The Japanese Text Initiative (JTI) is a cooperative project designed to allow Internet access to copies of masterpieces of Japanese literature in Japanese and, where possible, in English. Two institutions serve as the main collaborative bodies of the JTI, the University of Virginia Electronic Text Center and the University of Pittsburgh East Asian Library. In its entirety the UVA Electronic Text Center has 45,000 books in 14 languages available on the web. The Japanese texts selected and transcribed by the JTI are one of the fastest growing components of the Electronic Text Center’s selections.
All of the 41 Japanese texts currently available are based on the 50 great works of Japanese literature compiled by Thomas Rimer in his work A Reader’s Guide to Japanese Literature. Some of the works included in the JTI are The Tale of Genji, in both medieval and modern Japanese and the three great poetry anthologies: Manyo’shu, Shinkokinshu, and Kokin Wakashu. There are also numerous other pieces including Noh plays, the poetry of Basho, and short stories and novels such as Rashomon and Mori Ogai’s Gan. The JTI plans to add other important pieces to the site such as medieval women’s diaries and Kabuki scripts. All of these texts are skillfully presented at the JTI’s site and some are supplemented with prints of the original woodblock texts and other graphics. Above all, the JTI site is extremely user friendly, allowing users to scroll through multiple texts and utilize an integrated dictionary. Currently, the most popular pages on the site are the Japanese-English dictionary, Noh plays, Genji monogatari, Hyakunin isshu, and Manyo’shu.
Kendon Stubbs, UVA Deputy Librarian and Senior Advisor for the Japanese Text Initiative, contributes prodigious quantities of time and energy to the JTI and is extremely proud of this World Wide Web-based cooperative project. However, Mr. Stubbs is also the first to point out the incredible effort put forth by his colleagues to make the Japanese Text Initiative such a success. The other senior advisor for the project is Sachie Noguchi, Japanese bibliographer for the East Asian Library at the University of Pittsburgh. Professor Thomas Rimer, is also an advisor for the JTI, working from the University of Pittsburgh. Other specialists who work on the day-to-day operations of the site include UVA’s Sachiko Iwabuchi (the fulltime research specialist for the JTI), Ryuichi Takahashi, Atsuko Nakamoto, and Mika Shima. Christine Ruotolo, the Associate Director of the Electronic Text Center, also contributes to the project.
According to data compiled by the JTI, in November 1999 alone there were 13,469 visits to their web pages, with total accesses thus far at 74,302. The JTI Web site receives close to 500 visits per day, with the majority of visitors coming from the United States. Fifteen percent of those accessing the site are in Japan. The JTI team has also logged visits from users in Trinidad, Mongolia, Jordan, and Venezuela.
The JTI receives numerous e-mails offering advice, asking for assistance, and containing requests to publish materials on the site. Recently many teachers in Japan have been contacting members of the JTI asking permission to use the site and its texts in their course work. One of Mr. Stubbs’ favorite messages came from a retired French professor of physics, living in Provence, who wrote to express his thanks to those working on the web site. The professor was studying Japanese, but had not been able to get to Paris to acquire the appropriate Japanese texts. When he came across the JTI site, his problems were solved; the JTI brought the texts he needed directly to his computer.
Other examples of the success and reach of the JTI can be found on the internet. According to the web search engine Google (http://www.google.com), the JTI site is the second most popular internet site for Japanese literature. (The number one site is the National Institute of Japanese Literature in Tokyo.) Also, the elaborate Samurai Search site (http://www.samuraisearch.com) lists the JTI as one of two exemplary sites on Japanese literature. (The JTI received a 9 out of 10 star rating.)
The JTI currently has many new projects underway and the group members are always looking for ways to improve the site. Please take the time to drop by http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/ and investigate this incredible project. If you have any questions or comments about the site, you may contact the JTI through their site-based e-mail. Both Kendon Stubbs and Sachiko Iwabuchi can be found in Alderman library by appointment Monday through Friday.
(Kendon Stubbs and Sachiko Iwabuchi contributed to this article.)
Image of the preface of Ugetsu Monogatari, one of the JTI's online texts. (Tokyo: Kobundo, 1928)
Friday, February 11 David Leheny, Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison. “International Norms, Ambivalence, and Loose Socks: The New Child Pornography and Child Prostitution Law in Japan.” Garrett Hall Conference Room, 12:15 pm. Co-sponsored by the Department of Government and Foreign Affairs.
Friday, February 18 Toho Koto Society Performance. Traditional Japanese music and discussion. Commonwealth Room, Newcomb Hall, 4:30 pm
Friday, March 3 Ryûichi Abé, Department of Religion, Columbia University. “Textile Metaphor and Reading Kukai’s Texts: Tantric Buddhism in Japan” Maury 209, 2:00 pm.
Friday, March 31 Keiko McDonald, Japanese Literature and Cinema, University of Pittsburgh. Title TBA. Minor Hall 125, 2:00 pm.
Fri. & Sat. March 31-April 1 Third Annual Buddhist Studies Graduate Conference. Sponsored by the Graduate Student Council of the University of Virginia, the East Asia Center, the Center for South Asian Studies, the Department of Religious Studies, and the Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Times and locations TBA.
Friday, April 14 Nicolas Tournadre, Paris 8 University and CNRS. “A Pandialectal Approach to Tibetan Through the Literary Language.” Maury 209, 2:00 pm.
Fri. & Sat. April 21-22 “Asian Scholarship in Politically-Charged Environments Conference” Location, TBA. See below for details.
Friday, April 28 Norma Field, Department of East Asian Languages, University of Chicago. Japanese literature topic. Title TBA. Newcomb Hall 168, 2:00 pm.
The Chinese Corner provides a non-threatening environment for practicing Chinese conversation with native speakers of Chinese. All interested UVA faculty and students and other community members in the Charlottesville area are welcome to attend. At each meeting there will be an assigned topic pertaining to everyday life. Light snacks will be served.
Spring 2000 Schedule
February 4, 11, 18, 25
March 24, 31
April 7, 14
The Center for South Asian Studies and the East Asia Center, with support from the University Lecture Series, are cosponsoring a symposium entitled “Asian Scholarship in Politically Charged Environments” at University of Virginia on April 21-22, 2000. The aim of the symposium is to bring together scholars from different disciplines and working in different regions of Asia whose scholarship in some way involves them in politically-charged issues in the contemporary arena. Each scholar will present necessary background within their specific area, but then move outwards from that to discuss broader issues pertaining to doing scholarship on politically contested terrain. By examining the politics of scholarship in Asia in widely divergent areas - education, gender, religion, economics, government and so forth - within a transregional context, we anticipate an optimal blend of focused discussion on a single topic with varied perspectives stemming from the changing regional and disciplinary area of each speaker.
