East Asia CenterNewsletter On-line

The University of Virgina
east asia center
November 1999

Keeping Pace with the Times:  Chinese Goes Digital

This year members of the East Asia Center’s faculty and staff have been working on ways to enrich language study at UVA. Currently, professors Anne Behnke Kinney and Helen Shen, of the Division of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, and Chung-ming Lung, Librarian for Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, are developing methods to enhance courses technologically through several web-based Chinese projects.

Lung began the digitization of Chinese at the library with the Chinese Text Initiative project two years ago.  The goal of the Chinese Text Initiative is to make classical Chinese literature available on the internet.  The site currently has five texts: 300 Tang Poems, Gu Yao Yan (Traditional Chinese Ballads and Proverbs), Shi Jing (Book of Odes), Hong Lou Meng (Dream of the Red Chamber), and the Lienü zhuan (Traditions of Exemplary Women).  Each of these site provides not only Chinese text but also a brief introduction to the text and English translation.  Though only the 300 Tang Poems currently has a searchable index, it is the Chinese Text Initiative’s hope to have a searchable index for all texts in the near future.

In conjunction with the Chinese Text Initiative staff and Stephen Ramsay of the Electronic Text Center of Alderman Library, Professor Kinney has developed two sites for her Chinese literature in translation courses, one of which is also part of the Chinese Text Initiative.  The main site, Chinese Literature in Translation, taken from The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry: Early Times to the Thirteenth Century by Burton Watson, a work used in Kinney’s classes.  Both sites contain Chinese text in both web format and as files formatted for the NJStar shareware Chinese word processor.

The other site has been created for a course which began as a university seminar but which will be regularly offered beginning next semester.  CHTR 301, “Legendary Women of Ancient China,” will focus on a book of biographies of heroic Chinese women compiled in the first century BC, the Lienü zhuan (Traditions of Exemplary Women).  Professor Kinney hopes that the course will “add a yin element to a generally yang dominated view of Chinese culture,” in addition to making valuable resources available to a wide audience. This site will also feature 120 woodblock illustrations of each of the women.

The third major Chinese internet project underway at UVA is a project of Professor Helen Shen.  Shen, with funding from the East Asia Center and a Teaching Initiative Award from the Academic Committee of the Faculty Senate, has been developing a reading project for use in beginning and intermediate Chinese language classes, The Chinese Reading World.  Shen and Karen Cox of the East Asia Center have worked intensively over the last several months on this project with the help of several students from the UVA Chinese community.  This web site, when completed in the next few weeks, will contain a number of on-line reading materials for students at various levels (again presented in both web and word processor formats). The Chinese Reading World will also provide digital audio files of each of the readings that have been created with the assistance of the staff of the Digital Media Center of Clemmons Library.

One of the biggest challenges for all of these projects has been the display of Chinese characters on Western computers.  In particular, staff have been concerned with easy access for students.  Most students lack the skills and/or finances to make their personal computers “Chinese friendly” and it not possible to require beginning-level students to customize their home machines.  Therefore, Professor Shen dedicated a portion of  the funding for her project to the purchase of Chinese word processing and viewing software for the Arts and Sciences Center for Instructional Technologies Language Lab on the 2nd floor of Cabell Hall.  The viewing software allows students to browse web pages in Chinese with Netscape while the word processing program is also equipped with an on-line dictionary and an easy-to-use pinyin input system that will aid students in developing both reading and writing skills.  Project staff also recently spent an afternoon in the lab installing software upgrades that will also allow for the viewing of Chinese pages with Internet Explorer.  (One of the difficulties of the projects has been creating web pages accessible with both Netscape and IE, as the two programs handle characters differently.)  Alderman Library has also made these upgrades available on many of the library computers.  (Those interested in making their own computers “Chinese friendly” should visit Shen’s pages at the URL below for detailed instructions.)

For more information on these projects, visit the URLs below.  Please note, however, that the URL’s for Shen and Kinney’s are not permanent and that links to the new locations will be available on the homepages of the Chinese Text Initiative and the East Asia Center.

Chinese Text Initiative

Chinese Literature in Translation

Lienü zhuan (Traditions of Exemplary Women)

The Chinese Reading World

Chung-Ming Lung’s AMELC Page

Universalizing the University

The University of Virginia has scheduled a conference for Thursday, October 14 and Friday, October 15 entitled, “New Challenges and Best Practices:  Universalizing the University.”  This conference, inspired by the University’s Virginia 2020:  Agenda for the Third Century initiative (a program focused on strategically planning the University’s path as it approaches its bicentennial), will concentrate on the ramifications of internationalizing the University, as well as the importance of developing a global perspective.  The conference is organized by the International Activities Planning Commission, led by Brantly Womack, Professor of Government and Chair of the Division of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures.  Further information, including details on how to register, can obtained by visiting the conference website at http://faculty.virginia.edu/unitheuni or by contacting Denise Karaoli at (804-924-6748) or Professor Womack (bwomack@virginia.edu).  All students and faculty are encouraged to attend and participation is free for UVA participants.

2000 Summer Program


May 25-June 20, 1999

* Study on site the culture, art, architecture of China in Beijing, Guilin, and Chengde.*

*Visit monuments such as the Forbidden City, the Summer Palace, the Great Wall, and temples in Beijing.*

* Meet with local scholars and professionals: planner, designer, artist, and opera singer.*

* Demonstration of traditional painting and calligraphy.*

* Based in Beijing, with travel to the Manchu Emperors' summer resort in Chengde to visit the Tibetan style temples.*

* Train journey to the southern scenic city Guilin.*

*Boat trip to Yangshuo.*

* Students receive academic credit.*

* Cost is estimated around $3,000 including airfare, accommodation, tuition, and fees.*

* Limited to 14 participants.*

Information meeting:  November 10, 1999
Room 216 Minor Hall at 5:00 pm.

