the field of Operational Law. Mr. Graham has a long standing relationship with the LCS and the University of Virginia, as he has served as a professor, a Department head, and Academic Director of the School, as well as the Director of the Center for Law and Military Operations, now an integral part of the Legal Center and School.
Brigadier General Richard Gross (U.S. Army, Ret.), Distinguished Fellow
Brigadier General (retired) Rich Gross, the former Legal Counsel to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, served over 30 years with the U.S. military as an infantry officer and judge advocate (military attorney). In the latter half of his career, he served as the legal advisor to senior military leaders dealing with extremely challenging issues in complex environments. He was the senior legal advisor for the Joint Special Operations Command. He has multiple combat deployments to both Iraq and Afghanistan, including as the chief legal advisor for all U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan, followed by a tour as the senior legal advisor for US Central Command, the combatant command responsible for all military operations in the Middle East. Rich served his final four years as the Legal Counsel to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, where he worked with senior government and military leaders in the Department of Defense and throughout the interagency. He has extensive experience with special operations, multinational operations, counterterrorism, and the interagency. He also served as the senior Department of Defense representative at numerous international conferences, to include the U.S. reports to the UN Human Rights Committee on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention Against Torture, and the Universal Periodic Review, as well as participating in expert meetings with the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Professor Frederick P. Hitz, Distinguished Fellow
Since 1998 Fred Hitz has been lecturing at the Woodrow Wilson School of Princeton University and at the University of Virginia School of Law. A graduate of Harvard Law School, he entered the Career Training Program at the CIA and served in the clandestine service in Africa. In 1974, he returned to law practice but re-entered government service in congressional liaison capacities with the State, Defense, and Energy departments before resuming his career at the CIA in 1978 as Legislative Counsel to the Director of Central Intelligence. Hitz was responsible for managing the Agency's response to the Intelligence Charters legislation that came out of the Church Committee hearings in 1976. In 1980, he became Deputy Director for Europe in the Directorate of Operations. Hitz was appointed the first statutory Inspector General of CIA by President George H.W. Bush. He served in that capacity from 1990-1998 when he retired. Among the many investigations he led at the CIA was the Aldrich Ames betrayal. He has written extensively about espionage and intelligence issues. Additional information about Professor Hitz, including his publications.
Col. M. Tia Johnson (US Army, JAG, Ret.), Distinguished Fellow
As Assistant Secretary for Legislative Affairs, M. Tia Johnson acts as the Department of Homeland Security’s principal liaison with the U.S. Congress, coordinating and overseeing the Department’s legislative activity, working closely with authorization, appropriations, and oversight committees of the House and Senate to ensure that the Department’s priorities are reflected throughout the legislative and oversight process, and advises the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and other senior leadership on legislative matters. Prior to her appointment as Assistant Secretary, Ms. Johnson was the Senior Advisor to the Director, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). In her role as Senior Advisor, Ms. Johnson was a key executive on the Director’s management team, advising the Director on complex and sensitive matters that directly impact the Agency. She developed and recommended strategies and plans to enhance ICE’s goals and objectives. Ms. Johnson is a recently retired U.S. Army Judge Advocate specializing in international and national security law. In 2002, she became the first African-American female to be selected to the rank of Colonel in the U.S. Army’s Judge Advocate General’s Corps’ 227-year history. In her final assignment, she served as the Senior Military Assistant to the Department of Defense General Counsel. Before that, she served as the Special Assistant for Legal and International Security Affairs in the DoD Office of Legislative Affairs.
Professor W. Hays Parks, Distinguished Fellow
Hays Parks is widely regarded as the preeminent authority in the United States on the Law of War (jus in bello). He has held the prestigious Charles H. Stockton Chair of International Law at the Naval War College, been a Professor of International Law at the Army JAG School, and been an adjunct professor at American University School of Law, George Washington National Law Center, and numerous military war colleges. A combat Marine veteran of the Vietnam War (and retired Marine Reserve Colonel), between 1977 and 1979 he served as Head of the Law of War Branch, International Law Division, Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Navy. He then served for twenty-four years as Special Assistant to the Judge Advocate General of the Army for Law of War Matters, before in 2003 becoming Senior Associate Deputy General Counsel, International Affairs Division, Office of General Counsel, Department of Defense—where he also served as Chairman of the DoD Law of War Working Group and is the principal author and editor-in-chief of the not yet released Department of Defense Law of War Manual. Professor Parks has also served as a member of the U.S. delegations (usually as the senior Defense Department representative and often as chairman of the U.S. delegation) to more than forty international conferences and meetings of experts on a wide range of jus in bello issues over the decades. He has received numerous awards and honors for his professional writing (including the top writing awards from the Army JAG School, Air University Review, the U.S. Naval Institute, and the Navy League), the Department of State Superior Honor Award, and the Secretary of Defense Medal for Exceptional Civilian Service.