Each session will include 2 paper presentations. Papers will be roughly 40 minutes each, with 10 to 15 minutes allotted for comments by respondents and 30 minutes for discussion.
Currently Confirmed Participants
Robert C. Angel, The
“Japan Lobby”and its Role in the U.S. Foreign Policy Process”
Dr. Angel is Associate Professor in the Department of Government and International Studies at the University of South Carolina. He has been involved academically and professionally with Japan and U.S.-Japan relations for more than thirty-five years. Angel was President and Chief Executive Officer of the Japan Economic Institute in Washington, D.C. from 1978 to 1984, a research and publications organization with a staff of American specialists recruited for their academic and linguistic Japan expertise, and one of the most comprehensive research libraries on economic and political Japan in the United States. He will speak about the challenges of researching U.S.-Japan relations over a period of shifting geopolitics, when Japan went from being a clear-cut “ally” to being a major “rival.”
Almaz Han, “Identity
and Morality in Scholarly Research--The Delicate Positions of Being Native
Prof. Han is a member of the Department of Anthropology at University of Washington. The topic of this presentation will be the complex ethical/moral issues and cultural politics involved in doing scholarly research on ethnic problems as a native anthropologist. In the case of Inner Mongols, particularly, these issues have been much more complicated by the transnational context--e.g., the existence of Mongolia as an independent nation-state and overseas Inner Mongol dissident activity. Specifically, the author examines how his individual identity interacts with group identities (Inner Mongolia vs Mongolia) and how these relationships express themselves at the levels of politics (ethnic, national, and transnational/geopolitical) and ethics--the problems in positioning oneself morally as a native anthropologist in the midst of these often conflicting factors.
Patricia Lawrence, “Human
Rights and Religion in Sri Lanka's War Zone”
Dr. Lawrence is a Research Associate, teaching human rights and the anthropology of South Asia for the Department of Anthropology at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Her work to date has focused on the resurgence of spirit mediums and possession rituals in the Tamil-speaking parts of Sri Lanka. She also works as a consultant in the private sector as a conflict resolution and communication skills facilitator. Her talk will focus on her role as “observer” of human rights abuses related to the ongoing civil war.
Charlene Makley, “The
Danger of Gender”
Dr. Makley is a Visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan. She received her Ph.D. from the same department in May of 1999. Her presentation looks at the ethics/political difficulties of working on issues of gender and religion among Tibetans in the PRC.
Vijay Pinch, “Ideologues,
Ideology, and the Asian History of Indian Martial Ascetics”
Dr. Pinch is an Associate Professor in the Department of History at Wesleyan University.
Janet Upton, “Betwixt
and Between: The Perils and Possibilities of Ethnographic Research on Tibetan
Education in the PRC”
Dr. Upton is a Program Officer at Trace Foundation, where she works one educational projects. She earned her Ph.D in 1999 from the Department of Anthropology at the University of Washington. Her dissertation,“Schooling Shar-khog: Time, Space and the Place of Pedagogy in the Making of the Tibetan Modern,” focused on the historical development and contemporary conditions of Tibetan-language schooling in a community in the Sino-Tibetan borderlands. Dr. Upton's paper seeks to address the following issues: 1. How the global political climate surrounding the Tibet issue makes it difficult for the important work of Tibetan educators in Tibet to be seen or acknowledged, and why it is important for their work to be documented and supported. 2. How the broader political climate in the PRC affects the likelihood of being able to carry out such research, and how opportunities can be seized when they arise. 3. How such research can provide a base of support for Tibetan educators, both in the practical and the theoretical sense. 4. What the implications of her own research and work experience are for those working in similarly politically-charged fields.
For more information on the conference please contact Anne Monius at
804/982-2283 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
"The Third Annual Buddhist Studies
Graduate Student Conference"
April 7-8, 2000
University of Virginia
There is no theme for the conference per se although it is hoped that a variety of areas of Buddhist studies will be represented by the papers delivered. We welcome submissions from all suitable approaches and disciplines which study Buddhist practice and belief (religious studies, area studies, anthropology, art history, philosophy, etc). The panel of faculty respondents (including UVA professors Peter Gregory, David Germano, and Dorothy Wong) will be diverse and we hope to provide presenters critical and productive discussion of their work.
CONFERENCE FORMAT: As in the past, only eight papers will be presented but some funds have been raised to bring non-presenting students to the conference as participants. Everyone who is interested is welcome to attend.
SINGLE-PAGE ABSTRACTS should be submitted no later than January 21, 2000. Presenters will be notified by February 5. Presenters are expected to submit the final draft of their papers to the respondents by March 10.
Two submissions should be sent: (1) a nameless copy to email@example.com (2) a copy with your name and e-mail address to firstname.lastname@example.org
For further information contact: Sarah Jacoby at email@example.com or 804.245.5908, Jann Ronis at firstname.lastname@example.org /804.293.7503, or Jennifer Carnahan at email@example.com or 804.293.7503
This event is partially funded by the Graduate Student Council
of the University of Virginia, the East Asia Center, the Center for South
Asian Studies, the Department of Religious Studies, and the Dean of the
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
On November 5th 1999, Professor Alison Conner, of the University of Hawaii School of Law, presented her research on the Soochow (Suzhou) Law School to the UVA community. According to Professor Conner, the Soochow Law School was the first modern law school in mainland China. G.W. Rankin, a prominent American missionary and lawyer, founded the law school in 1915. The fall of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912 had created a need for lawyers to help design and work in a modern legal system. The original faculty of Rankin’s school was composed primarily of American lawyers from the foreign settlement in Shanghai. In 1918, a group of seven students composed the first graduating class.
After these largely foreign beginnings, Soochow Law School gradually shifted to administration by Chinese nationals. Both John Wu and Dean Shen were to become the most venerated administrators of the school in its heyday. Under their administration, during the 1920’s and 1930’s, the Soochow Law School rose to national and international prominence. The average graduating class size rose to approximately 86. According to Conner, the Soochow Law School was seen as the Harvard Law School of China. While most Chinese scholars felt that Chaoyang University in Beijing was the school to attend if one wanted to become a judge, it was widely believed that if one wanted to become a top-notch lawyer Soochow was the place to be.