For further information, contact:
Office of International Studies in  Minor Hall

Tibet in the 21st Century:  Tibetan Goes Digital

 Recently Professor David Germano has been working to bring Tibetan language and cultural instructional materials into the 21st century.  The Tibetan Digital Learning Resources Project, also known as the Dhrawa Project, was first conceptualized four years ago.  The full project, based at the UVA Digital Media Lab, was inaugurated this summer with financial support from the Weedon Foundation and the UVA Center for South Asian Studies.

The purpose of the project is twofold:  first, to use digital technology to video-record and present Tibetan natural speech discourse in its cultural context to benefit language learning; and second, to make available digital resources on Tibetan culture to increase the profile of Tibetan studies and develop deeper understanding of the diversity of Tibetan culture. As Germano notes,  the project will establish a large archive of digital images and videos which will be conveyed over the World Wide Web with pedagogical tools to encourage other students and faculty to incorporate Tibetan culture into their classroom activities. In addition, Germano’s team is developing an entirely new generation of digital instructional materials for studying Tibetan language, as well as a new technological model that can be applied to other less commonly taught languages.  Germano feels that it is imperative for students to be able to view conversations as they occur within the native culture.  Students of more high profile languages have access to numerous multi-media resources and access to elements of the particular culture within the confines of the US.  This is not the case with less commonly taught languages, such as Tibetan.  By recording and distributing digital images and videos of Tibetans speaking naturally in a wide variety of ordinary cultural settings, students will learn natural speech patterns as well as the cultural background necessary to understanding the use and interpretation of Tibetan language on the ground.  In addition, the same images and videos will be made available as a resource for teaching Tibetan culture, thus aiding in presenting Tibetan culture to a larger audience.

This summer Germano traveled to Central and Eastern Tibet to conduct fieldwork and gather an adequate supply of resources through the use of digital videos and cameras.  Frances Garrett, a doctoral student in Tibetan Buddhism, and Travis McCauley of the Digital Media Lab also spent July and August in Central Tibet making digital videos of conversations in a variety of Tibetan dialects as part of the project.  Overall, the three were able to compile about 26 hours of video footage and approximately 4,000 digital images of Tibetan cultural events and artifacts.  Eventually all of this material will be available on CD and via the Internet.  They are testing language materials in the classroom at UVA this year, while cultural materials will be tested in Germano's “Tibetan Buddhist Culture” course this spring with the support of the TTSP program at UVA.

The Dhrawa Project is also international in its collaborative scope. Germano has enlisted the aid of three additional scholars: Professor Nicolas Tournadre of Paris 8 University and CNRS,  Professor Matthew Kapstein of the University of Chicago, Professor Roger Andersen of the University of California at Los Angeles, and the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences in Lhasa. This group is developing a tool for using multimedia to teach less commonly taught languages and cultures, which is known as “Savant” and was originally developed at the University of California.

To learn more about Professor Germano’s work and the Dhrawa Project, visit the project’s website at: http://faculty.virginia.edu/tibet-committee/dhrawa/home.html.  It will be updated over the course of the coming year to reflect ongoing developments.

A nomadic couple in Kandze, Eastern Tibet

Dateline Beijing:  Reflections
on Four Years of China Reporting for the Washington Post

Steve Mufson, former Beijing Bureau chief of the Washington Post, introduced by Professor Brantly Womack as “possibly the best journalist corresponding from China,” helped kick off the Fall 1999 East Asia Center speaker series at UVA with a lecture on his experiences as a journalist in the People’s Republic.

“If you are not really focused on a subject, then journalism is a great field,” quipped Mufson in his opening.  Mufson’s own history certainly reflects tremendous knowledge in a variety of areas.  After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics from Yale University, Mufson secured a position as a reporter in South Africa for the Wall Street Journal.  Two years of reporting in South Africa during the decline of Apartheid, helped produce Mufson’s first book, Fighting Years: Black Resistance and the Struggle for a New South Africa, and also helped prepare him for his future in Asia.
In 1992, Steve Mufson began working for the Washington Post in Beijing.  Mufson noted that he is not a “China scholar” and that prior to his arrival in Beijing he had only a general knowledge about the People’s Republic.  However, his research before the start of his China assignment had left him well aware of the errors made by journalists covering China in the past, and he was determined to avoid those mistakes.  After this humble introduction, Mufson turned to the focus of his talk, reporting on China from China.

Mufson organized his coverage of the topic around two themes:  culture/society, and economics.  On the theme of culture/society, Mufson talked about the national release of “The Bridges of Madison County” as one of the ten foreign films sanctioned by the government in 1993.  This movie, seen in the US as a commercial and artistic flop, was wildly popular in China.  Mufson spoke of how surprised he was by the tearful reaction of the theatergoers.  The plot apparently struck a chord with many Chinese who were trapped in unhappy marriages but who felt bound by responsibility to remain faithful.  Along the same line, Mufson covered the Chinese adaptation of the play “Fences.” This work by African American playwright August Wilson revolves around the struggle of a contemporary African American family. Mufson found the play to be well received by the Chinese.  According to Mufson these two examples attest to the universal struggle of man, while at the same time pointing to the unique nature of a changing Chinese society.