John Rizzo, Distinguished Fellow
John Rizzo has often been described as “the most important CIA lawyer in history,” and the description is almost certainly true. A thirty-four year veteran of the CIA Office of General Counsel, he served as the Agency’s senior attorney for six of those years. He focused his efforts especially on what was then called the Directorate of Operations (DO), which runs spies around the world and handles covert operations, but was also the Agency’s point man in dealing with Congress. A graduate of Brown University and member of the Law Review at George Washington University School of Law, he received the 1996 Thomas C. Clark Award from the Federal Bar Association as the most outstanding government lawyer in the nation (the first intelligence community lawyer to be so recognized). He has also received the Distinguished Career Intelligence Medal (the highest decoration given to career CIA officers). He has had a long history of involvement with the Center, including addressing most of the National Security Law Institutes over the years
Professor Ruth Wedgwood, Distinguished Fellow
Ruth Wedgwood is the Burling Professor of International Law and Diplomacy at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). Her involvement in national security law spans three decades. As a young prosecutor in the Southern District of New York, she arrested a Soviet trade attaché for nuclear espionage after a dramatic hand-off of a highly classified document in New York City; he was later traded to the Russians in exchange for western operatives. She also investigated and prosecuted the illegal transshipment of military equipment and electronics to Russia, North Korea, Iran, and Iraq. While serving as legal counsel and special assistant to the chief of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division, she designed the innovative trial procedures for the Kampiles espionage case—involving the compromise of the operating manual for the highly classified KH-11 spy satellite by a CIA employee—that became the model for the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA). Professor Wedgwood has advised two Secretaries of Defense as a member of the Pentagon’s Defense Policy Board, and has served on the Secretary of State’s Advisory Committees on International Law and the CIA Historical Review Panel. She was formerly a tenured member of the Yale Law School faculty, and was the first female to hold the Charles Stockton chair at the U.S. Naval War College. Dr. Wedgwood is a magna cum laude graduate of Harvard University and Yale Law School, where she was the first woman to serve as executive editor of the Yale Law Journal and received the Peres Prize for the finest legal writing. She was part of the advisory group of the Hart-Rudman Commission on Threats in the Twenty-First Century, and a founding member of the Davos World Economic Forum’s Council on International Law. She served two terms as the American member on the United Nations Human Rights Committee and was U.S. delegate to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. She is vice chair of Freedom House, and president of the American Branch of the International Law Association. She is also a Counselor and former Vice President of the American Society of International Law, as well as President-elect of the worldwide International Law Association. Additional information.
Associate Professor Ashley Deeks, Senior Fellow
Professor Ashley Deeks joined the University of Virginia Law School in 2012 as an associate professor of law, after two years as an Academic Fellow at Columbia Law School. Her primary research and teaching interests are in the areas of international law, national security, and the laws of war. She has written a number of articles on the use of force, administrative detention, the laws of war, and the Iraqi constitution. Before joining Columbia in 2010, she served as the assistant legal adviser for political-military affairs in the U.S. Department of State’s Office of the Legal Adviser, where she worked on issues related to the law of armed conflict, the use of force, conventional weapons, and the legal framework for the conflict with al-Qaeda. She also provided advice on intelligence issues. In previous positions at the State Department, Professor Deeks advised on international law enforcement, extradition, and diplomatic property questions. In 2005, she served as the embassy legal adviser at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad during Iraq’s constitutional negotiations. She was a 2007-08 Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow and a visiting fellow in residence at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Professor Deeks received her J.D. with honors from the University of Chicago Law School, where she was elected to the Order of the Coif and served as comment editor on the Law Review. After graduation, she clerked for Judge Edward R. Becker of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Additional information.