During the 1920’s and 1930’s, Soochow Law School developed its two most important strengths—comparative law and professional education. In its early stages, the school followed a fairly strict course outline according to Anglo-American common law. However, under the guidance of Dean Shen, Soochow quickly began to develop a truly comparative approach. Students studied not only Chinese and American law, but also the legal systems of Europe and Japan. Conner argued that this program of study was truly ahead of its time and is comparable to the current western idea of “global law.” Soochow’s accomplishment is the more amazing considering that less than a decade prior to the school’s founding China was still governed by the legal code dictated by imperial order and lawyers were virtually non-existent.
Conner also highlighted the Soochow Law School’s professional education model as a significant advancement. The standards and level to which the students were held was astonishing for the time. Until the late 1940’s, the school had a three- to four-year curriculum that adhered to American Bar Association standards, while at the same time maintaining its own national levels of competence. Thus, the professionals who graduated from the Soochow Law School were technically capable of working in both Western and Chinese systems. Graduates of the school were truly “modern lawyers.”
The quality individuals that Soochow Law School produced have had a profound impact on Chinese legal history. Among the outstanding graduates were John Wu and C.C. Wang. Wu served as dean of the school and went on to draft the first national constitution of China. Wang is widely known in the US as a real estate magnate, painter, and purveyor of Chinese antiquities. Other graduates recently interviewed by Conner in the PRC have also shaped her research. To Conner, these lawyers represent the profession at its highest level.
Unfortunately, due to the constantly shifting social climate of modern
China, the Soochow Law School was unable to survive the establishment of
the People’s Republic. By 1952 the government completely shut down the
school and left its
famous library to decay. Many of the school’s graduates suffered during the purges of the anti-rightist movement and the Cultural Revolution. Even so, many reemerged in the reforms of the 1980s to help set China on a new course. Professor Conner feels that the ability of certain Soochow graduates to survive extreme oppression under the Communist government is a testament to the special qualities possessed by these individuals.
Recently, Professor Conner has spoken out against Beijing’s Qinghua University’s claims to being the first “modern” law school of China. For Professor Conner and many others, only Soochow deserves that designation. Whether Qinghua’s administrators will give credit where credit is due remains to be seen.
Professor Alison Conner, currently on leave from the University of Hawaii,
is a research fellow at the Wilson Center in Washington D.C.
She joined the faculty of the University of Hawaii School of Law in January
1995 after nearly twelve years of teaching and research in Asia.
Professor Conner earned her doctorate in Chinese and South East Asian history
at Cornell University and her law degree at Harvard Law School, where she
specialized in Asian and comparative law and was a research fellow in the
East Asian Legal Studies Program. She subsequently taught Chinese
and East Asian history and then spent five years practicing law in New
York. During the 1983-84 academic year, she was a Fulbright Professor at
the University of Nanjing's Department of Law and for the next two years
was a member of the Law Faculty of the National University of Singapore.
In 1986 she joined the University of Hong Kong's Faculty of Law, where
she taught both Hong Kong and Chinese law. It was during Professor
Conner’s extensive work in Asia that she developed her interest in Shanghai’s
Soochow Law School.
Recently the University played host to its Twelfth Annual Architectural History Symposium, jointly sponsored by the School of Architecture, the Center for South Asian Studies, and the East Asia Center. The Symposium was designed to ‘review some of the most important recent projects in Asia designed by American architects,’ exploring, ‘the social, cultural, technical, and economical challenges of conducting architectural practice in Asia.’ The conference followed the entire history of American architecture in Asia, touching on the work of such great architects as Frank Lloyd Wright, Ralph Adams Cram, Louis I. Kahn, Paul Rudolph, Edward Durrell Stone, and I.M. Pei. Speakers and moderators at the conference included several of the University’s own: Yunsheng Huang, Karen Van Lengen, Richard Guy Wilson, Stephen James, and Laura Heim, as well as Princeton University’s Ralph Lerner. From private firms, speakers included Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, LLP’s Larry K. Oltmanns; The Stubbins Associates, Inc.’s Easley Hammer; and Joseph E. Brown of EDAW, San Francisco.
(Bank of China, Hong Kong, I.M. Pei, architect)
Universalizing the University:
New Challenges and Best Practices
October 14-15, 1999
On October 14-15, 1999, the International Activities Planning Commission sponsored a conference on the internationalization of the American academic environment, Universalizing the University: New Challenges and Best Practices. Chaired by Brantly Womack, (Professor of Government; Chair, Division of Asian and Middle Eastern and Cultures; and Chair, International Activities Planning Commission) the conference addressed a variety of issues related to the changing nature of international education as we approach the 21st century.
According to Womack, “for the University of Virginia and for many American universities, the basic challenge is how to reevaluate and reorganize a dimension of university life that has grown up on the periphery of its ‘normal’ activities and to make international involvement part of the university's core.” Other universities and institutions around the country have been at the forefront of this movement. The conference’s organizers hoped that bringing together speakers with diverse but extensive experience in this arena would provide participants with an excellent learning opportunity. Among the institutions represented on the program were the Social Science Research Council, Duke University, Stanford University, Rice University, New York University, the Academy for Educational Development, the University of Michigan, the University of Georgia, Columbia University, Cornell University, UVA’s Miller Center, and the Arts & Sciences Center for Instructional Technology at UVA. The five main plenary sessions were organized around the themes of “Americans Abroad,” “Internationalizing Education on Campus,” “Improving the American Experience for International Students and Scholars,” “International Institutional Initiatives,” and “Appropriate Structures for University International Activities.” Among the more specific topics addressed in the session were the training of international student teaching assistants, the development of study abroad programs, English-as-a-second-language education, and the international experiences of another of other universities.
The conference was part of the Virginia 2020 Agenda for the Third Century at the University of Virginia. Initiated by UVA President John Casteen in 1998, this initiative revolves around four areas of development—performing arts, sciences, public service, and international activities—to be restructured by the start of the University’s third century in 2020. Womack’s International Activities Planning Commission is “divided into five task groups that concentrate on the areas of: 1. UVA students and faculty abroad; 2. internationalizing the curriculum; 3. international students and scholars; 4. institutional cooperation; 5. appropriate organization of international activities.” Several other working committees are also taking on other projects, including the creation of a residential International Living and Learning Center, the Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures (AMELC) House, plans for which are detailed in past issues of the East Asia Center Newsletter on-line at http://www.Virginia.EDU/eastasia/easia16.html.
For more information on the Virginia 2020 Initiative, including the
International Commission, visit the program website at http://www.virginia.edu/virginia2020/.