On the economic side, Mufson credits the economy with spawning some of the largest shifts in China’s social structure. During his stay in China, Mufson observed the crumbling of the old dan wei (work unit) system; he described recent economic developments as “a process of mutual infiltration”. In this “infiltration,” not only is the economy gradually opening up the nation, it is also opening up the individuality of the people.  However, Mufson pointed out that despite the economic reforms China still lacks a true civil society.  To accentuate this point, Mufson compared the role of civil society in China and South Africa.  Prior to the uprisings in South Africa in the mid-eighties, large political organizations and unions were carefully organized.  These organizations grew as a result of the existence of a “civil” realm outside of the formal government and economic structures.  The Tian’anmen protest, in contrast, was highly unorganized and as a consequence, little of the initial protest resonated after the government crackdown. The success of the PRC government in suppressing opposition was reflected in Mufson’s final remark, “I did not predict that the government in China would change, and it so far has not.”

Mufson responded insightfully to a barrage of questions, touching, among other things, on the influence of the Catholic Church in China and the government’s treatment of the foreign press.  Mufson related a story about attending an underground Church service which illustrated the difficulty worshippers have in avoiding arrest and persecution.  He also discussed the challenge of reporting accurate and insightful stories without offending the government. Mufson depicted his own relationship with the authorities as fairly amicable, especially in comparison with that of his predecessor whose confrontational style was rather controversial.  Mufson’s experiences in South Africa seem to have served him well in negotiating the conflicting imperatives of a journalist in the PRC.

 Steve Mufson is currently staff writer and diplomatic correspondent for the Washington Post.

Accounting for Differences in Japanese and German
Moral Recovery Projects After World War II

 Conventional explanations for the greater success of the Germans in achieving “moral recovery” in the decades since the end of World War have focused on differences between German “guilt” culture and Japanese “shame” culture—a explanation first advanced by scholar Ruth Benedict in the late 1940s.  These differences fail to adequately account for the divergent experiences of the two nations, however, according to sociologist Akiko Hashimoto of the University of Pittsburgh, who spoke at UVA on October 22 as part of the East Asia Center Fall 1999 Lecture Series.

Hashimoto argues that Benedict’s shame/guilt explanation does not work because it cannot explain changes over time in the attitudes of the citizens of each nation toward war guilt and because the explanation leaves no room for purposive human action in dealing with the issues.  Hashimoto’s preferred point of departure is a contrast between the “past-oriented” nature of the German moral recovery project and the “future-oriented” Japanese approach; the Germans focused on coming to terms with the misdeeds of war while the Japanese concentrated on the future avoidance of war through the creation of institutions such as

Article 9 of the Constitution, which renounces “the sovereign right of war” for the nation.
Hashimoto looks to several cultural and material factors to account for this difference in orientation.  First, she argues that cultural resources were influential in determining the  nature of each approach. In German culture introspection and self-reflection are respected and thus allowed for the past-oriented approach to recovery.  The Japanese were not able to adopt such an approach, however, because introspection is not a cultural value; rather, cultural traditions emphasized the renouncement of war as an honorable means of repentance.  Furthermore, Buddhist influences in Japanese culture that emphasize ancestor worship made it difficult for the Japanese to take the past-oriented approach since it was necessary to protect the honor of Japanese war dead.

On the material side, several other realities were important in determining the contrasting Japanese and German stances. Among the most important was the fact Germany was surrounded by its former enemies and the economic difficulties at the end of the war necessitated a speedy reintegration of Germany into Europe. Furthermore, physical evidence of the Holocaust and other German actions were present on German soil, leaving the Germans with no option other than a serious examination of its past.  Japan, on the other hand, although also in a dire economic position, was concerned by Communist threats that continued to preoccupy its American occupiers.  Thus the initial approach to the Japanese recovery appeared quite similar to that of Germany, but the geopolitical situation in East Asia quickly led to a focus on the speedy rehabilitation of Japan as the major US ally in Asia.  Combined with a lack of physical evidence of Japanese atrocities within Japan, this facilitated a future-oriented recovery approach that also emphasized the suffering of the Japanese people during the war.

Thus, Hashimoto argues, the Japanese have been largely able to avoid German-like introspection.  The emperor remains the “ego-ideal” for the Japanese nation and moral recovery remains incomplete.  Consequently, Japan has also had difficulty fully integrating itself into the international system as a “normal nation,” a term that Japanese politicians use in laments about the perceived inadequacy of Japan’s international role.  Recent difficulties over Japan’s participation in international peace-keeping missions and the Gulf War only continue to highlight this struggle.

Hashimoto concluded her lecture with a final set of comparisons among Japan, Germany, and the US, which suggest that despite Germany’s greater success in dealing with its past, it too still struggles with self image.  In surveys of students in all three countries, 73% of Americans claimed to be very proud of their nation, while only 27% and 17%, respectively, of Japanese and Germans claimed such feelings.  Survey results also highlighted an additional disturbing trend that has grown out of the Japanese emphasis on the suffering of its own people as part of its rejection of the act of war:  an astounding 33% of high school students (37% and 33% of junior high and elementary school students) erroneously believe that Japan suffered the largest number of casualties of any country in World War II.

Language House Update

While the University remains committed to the construction of an Asian and Middle Eastern Language House, recent developments have resulted in the postponement of the opening of the house until Fall 2001.  Initial plans called for the building currently occupying the site off of Jefferson Park Avenue to be remodeled.  However, unanticipated costs involved in the renovation have led the committee in charge of the project to consider a new strategy.  The new plan involves the demolition of the current structure and the construction of a larger facility that may be expanded to also house students of Russian.  Future issues of the East Asia Center newsletter will carry updates on the project.