Professor James Kraska, Senior Fellow
Dr. James Kraska is a Senior Fellow at CNSL, a Senior Fellow at the Center for Oceans Law and Policy, and a Professor in the Stockton Center for the Study of International Law at the Naval War College, where he previously served as Howard S. Levie Chair in International Law from 2008-13. He is a veteran of two decades of service as a Navy JAG officer, and previously served as Director of Treaty Negotiations for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, where he led armed forces policy laws of war, arms control, and nonproliferation, and headed the Pentagon delegation to the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks with Russia in 2007. A leading authority on maritime terrorism and maritime piracy, Commander Kraska is the author or co-author of numerous law journal and peer-reviewed articles, and six books, including International Maritime Security Law (2013)and Piracy: International Law, Strategy and Diplomacy (2010). He helped draft UN Security Council Resolution 1816 on Somali piracy and prepared U.S. guidance used in detention of captured piracy suspects. Dr. Kraska has been involved with international negotiations with more than fifty countries, including Proliferation Security Initiative counter-proliferation treaties. In 2011 he was awarded the Alfred Thayer Mahan Award for Literary Achievement from the U.S. Navy League. He earned both the LL.M. and SJD degrees from the University of Virginia School of Law. Publications list.
Dr. Samuel Pyeatt Menefee, Senior Fellow
Sam is a Senior Fellow of the Center for National Security Law and Maury Fellow of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy. A summa cum laude and Scholar of the House graduate of Yale University, he was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University. He also holds graduate degrees from Harvard, Virginia, and Cambridge. Dr. Menefee is the author or editor of four books or monographs, and some 130 contributions to law reviews, professional journals, and books, including the Dictionary of National Biography and the Oxford Companion to World Exploration. He has been Visiting Lecturer at the University of Cape Town's Institute of Marine Law, Cosmos Fellow at the University of Edinburgh's School of Scottish Studies, Visiting Assistant Professor at the University of Missouri-Kansas School of Law and Professor of Law at Regent University School of Law. Dr. Menefee is a member of seven state bars and the District of Columbia's and a Fellow of numerous academic societies. Additional information about Dr. Menefee, including his publications.
Professor Thomas Nachbar, Senior Fellow
Professor Thomas Nachbar is a member of the University of Virginia Law Faculty and a graduate of the University of Chicago Law School, where he served as a member of the law review prior to graduating and clerking for Judge Frank H. Esterbrook of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. A reserve Army JAG officer assigned to the International and Operational Law Division of the Office of the Judge Advocate General, he is an expert on information technology and intellectual property. He has also done landmark work on detention law and policy in the struggle against terror, and on the role of legal institutions in counterinsurgency and stability operations. He was a principal editor and contributor for the first three editions of The Rule of Law Handbook: A Practitioners’ Guide (2007-2009). Additional information.
Professor Myron H. Nordquist, Senior Fellow
Dr. Myron H. Nordquist is a Senior Fellow at CNSL and Associate Director and Editor of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy. His professional career includes government service, private law practice and academia. He attended Oregon State University on an NROTC scholarship, and upon graduation, was commissioned in the United States Marine Corps. His infantry battalion made the initial landing at Chu Lai, Vietnam, in early 1965. Nordquist earned his first law degree at California Western University and he was awarded a Ford Foundation scholarship for post-graduate law studies at Cambridge University. In 1970, he accepted an attorney-advisor position in the Office of Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State. Shortly thereafter, Nordquist was named Office Director and Legislative Counsel of the NSC Interagency Task Force on the Law of the Sea on the staff of the Deputy Secretary of State, an office led by then Ambassador John Norton Moore. In 1978, he entered into private practice in Washington, DC while engaging in adjunct law teaching at George Washington and American University Law Schools. Nordquist was named Deputy General Counsel of the Department of the Air Force in 1990, where he served in 1973 as Acting General Counsel prior to joining the law faculty at the U.S. Air Force Academy. He was a tenured Professor of Law at the Academy and during the academic year 1995-96 was the Charles H. Stockton Professor of International Law at the Naval War College. In 1999, Nordquist served as General Counsel to his home state U.S. Senator Conrad Burns and began his formal affiliation with the UVA Law School, where he had earned an SJD. Over his career Nordquist has authored or edited more than 60 books and numerous articles or other scholarly works, including the eight-volume Virginia Commentary on the Law of the Sea Convention. Additional information about Professor Nordquist, including his publications.