The stupa, defined by Webster’s Dictionary as, “a usually dome-shaped structure (as a mound) serving as a Buddhist shrine,” is an architectural embodiment of Buddhism, its physical form actualizing Buddhist religious and philosophical doctrine. One element of design of particular interest to the student of the stupa is the metaphorical nature of space and the manner in which the stupa encloses and manipulates this space. This has been a subject of keen interest for art historian Robert Linrothe of Skidmore College. The University was recently privileged to have Prof. Linrothe present his current work at a public lecture jointly sponsored by the East Asia Center and the Center for South Asian Studies.
Professor Linrothe’s introduction contrasted the use of space, and in particular the use of interior space, in traditional stupas and in entrance stupas. In the traditional stupa, noted Linrothe, the hollow interior is completely closed off from the outside, creating a secure and sacred space in which relics of the Buddha, and later those of other holy personages, might be enclosed. These relics, already regarded as holy, took on an entirely new level of symbolic meaning when they became hidden from sight and touch. They became secrets, hidden from the world, the stupa itself being entirely exterior in orientation, reminiscent, perhaps, of the hidden nature of truth and true holiness. The exterior of these stupa were themselves metaphors of the triguhya, or the ‘three secrets.’ These secrets—purified body, speech, and mind—were represented by the various levels of geometric figures, generally including a parasol, a cubic mast, a dome, and several more levels of cubic figures. Eventually as relics became more scarce and the importance of exterior symbolism began to gain increasing importance, stupas began to be constructed without their earlier contents. Furthermore, as the early Buddhist aversion to human iconography began to fade, some stupas began to be constructed with niches holding images of the Buddha, a movement which culminated with the stupa retaining its symbolism, yet fading to become a background framing the image of the Buddha.
Linrothe argued that in Western Tibet and North China, particularly in the region of Zangskar (south of Laoak and west of Spiti), the traditional solid and niche stupas were joined by another type of stupa. The builders of these stupas had similar motivations for their work: to create physical manifestation of Buddhist concepts. Yet the creators of these gateway or entrance stupas dramatically revised the typical stupa form.
According to Linrothe, in these entrance stupas, the interior of the stupa is open, generally on two, opposite sides, creating a sort of gateway that passes through the body of the stupa. The hollow interior exposes the holy and sacred interior of the stupa to the outside world. The upper interior of the stupa, above the gateway, is entirely hollowed out, creating a large dome which is in turn covered with murals illustrating holy men, religious events, symbols of various Buddhist ideological factions, and so on. These murals, in effect, transform the interior of the stupa into a holy space. Does this not, asked Linrothe, dramatically break with the tradition of the closed stupa? Not necessarily. First, the murals which transform the stupa into a holy place are not at ground level, the level at which the individual enters the stupa; this separates the ordinary from the holy. This effect is further heightened by the fact that the room is unlit, leaving the holy paintings invisible to the individual entering into the stupa. The entrance stupa thus serves as a symbolic gateway between one’s personal local ‘world’ and the larger, outside world.
For further information on Professor Linrothe’s work, please see his
website at http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/arthistory
Each year the Grants Committee of the East Asia Center allocates money to be used to defray the cost of travel to East Asia by University faculty members and students. These funds may be used to cover all or part of a round trip airfare between Charlottesville and East Asia. Travel within an East Asian country will not be covered by a Weedon travel grant.
The Ellen Bayard Weedon travel grant is available to any University of Virginia faculty member or student who:
TRAVEL GRANT AWARDS
Applicants intending to spend two to eight weeks in East Asia under the conditions outlined herein may apply for a travel grant to cover partial (25% or more) round trip air fare between Charlottesville and East Asia.
Applicants intending to spend eight weeks or more in East Asia under the conditions outlined herein may apply for a travel grant to cover up to full round trip air fare between Charlottesville and East Asia
Under special circumstances students and faculty members may apply for up to full round trip air fare regardless of length of stay in East Asia, provided the trip has a sound and genuine professional or academic purpose, i.e., to attend a professional conference, to conduct research that can only be conducted in East Asia, etc.
These travel grants cannot be used cover the following: (1) trips designed to enable a student or faculty member to simply "visit" East Asia, (2) in-country travel, (3) program and/or conference fees, (4) lodging and accommodations.
Travel grant applications shall be judged according to the selection committee's assessment of the quality of the applicant, the intellectual and academic cohesiveness of the applicant's project, and financial need. Preference shall be given to applicants who have not received grants in previous years, who have not recently been to East Asia, and, in the following order, to:
1. research, language and cultural study;
2. participation in study tours;
3. participation in conferences.
No single travel grant shall exceed one-third of available funds, and normally no more than half of the available funds shall be allocated to faculty members.
Application forms are available at http://www.virginia.edu/eastasia/weedon.html . Application forms are also available at the East Asia Center, 224 Minor Hall. Completed applications are due by February 15, 2000 and should be returned to the East Asia Center. (Further questions? Call 924-7836.)
ANTH 222 BUDDHISM
An introduction to the sociology of Buddhism. Discusses the transformation of an ethical religion of an urban elite into a ritualistic mass religion of the peasantry. After a brief introduction to the Buddhist Doctrine, its social origins and the sociology of its transformation are discussed with particular reference to the orthodox traditions of Burma, Thailand and Sri Lanka.
ANTH 329/719 MARRIAGE, MORTALITY, AND FERTILITY
This course explores the ways that culturally formed systems of values and family organization affect population processes in a variety of cultures. Topics to be discussed will include (1) disease history, the impact of epidemics and famine, the differential impact of morality be gender, age, and class. The impact of improved nutrition and modern medicine; (2) marriage strategies and alternative, the problem of unbalanced sex ratios at marriageable age, systems of polygamy and polyandry, divorce, widowhood and remarriage; (3) fertility decision making, premodern methods of birth control and spacing, infanticide; and (4) migration, regional systems, and variation through time and space in the structure of populations. ANTH 101 or equivalent recommended as background. This is an advanced course, adding to general offerings in social organization, kinship, marriage, and gender. This course is cross-listed with women's studies. Upper level majors and non-majors. This course satisfies the second writing requirement and non-western perspectives requirement.
ANTH 334 ECOLOGY & SOCIETY
This course attempts to 1) introduce students new to anthropology aspects of culture theory and contemporary ‘ecological/environmental anthropology'; 2) forge a synthesis between culture theory and ‘historical ecology;' 3) provide new insights on how human cultures both fashion and are fashioned by the environments; 4) provide a seminar-like context in which we can evaluate, as anthropologists and citizens of our world, aspects of the current ‘environmental' debate in our culture; and 5) facilitate independent study on environmental issues on the part of each student. In addition to tests and the independent study project paper, the course will be taught in two parts. Lectures based on readings will occupy every Monday and Wednesday. Fridays shall be devoted to a ‘Seminar' format in which we read and discuss a recent book or two devoted to one or another aspect of the ‘environment.' Although ethnographic examples will draw from the whole world, special emphasis will be placed on societies bordering the Pacific Ocean and in the Asias. Students from the Departments of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences are especially invited to join this course.