New Courses In Chinese Studies

East Asia Center Faculty Associates John Israel and Bradly Reed will jointly offer a new team-taught Chinese history colloquium in the upcoming semester entitled, “The Cultural Revolution in China.”  Students interested in the course should see the full course description in the course listings in the issue. Although there are no prerequisites for the colloquium, students will be expected to have read Mao’s China and After, by Maurice Meisner, prior to the beginning of the course. The text will be available at the University Bookstore before the end of Fall semester.

Students interested in Chinese history and politics should also consider two other new courses this semester:  Professor Anne Kinney’s “Legendary Women of China” (CHTR 301) and Professor Robert Sutter’s “US-China Relations” (GFIR 872).  Although the latter course has been offered in various formats at UVA in the past, for the first time the course will be taught by Professor Sutter, National Intelligence Officer for East Asia and former Senior Specialist in Asia and International Politics in the Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division of the Congressional Research Service.


Each year the Grants Committee of the East Asia Center allocates money to be used to defray the cost of travel to East Asia by University faculty members and students.  These funds may be used to cover all or part of a round trip airfare between Charlottesville and East Asia. Travel within an East Asian country will not be covered by a Weedon travel grant.


 The Ellen Bayard Weedon travel grant is available to any University of Virginia faculty member or student who:

In addition, student applicants must intend to enroll in structured programs offered by accredited academic institutions in East Asia, or plan to pursue a specific research project.


Applicants intending to spend two to eight weeks in East Asia under the conditions outlined herein may apply for a travel grant to cover partial (25% or more) round trip air fare between Charlottesville and East Asia.

Applicants intending to spend eight weeks or more in East Asia under the conditions outlined herein may apply for a travel grant to cover up to full round trip air fare between Charlottesville and East Asia

Under special circumstances students and faculty members may apply for up to full round trip air fare regardless of length of stay in East Asia, provided the trip has a sound and genuine professional or academic purpose, i.e., to attend a professional conference, to conduct research that can only be conducted in East Asia, etc.

These travel grants cannot be used cover the following:  (1) trips designed to enable a student or faculty member to simply “visit” East Asia, (2) in-country travel, (3) program and/or conference fees, (4) lodging and accommodations.


Travel grant applications shall be judged according to the selection committee’s assessment of the quality of the applicant, the intellectual and academic cohesiveness of the applicant’s project, and financial need.  Preference shall be given to the applicants who have not recently been to East Asia and, in the following order, to:

1 research, language and cultural study;
2. participation in study tours;
3. participation in conferences.

No single travel grant shall exceed one-third of available funds, and normally no more than half of the available funds shall be allocated to faculty members.


Student applicants must submit three (3) copies of the application forms and two (2) supporting letters of recommendation from UVA faculty members.

Faculty applicants must provide a letter detailing their plans and anticipated travel costs.

Application forms are available during office hours in the East Asia Center,  224 Minor Hall.  Completed applications are due by February 15, 2000 and should be returned to the East Asia Center.  (phone:  924-7836)

Spring 2000 East Asian Studies Courses


TR 0930-1045

An introduction to the sociology of Buddhism. Discusses the transformation of an ethical religion of an urban elite into a ritualistic mass religion of the peasantry. After a brief introduction to the Buddhist Doctrine, its social origins and the sociology of its transformation are discussed with particular reference to the orthodox traditions of Burma, Thailand and Sri Lanka.

MW 1400-1515

This course explores the ways that culturally formed systems of values and family organization affect population processes in a variety of cultures. Topics to be discussed will include (1) disease history, the impact of epidemics and famine, the differential impact of morality be gender, age, and class. The impact of improved nutrition and modern medicine; (2) marriage strategies and alternative, the problem of unbalanced sex ratios at marriageable age, systems of polygamy and polyandry, divorce, widowhood and remarriage; (3) fertility decision making, premodern methods of birth control and spacing, infanticide; and (4) migration, regional systems, and variation through time and space in the structure of populations. ANTH 101 or equivalent recommended as background. This is an advanced course, adding to general offerings in social organization, kinship, marriage, and gender. This course is cross-listed with women's studies. Upper level majors and non-majors. This course satisfies the second writing requirement and non-western perspectives requirement.

MWF 1100-1150

This course attempts to 1) introduce students new to anthropology aspects of culture theory and contemporary ‘ecological/environmental anthropology'; 2) forge a synthesis between culture theory and ‘historical ecology;' 3) provide new insights on how human cultures both fashion and are fashioned by the environments; 4) provide a seminar-like context in which we can evaluate, as anthropologists and citizens of our world, aspects of the current ‘environmental' debate in our culture; and 5) facilitate independent study on environmental issues on the part of each student. In addition to tests and the independent study project paper, the course will be taught in two parts. Lectures based on readings will occupy every Monday and Wednesday. Fridays shall be devoted to a ‘Seminar' format in which we read and discuss a recent book or two devoted to one or another aspect of the ‘environment.' Although ethnographic examples will draw from the whole world, special emphasis will be placed on societies bordering the Pacific Ocean and in the Asias. Students from the Departments of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences are especially invited to join this course.

W 1600-1830

This course examines the continuities and discontinuities in recurring themes of "traditional" Vietnamese culture from the horticultural Neolithic to the present. The class size is limited in order to facilitate class discussion and the sharing of study materials. Students will write several short essays on a variety of topics. The class fulfills second writing requirement.


TR 0930-1045

Study of cultural exchanges and interactions in architecture between East and West. Major events and master architects such as F.L. Wright and L. Kahn who have contributed to the exchanges are discussed.

R 1230-1515

The history of architecture in modern Japan from the Meiji period to contemporary. Focus is on the post-WWII development.