Col. Guy B. Roberts (USMC, JAG, Ret.), Senior Fellow
Colonel Guy Roberts has a long history of association with the Center, including serving as a co-editor (with Professors Moore and Turner) of the 1995 and 2006 editions of National Security Law Documents. As a Marine colonel, he graduated first in his class from the Naval War College and served as Staff Judge Advocate to U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM). After retiring from the U.S. Marine Corps he served as Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense and Principal Director for Negotiations Policy in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, where he represented the Defense Department at international arms control and disarmament negotiations and conferences around the world. Subsequently, he was appointed Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Weapons of Mass Destruction Policy, and Director, Nuclear Policy Planning Directorate, at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Colonel Roberts has worked closely with the Center on many issues, including as a regular lecturer at the annual National Security Law Institute.
Professor Molly Bishop Shadel, Senior Fellow
Professor Shadel is an associate professor of Law at the University of Virginia. She graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University and earned her JD from Columbia University, where she was a note editor on the Columbia Law Review and a Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar. After graduation, she clerked for Judge Eugene H. Nickerson of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. She was a litigation associate with the law firm of Covington & Burling in New York when the 9/11 attacks occurred, and wanted to serve her country. She joined the U.S. Department of Justice as an attorney in the Office of Intelligence Policy and Review, where she represented the United States on terrorism-related matters before the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Additional information.
Professor Gary Solis, Senior Fellow
Dr. Gary Solis holds a J.D. from the University of California at Davis, an LL.M. from George Washington Law School, and a Ph.D. from the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he taught for several years. He is a retired Marine Corps officer with two tours of duty in Vietnam. Today, he is an adjunct professor at both Georgetown University Law Center and George Washington School of Law, and he taught for many years on the West Point faculty—where he directed the law of war program. He is a former Library of Congress scholar in residence. His award-winning textbook is The Law of Armed Conflict (Cambridge Univ. Press). He is also the author of Marines and Military Law in Vietnam, and Son Thang: An American War Crime, and is a member of the editorial board of the International Review of the Red Cross. Dr. Solis has been a lecturer on the law of armed conflict in our Indochina War seminar for many years.
Dr. Christopher Swift, Senior Fellow
Christopher Swift is an attorney and political scientist specializing in international law and contemporary armed conflict. A fellow at the University of Virginia Law School’s Center for National Security Law, he has travelled to Afghanistan, the Middle East, and the former Soviet Union to examine al-Qaeda’s relationships with indigenous Muslim insurgencies. Dr. Swift’s legal practice focuses on complex international disputes, compliance with U.S. foreign trade and investment laws, and various aspects of public and private international law. Prior to joining the University of Virginia, he served in the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), where he enforced economic sanctions programs targeting terrorist syndicates, weapons proliferators, and other specially designated entities. Between 2006 and 2007, Dr. Swift served an international law fellow at the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, where he examined armed conflict and sectarian violence in Iraq. He was previously affiliated with organizations including Freedom House, where he worked on Russian affairs, and the Center for Strategic & International Studies, where he served as an aide to former national security advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski.A term member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Dr. Swift has appeared as a guest analyst for CNN International, BBC News, National Public Radio, RT Television, Voice of America and other leading international broadcast media. He holds an A.B. in Government and History from Dartmouth College, an M.St. in International Relations of the University of Cambridge, and a J.D. from Georgetown University. He successfully defended his Ph.D. thesis in Politics & International Studies at the University of Cambridge in October 2010. http://christopher-swift.com/
Mer McLernon, Executive Assistant to the Director
Mer (Mary Ellen) McLernon, Professor Moore's busy executive assistant, organizes his correspondence, appointments, student meetings, and provides office reception. She oversees CNSL conferences and events including the National Security Law Institute. She joined our staff summer 2011 and is a graduate of SUNY Geneseo.
Bill Lacy, Grants Administrator
Bill Lacy is responsible for the annual budget and all financial matters; oversees grants and their requirements as well as assists with the Center's conferences and other events. He also provides assistance for visiting scholars. He joined our staff in 2015 and is a graduate of the University of Alabama and Harvard University.
Judith A. Ellis, Editor
Judy, a graduate of UC Berkeley and the University of Chicago, has been an editor with the Center since May 2005. She edits all of the Center's publications. Judy maintains this Web site and Professor Moore's class Web sites. She also handles Professor Moore's course material.