ANTH 367 VIETNAMESE CIVILIZATION
This course examines the continuities and discontinuities in recurring
themes of "traditional" Vietnamese culture from the horticultural Neolithic
to the present. The class size is limited in order to facilitate class
discussion and the sharing of study materials. Students will write several
short essays on a variety of topics. The class fulfills second writing
ARH 382/582 EAST ASIAN ARCHITECTURE
Study of cultural exchanges and interactions in architecture between East and West. Major events and master architects such as F.L. Wright and L. Kahn who have contributed to the exchanges are discussed.
ARH 585 MODERN JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE
The history of architecture in modern Japan from the Meiji period to
contemporary. Focus is on the post-WWII development.
ARTH 362 JAPANESE ART
This course is an introduction to the arts and culture of Japan. It will focus on key monuments and artistic traditions that have played a central role in Japanese art and society. It will analyze how artists, architects, and patrons expressed their ideals in visual terms. It will also present sculptures, paintings, and decorative objects to explore the underlying artistic and cultural values. The course will be divided into the following segments: Pre-historic Age, Shinto, Buddhism, Court Culture, Zen Buddhism, Samurai Government, and the Industrial Age.
ARTH 491 ANCIENT CHINESE ART
Spanning from the Neolithic period to the Han dynasty, this seminar
covers the period when ancient Chinese civilization was formed. Through
the close study of well-documented archaeological sites, which include
Anyang, Sanxingdui, the First Emperor's Tomb, and the Mawangdui Tombs,
it investigates how ritual art such as jades and bronzes were made and
used. It also explores the Chinese notions of afterlife, ancestor worship,
state ritual, and immortality cults. The material culture and beliefs and
practices examined in this seminar form a backdrop to understanding the
times when indigenous traditions such as Confucianism and Daoism were formulated.
Writings from archaeological, anthropological, art historical, and ritual
perspectives are introduced. (Students who plan to take this course are
encouraged to see the "The Golden Age of Chinese Archaeology" exhibition
at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., before it closes on
Jan 2 1999.) Prerequisite: background in Asian art or Asian studies. This
course fulfills the second writing requirement.
CHIN 102 ELEMENTARY CHINESE
Prerequisite: CHIN 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students are introduced to the basic grammar and a set of vocabulary generally recognized as useful in everyday communication. They will be introduced to the principles behind the writing system (radicals and phonetics) as well as the written equivalents for the vocabulary they have learned to speak and understand. Using integrated pedagogical and authentic materials, the course adopts a multi-faceted approach to help students gain training in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in standard Mandarin Chinese. The goal is the ability to communicate in everyday situations. Aspects of Chinese culture are also introduced. Text: Integrated Chinese.
CHIN 180 CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY
Introduction to the history, masters, styles and techniques of Chinese Brush Calligraphy. Goals of the course are familiarity with use of brush and ink, active and passive differentiation of styles and techniques, appreciation of Chinese Calligraphy as an art form. Meets Second Writing Requirement. NOTE: As the instructor will be in Taiwan for the first half of the spring term, an intensive version of the course will be offered during the second half of the term. Contact the instructor directly or see the course toolkit webpage for further information.
CHIN 202 INTERMEDIATE CHINESE
MWF 0900-0950&TR 1100-1150/MTWRF 1000-1050
This class is designed for students who have successfully completed Chinese 201 or equivalent. A good command of the Chinese phonetic pronunciation system and knowledge of about 600-800 hundred Chinese characters are the prerequisites for this class. The class will continue to focus on training students on four language skills--speaking, listening, reading, and writing.
CHIN 206 ACCELERATED INTERMEDIATE CHINESE
This class is designed for students who have successfully passed Chin 106 or equivalent. This class will cover study materials normally covered in one year. The class will continue to focus on training students on speaking, reading, and writing skills.
CHIN 302/502 READINGS IN MODERN CHINESE
Prerequisite: CHIN 202, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Modern Chinese at the advanced level: reading and discussion in Chinese of various aspects of Chinese culture, society, and literature, using radio broadcasts and selections from newspapers, recent essays, short stories, etc.
CHIN 582 TOPICS: MEDIA CHINESE
Prerequisite: CHIN 302/502, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Introduces the electronic and print media in Chinese with special emphasis on current events as reported in the Chinese speaking world, to further develop oral and written proficiency.
CHIN 584 TOPCIS IN CHINESE LITERATURE: INTRODUCTION
TO CLASSICAL CHINESE POETRY
This course serves as an introduction to the grammar, structure and cultural background of Chinese poetry from the eighth to the tenth century A.D. CHIN 584 will concentrate on the poetry of the Tang dynasty, the golden age of China's lyric tradition. Normally students must first complete CHIN 583, but this requirement may be waived with the permission of the instructor. This course is especially intended for undergraduate students of East Asian languages and cultures, majors in Asian Studies, graduate students in history, religious studies or anthropology, or students whose competence in Chinese enables them to enroll in this course. One year of Chinese, Japanese or Korean is required. Fulfills Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.
CHTR 301 LEGENDARY WOMEN OF EARLY CHINA
"Legendary Women of Early China" will examine the biographies of female heroines and villains as found in the early Chinese text Traditions of Exemplary Women (ca. 18 B.C.). This text occupies a unique position in China's cultural tradition not only as the first book designed specifically for the moral education of women but also because it continued to mould female behavior in China well into the twentieth century. The book's content is far from predictable, ranging from maternal paragons who commit infanticide to women of political genius who advise kings and generals. The text contains seven chapters, each organized around a category of exemplary female behavior. Each category is illustrated in a series of short biographies of women and girls who embody these traits. Class sessions will be devoted to discussion of the biographies and what these life histories say about the role of women in traditional China. The course website contains Chinese woodblock illustrations of the stories, which will also be used for class discussion. One class session will be devoted to the true history of Mulan, the Chinese heroine made famous in this country by Disney. The goal of this course is to familiarize students with 1) the history of women in early China, 2) the evolving codes of behavior that shaped Chinese women's culture for two millennia, and 3) the ways in which the Chinese understood gender. The course will also work toward an enhanced understanding of the function of role models in both ancient China and their own lives. Course Website: http://etext.virginia.edu/chinese/lienu/browse/Lienu.html
CHTR 322/AMEL 802 CHINESE LITERATURE IN TRANSLATION:
GENDER, FAMILY, & SEXUALITY IN CHINESE FICTION
This course will examine gender, sexuality and the family as represented
in masterpieces of Chinese fiction from the Tang Dynasty through the twentieth
century. We will read two novels (Dream of the Red Chamber, vol.