Art History

TR 1100-1215

This course is an introduction to the arts and culture of Japan. It will focus on key monuments and artistic traditions that have played a central role in Japanese art and society. It will analyze how artists, architects, and patrons expressed their ideals in visual terms. It will also present sculptures, paintings, and decorative objects to explore the underlying artistic and cultural values. The course will be divided into the following segments: Pre-historic Age, Shinto, Buddhism, Court Culture, Zen Buddhism, Samurai Government, and the Industrial Age.

M 1530-1800

Spanning from the Neolithic period to the Han dynasty, this seminar covers the period when ancient Chinese civilization was formed. Through the close study of well-documented archaeological sites, which include Anyang, Sanxingdui, the First Emperor's Tomb, and the Mawangdui Tombs, it investigates how ritual art such as jades and bronzes were made and used. It also explores the Chinese notions of afterlife, ancestor worship, state ritual, and immortality cults. The material culture and beliefs and practices examined in this seminar form a backdrop to understanding the times when indigenous traditions such as Confucianism and Daoism were formulated. Writings from archaeological, anthropological, art historical, and ritual perspectives are introduced. (Students who plan to take this course are encouraged to see the "The Golden Age of Chinese Archaeology" exhibition at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., before it closes on Jan 2 1999.) Prerequisite: background in Asian art or Asian studies. This course fulfills the second writing requirement.


MTWRF 1100-1150/1300-1350/1400-1450

Prerequisite: CHIN 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students are introduced to the basic grammar and a set of vocabulary generally recognized as useful in everyday communication. They will be introduced to the principles behind the writing system (radicals and phonetics) as well as the written equivalents for the vocabulary they have learned to speak and understand. Using integrated pedagogical and authentic materials, the course adopts a multi-faceted approach to help students gain training in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in standard Mandarin Chinese. The goal is the ability to communicate in everyday situations. Aspects of Chinese culture are also introduced. Text: Integrated Chinese.

W 1530-1730

Introduction to the history, masters, styles and techniques of Chinese Brush Calligraphy. Goals of the course are familiarity with use of brush and ink, active and passive differentiation of styles and techniques, appreciation of Chinese Calligraphy as an art form. Meets Second Writing Requirement. NOTE: As the instructor will be in Taiwan for the first half of the spring term, an intensive version of the course will be offered during the second half of the term. Contact the instructor directly or see the course toolkit webpage for further information.

MWF 0900-0950&TR 1100-1150/MTWRF 1000-1050

This class is designed for students who have successfully completed Chinese 201 or equivalent. A good command of the Chinese phonetic pronunciation system and knowledge of about 600-800 hundred Chinese characters are the prerequisites for this class. The class will continue to focus on training students on four language skills--speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

MTWRF 1300-1350

This class is designed for students who have successfully passed Chin 106 or equivalent. This class will cover study materials normally covered in one year. The class will continue to focus on training students on speaking, reading, and writing skills.

TR 0930-1045

Prerequisite: CHIN 202, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Modern Chinese at the advanced level: reading and discussion in Chinese of various aspects of Chinese culture, society, and literature, using radio broadcasts and selections from newspapers, recent essays, short stories, etc.

TR 1530-1645

Prerequisite: CHIN 302/502, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Introduces the electronic and print media in Chinese with special emphasis on current events as reported in the Chinese speaking world, to further develop oral and written proficiency.

TR 0930-1045

This course serves as an introduction to the grammar, structure and cultural background of Chinese poetry from the eighth to the tenth century A.D. CHIN 584 will concentrate on the poetry of the Tang dynasty, the golden age of China's lyric tradition. Normally students must first complete CHIN 583, but this requirement may be waived with the permission of the instructor. This course is especially intended for undergraduate students of East Asian languages and cultures, majors in Asian Studies, graduate students in history, religious studies or anthropology, or students whose competence in Chinese enables them to enroll in this course. One year of Chinese, Japanese or Korean is required. Fulfills Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

T 1400-1630

"Legendary Women of Early China" will examine the biographies of female heroines and villains as found in the early Chinese text Traditions of Exemplary Women (ca. 18 B.C.). This text occupies a unique position in China's cultural tradition not only as the first book designed specifically for the moral education of women but also because it continued to mould female behavior in China well into the twentieth century. The book's content is far from predictable, ranging from maternal paragons who commit infanticide to women of political genius who advise kings and generals. The text contains seven chapters, each organized around a category of exemplary female behavior. Each category is illustrated in a series of short biographies of women and girls who embody these traits. Class sessions will be devoted to discussion of the biographies and what these life histories say about the role of women in traditional China. The course website contains Chinese woodblock illustrations of the stories, which will also be used for class discussion. One class session will be devoted to the true history of Mulan, the Chinese heroine made famous in this country by Disney. The goal of this course is to familiarize students with 1) the history of women in early China, 2) the evolving codes of behavior that shaped Chinese women's culture for two millennia, and 3) the ways in which the Chinese understood gender. The course will also work toward an enhanced understanding of the function of role models in both ancient China and their own lives. Course Website: http://etext.virginia.edu/chinese/lienu/browse/Lienu.html

TR 1100-1215

This course will examine gender, sexuality and the family as represented in masterpieces of Chinese fiction from the Tang Dynasty through the twentieth century. We will read two novels (Dream of the Red Chamber, vol. 1 and Ba Jin's Family), but will concentrate on short fiction. The readings and discussion for each class will revolve around one assigned theme (stated in syllabus). We will also devote a number class sessions to viewing videos related to our readings, including a brief introduction to Chinese theatre. The purpose of this course is threefold: first, to encourage a critical exploration of the art and meaning of Chinese fiction; second, to introduce traditional and modern Chinese concepts of gender, family and sexuality; and third, to provide a multicultural perspective on social issues of universal importance. Fulfills Second Writing Requirement and Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.