1 and Ba Jin's Family), but will concentrate on short fiction. The
readings and discussion for each class will revolve around one assigned
theme (stated in syllabus). We will also devote a number class sessions
to viewing videos related to our readings, including a brief introduction
to Chinese theatre. The purpose of this course is threefold: first, to
encourage a critical exploration of the art and meaning of Chinese fiction;
second, to introduce traditional and modern Chinese concepts of gender,
family and sexuality; and third, to provide a multicultural perspective
on social issues of universal importance. Fulfills Second Writing Requirement
and Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.
EDLF 765 COMPARATIVE EDUCATION
This course considers the sociocultural foundations of education in a variety of contexts, with focus on East Asia.
EDLF 770 CULTURE, IDENTITY, and EDUCATION
This is a doctoral level seminar that explores cultural discourses on the self and their implications for learning, broadly conceived. Contemporary Japanese, Chinese, and South Korean perspectives on the self (as reflected in a variety of texts, both scholarly and popular) are explored.
EDLF 849 DEVELOPMENT, CUTLURE, AND SOCIETY
This team-taught course explores child development through classical
Piagetian, Socio-historical, and anthropological lenses. In my section
I focus on child development in Japan and contrasts with the United States.
Government & Foreign Affairs
GFCP 351 CHINESE POLITICS
This course offers a general introduction to Chinese politics. Its aim is to provide students with an understanding of contemporary Chinese politics and the historical context from which they have emerged. It will survey the main events of contemporary China, beginning with the birth of the PRC to the present. In this course, students will follow China’s politics and attempts to modernize under both Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping before discussing today’s China in light of the legacies left by both these leaders. Students will discuss the politics of crisis and reform, as well as the significance and meaning of the Tiananmen crackdown in 1989. The last part of the course will be devoted to the particular challenges faced by China’s current political leaders, including questions of democratization and control, the environment, and the changing relationships between state and society, and between center and periphery.
GFCP 424B POLITICS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
This course examines the domestic politics of Southeast Asia. Designed as an introductory course to the region, this course will examine questions of political legitimacy and economic development in Southeast Asia. The course begins with an introductory session on traditional patterns of authority in Southeast Asia, the impact of Western colonialism, national liberation movements, and the emergence of new Southeast Asian states. The second part of the course will focus on the political and economic development of six countries: Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The last third of the course will be devoted to contemporary issues related to the region, including new challenges created by development, questions about democratization, and the changing role of the military. The course will conclude where it began, namely, with a discussion about the foundations of political legitimacy in Southeast Asia.
GFIR 572 JAPAN IN WORLD AFFAIRS
The course surveys Japan's foreign relations from the Meiji Restoration through the present. The first half of the course is primarily lecture, but the second half of the term is organized around student-led discussions on current topics in Japan's foreign relations. An 18-page term paper is required.
GFIR 872: CHINESE TOPICS IN WORLD AFFAIRS:
US-China relations seminar taught by the National Intelligence Officer
for East Asia and former Senior Specialist in Asia and International Politics
in the Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division of the Congressional
IN ORDER TO REGISTER FOR A HISTORY SEMINAR (401 or 402), YOU MUST COME TO RANDALL HALL 102 AND PARTICIPATE IN THE LOTTERY HELD NOVEMBER 8-9, 1999.
HIEA 206 KOREAN CULTURE & INSTITUTIONS:
Students enrolled in HIEA 206 will study the history of Korea from the late 14th century through the end of the 20th century: the rise of the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910), changes wrought by the full-scale Confucianization of Korean society, the unfolding and ultimate collapse of the unique relationship between the Yi court and Ming/Ching China, challenges to the territorial integrity of Korea in the late 19th century, the rise of Korean nationalism, Japanese colonization (1910-1945), post-World War II social, political and economic developments, and the role of Christianity throughout the 20th century. Reading material for the course will include Korea Old and New; Sources of Korean Tradition; State and Society in Contemporary Korea; Lost Names: Scenes from a Korean Boyhood; excerpts from such books as Law and the State in Traditional East Asia and The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia; and articles from scholarly journals. In addition to assigned reading students will be required to read and then write a critical review of a book selected from a list provided by the course instructor. The course grade will be based on the review essay (25%), a midterm examination (25%), and the final examination (50%). HIEA 206 is a lecture course, but discussion during class is invited and encouraged. The course is open to all students regardless of academic level or major.
HIEA 312 IMPERIAL CHINA: 1000 TO 1900
HIEA 312 covers the late imperial period of Chinese history, from the founding of the Song dynasty in the tenth century to the final decades of the imperial system in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although the course covers the basic elements of social, political, and cultural history, emphasis is placed on analyzing events and trends in an attempt to come to grips with two rather thorny questions: 1) How can we account for the remarkable stability and longevity of the late imperial system of government as well as its basic patterns of social-economic relationships? 2) To what extent were the factors that contributed to this historical success story also responsible for the fragmentation and failure of the imperial system when it faced fundamentally new challenges, from both within and without, in the nineteenth century? These and other questions will be considered through an investigation of several inter-related issues: The ideological and philosophical foundations of state and society; the linkage and tension between elite and popular culture and life-styles; the cultural assimilation of non-Chinese peoples; the formation of popular traditions of religious faith, protest and rebellion; and problems of systemic decline. Although HIEA 312 is the second of a two-semester sequence on Imperial China, neither HIEA 311 nor any previous study of Chinese history is required. The course is based on lectures along with occasional discussions. Readings, drawn from a basic text and translated primary materials, average between 100-150 pages per week. Evaluation is based on an essay (30%), a mid-term exam (35%), and a final exam (35%).