R 0930-1215

This course considers the sociocultural foundations of education in a variety of contexts, with focus on East Asia.

W 1000-1245

This is a doctoral level seminar that explores cultural discourses on the self and their implications for learning, broadly conceived. Contemporary Japanese, Chinese, and South Korean perspectives on the self (as reflected in a variety of texts, both scholarly and popular) are explored.

M 1230-1515

This team-taught course explores child development through classical Piagetian, Socio-historical, and anthropological lenses. In my section I focus on child development in Japan and contrasts with the United States.

Government & Foreign Affairs

TR 1100-1215

This course offers a general introduction to Chinese politics. Its aim is to provide students with an understanding of contemporary Chinese politics and the historical context from which they have emerged. It will survey the main events of contemporary China, beginning with the birth of the PRC to the present. In this course, students will follow China’s politics and attempts to modernize under both Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping before discussing today’s China in light of the legacies left by both these leaders. Students will discuss the politics of crisis and reform, as well as the significance and meaning of the Tiananmen crackdown in 1989. The last part of the course will be devoted to the particular challenges faced by China’s current political leaders, including questions of democratization and control, the environment, and the changing relationships between state and society, and between center and periphery.

TR 1530-1645

This course examines the domestic politics of Southeast Asia. Designed as an introductory course to the region, this course will examine questions of political legitimacy and economic development in Southeast Asia. The course begins with an introductory session on traditional patterns of authority in Southeast Asia, the impact of Western colonialism, national liberation movements, and the emergence of new Southeast Asian states. The second part of the course will focus on the political and economic development of six countries: Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The last third of the course will be devoted to contemporary issues related to the region, including new challenges created by development, questions about democratization, and the changing role of the military. The course will conclude where it began, namely, with a discussion about the foundations of political legitimacy in Southeast Asia.


The course surveys Japan's foreign relations from the Meiji Restoration through the present. The first half of the course is primarily lecture, but the second half of the term is organized around student-led discussions on current topics in Japan's foreign relations. An 18-page term paper is required.

T 1700-1930

US-China relations seminar taught by the National Intelligence Officer for East Asia and former Senior Specialist in Asia and International Politics in the Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division of the Congressional Research Service.



MWF 0900-0950

Students enrolled in HIEA 206 will study the history of Korea from the late 14th century through the end of the 20th century: the rise of the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910), changes wrought by the full-scale Confucianization of Korean society, the unfolding and ultimate collapse of the unique relationship between the Yi court and Ming/Ching China, challenges to the territorial integrity of Korea in the late 19th century, the rise of Korean nationalism, Japanese colonization (1910-1945), post-World War II social, political and economic developments, and the role of Christianity throughout the 20th century. Reading material for the course will include Korea Old and New; Sources of Korean Tradition; State and Society in Contemporary Korea; Lost Names: Scenes from a Korean Boyhood; excerpts from such books as Law and the State in Traditional East Asia and The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia; and articles from scholarly journals. In addition to assigned reading students will be required to read and then write a critical review of a book selected from a list provided by the course instructor. The course grade will be based on the review essay (25%), a midterm examination (25%), and the final examination (50%). HIEA 206 is a lecture course, but discussion during class is invited and encouraged. The course is open to all students regardless of academic level or major.

MWF 1000-1050

HIEA 312 covers the late imperial period of Chinese history, from the founding of the Song dynasty in the tenth century to the final decades of the imperial system in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although the course covers the basic elements of social, political, and cultural history, emphasis is placed on analyzing events and trends in an attempt to come to grips with two rather thorny questions: 1) How can we account for the remarkable stability and longevity of the late imperial system of government as well as its basic patterns of social-economic relationships? 2) To what extent were the factors that contributed to this historical success story also responsible for the fragmentation and failure of the imperial system when it faced fundamentally new challenges, from both within and without, in the nineteenth century? These and other questions will be considered through an investigation of several inter-related issues: The ideological and philosophical foundations of state and society; the linkage and tension between elite and popular culture and life-styles; the cultural assimilation of non-Chinese peoples; the formation of popular traditions of religious faith, protest and rebellion; and problems of systemic decline. Although HIEA 312 is the second of a two-semester sequence on Imperial China, neither HIEA 311 nor any previous study of Chinese history is required. The course is based on lectures along with occasional discussions. Readings, drawn from a basic text and translated primary materials, average between 100-150 pages per week. Evaluation is based on an essay (30%), a mid-term exam (35%), and a final exam (35%).

MW 1400-1450+disc: W1700-1750/R0830-0920/R1700-1750/W1800-1850

To a considerable degree, China's destiny depends upon the ability of men and women of ideas to make their contribution in the intellectual and political arenas. After the overthrow of the monarchial order in 1911 and the Republic's degeneration into warlordism, China's educated minority began a thorough-going critique of their country's culture and a quest for personal emancipation that continues to the present day. This course will focus upon the Chinese state and society of the past century as seen through the eyes of scholars, philosophers, social critics, writers, and artists. Simultaneously it will examine the attitudes and policies of China's rulers toward the intellectual elite. One way to understand modern Chinese political and social thought is through writings by sinologists such as Jonathan Spence and Orville Schell. Also assigned is Yue Daiyun's autobiographical account of a Chinese scholar who lived through the troubled decades of mid-twentieth-century China. Other readings will include essays, fiction, and polemics by Chinese political and intellectual leaders as well as western scholarly critiques. This course will feature a series of films addressed to political and social issues of the twentieth century. These post-1949 productions also yield insights into Communist policies toward the arts. Students unable to attend large-screen Tuesday afternoon showings may use videotapes on reserve, but the films must be viewed before discussion sections. The course grade will be based upon a mid-term examination (20%), a comparative review of Yue/Wakeman and one other volume selected from a list of approved readings (30%), a final examination (40%), and performance in discussion sections (10%).