HIEA 314 MODERN CHINESE POLITICAL & SOCIAL
MW 1400-1450+disc: W1700-1750/R0830-0920/R1700-1750/W1800-1850
To a considerable degree, China's destiny depends upon the ability of men and women of ideas to make their contribution in the intellectual and political arenas. After the overthrow of the monarchial order in 1911 and the Republic's degeneration into warlordism, China's educated minority began a thorough-going critique of their country's culture and a quest for personal emancipation that continues to the present day. This course will focus upon the Chinese state and society of the past century as seen through the eyes of scholars, philosophers, social critics, writers, and artists. Simultaneously it will examine the attitudes and policies of China's rulers toward the intellectual elite. One way to understand modern Chinese political and social thought is through writings by sinologists such as Jonathan Spence and Orville Schell. Also assigned is Yue Daiyun's autobiographical account of a Chinese scholar who lived through the troubled decades of mid-twentieth-century China. Other readings will include essays, fiction, and polemics by Chinese political and intellectual leaders as well as western scholarly critiques. This course will feature a series of films addressed to political and social issues of the twentieth century. These post-1949 productions also yield insights into Communist policies toward the arts. Students unable to attend large-screen Tuesday afternoon showings may use videotapes on reserve, but the films must be viewed before discussion sections. The course grade will be based upon a mid-term examination (20%), a comparative review of Yue/Wakeman and one other volume selected from a list of approved readings (30%), a final examination (40%), and performance in discussion sections (10%).
HIEA 322 JAPAN'S POLITICAL HISTORY
HIEA 322 analyzes the social and political history of Japan from the 1850s to the 1990s. The course begins with a quick overview of the Tokugawa political system (1600-1868) before examining in some detail its demise in the 1860s. After exploring the meaning of the Meiji Restoration of 1868, we trace the chaotic evolution of a constitutional government and a military society through the wartime period. The second half of the course examines the rapidly changing social and economic environments that underlie Japan's shifting postwar political order. Students are required to attend class, to participate in discussions, and to complete three written assignments: two examinations and one term paper (of 1,500 words, based on the course readings). The first exam will account for 30% of the grade and the second, a final exam, for 35%. The paper will account for the remaining 35%. The following books are assigned: T. Najita and J. V. Koschmann, Conflict in Modern Japanese History; Carol Gluck, Japan’s Modern Myths; Stephen Large, Emporer Hirohito and Showa Japan; Frank Upham, Law and Social Change in Postwar Japan; G. Allinson and Y. Sone, Political Dynamics in Contemporary Japan..
HIEA 402, SCT. A HISTORY COLLOQUIUM: JAPANESE
HIEA 402 is a colloquium, a special type of small discussion course offered by the history department. Given by faculty members specializing in geographic areas where difficult languages prevent students from conducting research in primary documentation, a colloquium provides an alternative to the conventional research seminar while it also satisfies the major seminar requirement. This colloquium deals with Japan during the modern era and it focuses on the dynamic relationship between self and society. Our purpose is to explore how Japanese in many walks of life have dealt historically with the tensions between autonomy and affiliation, defiance and diffidence. We will rely on memoirs, biographies, autobiographies, novels, ethnographies, scholarly essays, and feature films as vivid sources for exploring how people have grappled with problems of identity and individuation in modern Japan. Students will write three, nine-page papers for the course. Grades will be based on the quality of the papers (25% for each one) and on the quality of contributions to discussions in class (25%). Some of the book-length studies we will read are: Natsume Soseki; Kokoro; Enchi Fumiko, The Waiting Years; Dorinne Kondo, Crafting Selves; Robert Danly; In the Shade of Spring Leaves; Gail Bernstein, ed., Recreating Japanese Women; Robert Smith, Japanese Society. Students entering this course MUST have had at least one prior course in Japanese history. The best preparation for HIEA 402 is HIEA 207: Japan from Susa-no-o to Sony. HIEA 322 or Mr. Allinson's freshman seminar on postwar Japan are also appropriate pre-requisites. If you are interested in enrolling in this course during the Spring Term, 2000, please contact Mr. Allinson during Fall Term, 1999.
HIEA 402, SCT. B HISTORY COLLOQUIUM: THE CULTURAL
REVOLUTION IN CHINA
REED & ISRAEL (team-taught)
In 1966, Mao Zedong called upon the youth of China to rebel against established authority in order to stem the tide of corruption, bureaucratism, and counter-revolution which he saw as threatening the future of socialism in China. The tumultuous response to Mao's appeal opened a ten year period in which political and social order were nearly destroyed, countless lives ruined, and the legitimacy of the Communist Party called into question. With the death of Mao in 1976, a movement that began as an effort to keep China firmly on the socialist path was brought to a close amid fear, apathy, and disillusionment. This colloquium attempts to get at the multiple meanings of the Cultural Revolution by examining its political and ideological antecedents, the process by which events unfolded, and the impact which this "decade of chaos" has had on Chinese government, society, and culture since the death of Mao. Our material consists of selected secondary literature as well as primary sources such as memoirs and films. Grades for the course will be based on the quality of participation in discussions and a 20 to 25 page paper on a topic or your choice (completion of the paper will satisfy the College's second writing requirement). Although there are no prerequisites for the colloquium, students will be expected to have read MAO'S CHINA AND AFTER, by Maurice Meisner, prior to the beginning of the course. The text will be available at the University Bookstore before the end of Fall semester.
HIEA 403 19th CENTURY KOREA: CRISES CRITIQUES
HIEA 403 will focus attention, through reading and seminar discussions, on the increasing political, social, and economic problems of late 19th century Yi Dynasty Korea. Topics will include the intellectual and cultural milieu of mid-19th century Korea, critiques and attempts at reform within the tradition of Neo-Confucian statecraft, the official and popular responses to Catholic and Protestant missionaries, Yi Dynasty relations with China, Japan and the Western powers, and the rise of Korean nationalism. Assigned reading will include Imperialism, Resistance and Reform in Late Nineteenth-Century Korea; A Korean Confucian Encounter with the Modern World; The Rule of the Taewon'gun, 1864-1873; Politics and Policy in Traditional Korea; and articles from scholarly journals. Students will be expected to be prepared to discuss the reading material during weekly sessions of the seminar, and will be required to write a critical review of each book read. The instructor will set aside time during the semester for private consultation with students about their review essays. The course grade will be based on contribution to the weekly seminar sessions (1/3) and the review essays (2/3). HIEA 403 is open to History majors and non-majors alike.
HIEA 702 TRADITIONAL EAST ASIAN HISTORY
Graduate students interested in enrolling in the undergraduate lecture
course entitled Korean Culture and Institutions (HIEA 206) must do so via
HIEA 702. They will be expected to attend the weekly lectures and special
discussion sessions of the undergraduate course, to complete all undergraduate
reading and writing assignments, and to complete additional reading and
writing assignments as deemed appropriate by the course instructor. Students
enrolled in HIEA 702 should expect to read a minimum of 2500 pages of assigned
material, to read two scholarly studies of their own choosing and to write
critical review essays of the books read, and to take a midterm examination
and a final examination. The course grade will be based on the review essays
(30%), the midterm examination (30%), and the final examination (40%).
Students do not need the permission of the instructor to enroll in HIEA
702, but the instructor invites interested graduate students to consult
with him about their interests and course requirements.
JAPN 102 ELEMENTARY JAPANESE
TR 1400-1515 +drill: MWF 0900-0950/MWF1000-1050/MWF1300-1350/MWF1400-1450
Prerequisite: JAPN 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (Continuation of JAPN 101.) This course introduces the basic speech patterns and grammatical units, including casual, daily spoken style as well as the polite speech used in formal occasions. The emphasis is on speaking, hearing, and reading. Writing hiragana, katakana, and 100 kanji are also introduced. Prerequisite: JAPN 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
JAPN 202 INTERMEDIATE JAPANESE
TR 1100-1215+drill: MWF 1000-1050/MWF 1100-1150/MWF 0900-0950
Prerequisite: JAPN 201 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Continuation of Elementary Japanese introduces more complex sentence patterns, idioms and vocabulary to prepare students for intermediate-level communication. The course reinforces spoken Japanese skills with writing and reading exercises, 125 kanji are introduced.
JAPN 302/502 ADVANCED READING & CONVERSATION
This course emphasizes comprehension and active reproduction of modern Japanese beyond the basic patterns of speech and writing. Various topics on current Japanese culture and society will be introduced. Prerequisite: JAPN 301/501 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
JAPN 584 ADVANCED READING & CONVERSATION
This courses is the continuation of JAPN583, a fourth-year level Japanese course with an emphasis on intercultural communication in current Japanese. Although reading competence is emphasized, conversation and discussion will be conducted on a regular basis. Topics on Japanese culture, society and people will be covered with newspaper and magazine articles, selections from novels, video, and other such materials written or produced for Japanese audiences. Prerequisite: JAPN 583 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Course Meets Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.
JAPN 594 ADVANCED READING ON SOCIETY &
This advanced seminar language course is designed to help students improve their reading and comprehension abilities, bringing them to the equivalent intellectual level of Japanese College students. Teaching materials from works in Japanese will be determined and chosen by students.
JPTR 321 THE TALE OF GENJI: LOVE
& MARRIAGE JAPANESE STYLE
An introduction to the Tale of Genji (1010 A.D.), one of the
world's masterpieces, written by a Heian court noblewoman, Murasaki Shikibu.
The Heian Period (or sometimes called the Fujiwara Period), particularly
894-1194, displayed "cultural splendor on a scale never to be reproduced
and . . .the emergence of a sense of native identity." Murasaki Shikibu,
a scholar's daughter, was "employed by the most powerful Fujiwara of all,
Michinaga (966-1027) . . . to add brilliance to the salon of his daughter
Shoshi. . . Situated at the subtly humiliating fringes of the lower aristocracy,
often entering court service, these women [daughters and wives of provincial
governors], whose dates of birth and death are unrecorded, were responsible
for the flowering of Heian literature." (From "Introduction" to The
Splendor of Longing in the Tale of Genji by Norma Field, pp. 11-13.)
Discussion topics include: 1) the ritual of courting and women's position
in the marriage institution; 2) heroinehood and female destiny; 3) the
search for inner peace and unity with nature; 4) implications of "high-context"
communication style; 5) the aesthetics of mono no aware, i.e., ephemerality
of human existence. Special attention will be given to the continuity of
Japanese psychic/cultural traditions of the Heian Period in the light of
dynamic contradictions in today's Japan that embrace preservation and transformation,
conformity and diversity.
RELB 213 Taoism and Confucianism
TR 1230-1345+discussion: R 1700-1750/F 14001450/W 1700-1750
RELB 254 TIBETAN BUDDHIST CULTURE
MW 1400-1450+discussion: F 1200-1250/F 0800-0850/R 0830-0920/R 1600-1650/F 1300-1350/F 0800-0850/F 1200-1250/F 1100-1150/F1500-1550
This course surveys Tibetan Buddhist religious culture in terms of its history, biographical traditions, religious communities, cultural patterns, ritual life, contemplative traditions and philosophical discourse. The focus will be on how tantric Buddhism has historically functioned to relate these different dimensions together as an identifiable cultural zone of vast geographical terrain despite never achieving any form of political unity. There will be a particular focus on the many controversies and tensions associated with the gradual pervasion of Tibetan culture by tantric religion. These range from accusations of antinomian practices pertaining to sexuality and violence, to Tibet's religo-political solution to tantra's decentralized paradigm of Gurus who were Buddhas with local mandalas of absolute authority. Finally we will also examine at great depth Tibetan innovations in Buddhist philosophy, ritual and yoga.
RELB 310 BUDDHISM AND THE WEST
LANG R 1530-1800
RELB 315 BUDDHISM AND GENDER
LANG M 1530-1800
This seminar takes as its point of departure Carolyn Bynum's statements: "No scholar studying religion, no participant in ritual, is ever neuter. Religious experience is the experience of men and women, and in no known society is this experience the same." The unifying theme of this seminar is gender and Buddhism. We will explore historical, textual and social questions relevant to the status of women in the Buddhist world of India and Tibet from the time of Buddhism's origins to the present day. We will locate feminine voices in patriarchal religious texts and consider the issue of gender in relation to Buddhist views on selflessness, duality and sexuality. We will also discuss the application of western feminist analysis to Buddhist texts and the efforts of contemporary western Buddhists to establish a post-patriarchal Buddhism. Course Meets Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.
RELB 525 JAPANESE RELIGION
RELB 526 TIBETAN MIND-ONLY
RELB 534 COLLOQUIAL TIBETAN IV
RELB 536 LITERARY TIBETAN IV
Advanced level readings from a range of classical Tibetan texts, and exercises in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisite: RELB 535, or equivalent.
RELB 548 LITERARY & SPOKEN TIBETAN VI
TR 1400-1515, MF 0900-1050
Advanced level readings from a range of classical Tibetan texts, and exercises in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisite: Literary and Spoken Tibetan V.
RELB 702 READINGS IN CHINESE BUDDHIST TEXTS
Readings in medieval Buddhist texts in Chinese. This course focuses on the use of dictionaries, concordances, indices, bibliographies and other reference tools that enable us to accurately understand texts composed centuries ago. Prerequisite: Classical Chinese.
RELB 703 READINGS IN JAPANESE BUDDHIST TEXTS
RELB 821 LITERARY & SPOKEN TIBETAN VIII
TR 1400-1514, MF 0900-1050
Advanced level readings from a range of classical Tibetan texts, and exercises in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisite: Literary and Spoken Tibetan VI.
RELB 823 ADVANCED TIBETAN