MWF 0900-0950

HIEA 322 analyzes the social and political history of Japan from the 1850s to the 1990s. The course begins with a quick overview of the Tokugawa political system (1600-1868) before examining in some detail its demise in the 1860s. After exploring the meaning of the Meiji Restoration of 1868, we trace the chaotic evolution of a constitutional government and a military society through the wartime period. The second half of the course examines the rapidly changing social and economic environments that underlie Japan's shifting postwar political order. Students are required to attend class, to participate in discussions, and to complete three written assignments: two examinations and one term paper (of 1,500 words, based on the course readings). The first exam will account for 30% of the grade and the second, a final exam, for 35%. The paper will account for the remaining 35%. The following books are assigned: T. Najita and J. V. Koschmann, Conflict in Modern Japanese History; Carol Gluck, Japan’s Modern Myths; Stephen Large, Emporer Hirohito and Showa Japan; Frank Upham, Law and Social Change in Postwar Japan; G. Allinson and Y. Sone, Political Dynamics in Contemporary Japan..

W 1530-1800

HIEA 402 is a colloquium, a special type of small discussion course offered by the history department. Given by faculty members specializing in geographic areas where difficult languages prevent students from conducting research in primary documentation, a colloquium provides an alternative to the conventional research seminar while it also satisfies the major seminar requirement. This colloquium deals with Japan during the modern era and it focuses on the dynamic relationship between self and society. Our purpose is to explore how Japanese in many walks of life have dealt historically with the tensions between autonomy and affiliation, defiance and diffidence. We will rely on memoirs, biographies, autobiographies, novels, ethnographies, scholarly essays, and feature films as vivid sources for exploring how people have grappled with problems of identity and individuation in modern Japan. Students will write three, nine-page papers for the course. Grades will be based on the quality of the papers (25% for each one) and on the quality of contributions to discussions in class (25%). Some of the book-length studies we will read are: Natsume Soseki; Kokoro; Enchi Fumiko, The Waiting Years; Dorinne Kondo, Crafting Selves; Robert Danly; In the Shade of Spring Leaves; Gail Bernstein, ed., Recreating Japanese Women; Robert Smith, Japanese Society. Students entering this course MUST have had at least one prior course in Japanese history. The best preparation for HIEA 402 is HIEA 207: Japan from Susa-no-o to Sony. HIEA 322 or Mr. Allinson's freshman seminar on postwar Japan are also appropriate pre-requisites. If you are interested in enrolling in this course during the Spring Term, 2000, please contact Mr. Allinson during Fall Term, 1999.

REED & ISRAEL (team-taught)
T 1300-1530

In 1966, Mao Zedong called upon the youth of China to rebel against established authority in order to stem the tide of corruption, bureaucratism, and counter-revolution which he saw as threatening the future of socialism in China. The tumultuous response to Mao's appeal opened a ten year period in which political and social order were nearly destroyed, countless lives ruined, and the legitimacy of the Communist Party called into question. With the death of Mao in 1976, a movement that began as an effort to keep China firmly on the socialist path was brought to a close amid fear, apathy, and disillusionment. This colloquium attempts to get at the multiple meanings of the Cultural Revolution by examining its political and ideological antecedents, the process by which events unfolded, and the impact which this "decade of chaos" has had on Chinese government, society, and culture since the death of Mao. Our material consists of selected secondary literature as well as primary sources such as memoirs and films. Grades for the course will be based on the quality of participation in discussions and a 20 to 25 page paper on a topic or your choice (completion of the paper will satisfy the College's second writing requirement). Although there are no prerequisites for the colloquium, students will be expected to have read MAO'S CHINA AND AFTER, by Maurice Meisner, prior to the beginning of the course. The text will be available at the University Bookstore before the end of Fall semester.

M 1530-1800

HIEA 403 will focus attention, through reading and seminar discussions, on the increasing political, social, and economic problems of late 19th century Yi Dynasty Korea. Topics will include the intellectual and cultural milieu of mid-19th century Korea, critiques and attempts at reform within the tradition of Neo-Confucian statecraft, the official and popular responses to Catholic and Protestant missionaries, Yi Dynasty relations with China, Japan and the Western powers, and the rise of Korean nationalism. Assigned reading will include Imperialism, Resistance and Reform in Late Nineteenth-Century Korea; A Korean Confucian Encounter with the Modern World; The Rule of the Taewon'gun, 1864-1873; Politics and Policy in Traditional Korea; and articles from scholarly journals. Students will be expected to be prepared to discuss the reading material during weekly sessions of the seminar, and will be required to write a critical review of each book read. The instructor will set aside time during the semester for private consultation with students about their review essays. The course grade will be based on contribution to the weekly seminar sessions (1/3) and the review essays (2/3). HIEA 403 is open to History majors and non-majors alike.

MWF 0900-0950

Graduate students interested in enrolling in the undergraduate lecture course entitled Korean Culture and Institutions (HIEA 206) must do so via HIEA 702. They will be expected to attend the weekly lectures and special discussion sessions of the undergraduate course, to complete all undergraduate reading and writing assignments, and to complete additional reading and writing assignments as deemed appropriate by the course instructor. Students enrolled in HIEA 702 should expect to read a minimum of 2500 pages of assigned material, to read two scholarly studies of their own choosing and to write critical review essays of the books read, and to take a midterm examination and a final examination. The course grade will be based on the review essays (30%), the midterm examination (30%), and the final examination (40%). Students do not need the permission of the instructor to enroll in HIEA 702, but the instructor invites interested graduate students to consult with him about their interests and course requirements.


TR 1400-1515 +drill: MWF 0900-0950/MWF1000-1050/MWF1300-1350/MWF1400-1450

Prerequisite: JAPN 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (Continuation of JAPN 101.) This course introduces the basic speech patterns and grammatical units, including casual, daily spoken style as well as the polite speech used in formal occasions. The emphasis is on speaking, hearing, and reading. Writing hiragana, katakana, and 100 kanji are also introduced. Prerequisite: JAPN 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.

TR 1100-1215+drill: MWF 1000-1050/MWF 1100-1150/MWF 0900-0950

Prerequisite: JAPN 201 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Continuation of Elementary Japanese introduces more complex sentence patterns, idioms and vocabulary to prepare students for intermediate-level communication. The course reinforces spoken Japanese skills with writing and reading exercises, 125 kanji are introduced.

MWF 1300-1350

This course emphasizes comprehension and active reproduction of modern Japanese beyond the basic patterns of speech and writing. Various topics on current Japanese culture and society will be introduced. Prerequisite: JAPN 301/501 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.

MW 1400-1515

This courses is the continuation of JAPN583, a fourth-year level Japanese course with an emphasis on intercultural communication in current Japanese. Although reading competence is emphasized, conversation and discussion will be conducted on a regular basis. Topics on Japanese culture, society and people will be covered with newspaper and magazine articles, selections from novels, video, and other such materials written or produced for Japanese audiences. Prerequisite: JAPN 583 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Course Meets Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

TR 1500-1615

This advanced seminar language course is designed to help students improve their reading and comprehension abilities, bringing them to the equivalent intellectual level of Japanese College students. Teaching materials from works in Japanese will be determined and chosen by students.

TR 1230-1345

An introduction to the Tale of Genji (1010 A.D.), one of the world's masterpieces, written by a Heian court noblewoman, Murasaki Shikibu. The Heian Period (or sometimes called the Fujiwara Period), particularly 894-1194, displayed "cultural splendor on a scale never to be reproduced and . . .the emergence of a sense of native identity." Murasaki Shikibu, a scholar's daughter, was "employed by the most powerful Fujiwara of all, Michinaga (966-1027) . . . to add brilliance to the salon of his daughter Shoshi. . . Situated at the subtly humiliating fringes of the lower aristocracy, often entering court service, these women [daughters and wives of provincial governors], whose dates of birth and death are unrecorded, were responsible for the flowering of Heian literature." (From "Introduction" to The Splendor of Longing in the Tale of Genji by Norma Field, pp. 11-13.) Discussion topics include: 1) the ritual of courting and women's position in the marriage institution; 2) heroinehood and female destiny; 3) the search for inner peace and unity with nature; 4) implications of "high-context" communication style; 5) the aesthetics of mono no aware, i.e., ephemerality of human existence. Special attention will be given to the continuity of Japanese psychic/cultural traditions of the Heian Period in the light of dynamic contradictions in today's Japan that embrace preservation and transformation, conformity and diversity.

Religious Studies

RELB 213 Taoism and Confucianism
TR 1230-1345+discussion: R 1700-1750/F 14001450/W 1700-1750

MW 1400-1450+discussion: F 1200-1250/F 0800-0850/R 0830-0920/R 1600-1650/F 1300-1350/F 0800-0850/F 1200-1250/F 1100-1150/F1500-1550

This course surveys Tibetan Buddhist religious culture in terms of its history, biographical traditions, religious communities, cultural patterns, ritual life, contemplative traditions and philosophical discourse. The focus will be on how tantric Buddhism has historically functioned to relate these different dimensions together as an identifiable cultural zone of vast geographical terrain despite never achieving any form of political unity. There will be a particular focus on the many controversies and tensions associated with the gradual pervasion of Tibetan culture by tantric religion. These range from accusations of antinomian practices pertaining to sexuality and violence, to Tibet's religo-political solution to tantra's decentralized paradigm of Gurus who were Buddhas with local mandalas of absolute authority. Finally we will also examine at great depth Tibetan innovations in Buddhist philosophy, ritual and yoga.


LANG R 1530-1800


LANG M 1530-1800

This seminar takes as its point of departure Carolyn Bynum's statements: "No scholar studying religion, no participant in ritual, is ever neuter. Religious experience is the experience of men and women, and in no known society is this experience the same." The unifying theme of this seminar is gender and Buddhism. We will explore historical, textual and social questions relevant to the status of women in the Buddhist world of India and Tibet from the time of Buddhism's origins to the present day. We will locate feminine voices in patriarchal religious texts and consider the issue of gender in relation to Buddhist views on selflessness, duality and sexuality. We will also discuss the application of western feminist analysis to Buddhist texts and the efforts of contemporary western Buddhists to establish a post-patriarchal Buddhism. Course Meets Non-Western Perspectives Requirement.

TR 1530-1645

TR 1100-1215

MF 1100-1150

TR 1530-1645

Advanced level readings from a range of classical Tibetan texts, and exercises in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisite: RELB 535, or equivalent.

TR 1400-1515, MF 0900-1050

Advanced level readings from a range of classical Tibetan texts, and exercises in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisite: Literary and Spoken Tibetan V.


Readings in medieval Buddhist texts in Chinese. This course focuses on the use of dictionaries, concordances, indices, bibliographies and other reference tools that enable us to accurately understand texts composed centuries ago. Prerequisite: Classical Chinese.


TR 1400-1514, MF 0900-1050

Advanced level readings from a range of classical Tibetan texts, and exercises in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisite: Literary and Spoken Tibetan VI.