East Asia CenterNewsletter On-line

The University of Virgina
east asia center
November 2000

Chen Jian: From Prisoner to Professor


          You will not find the words “Former Convict” on the resumé of Professor Chen Jian, UVa’s newly-arrived authority on the history of Sino-American relations.  The term would be technically incorrect for, though he served time in a Chinese jail in 1971 and again in 1972, Chen was never tried, much less convicted.
          Chen’s prison episodes are but part of the unusual life’s experience that sets him apart from his colleagues at the Miller Center, where he is C.K. Yen Professor of Chinese-American Relations, and the department of history, where he holds a concurrent professorial appointment.  Born in Shanghai in 1952, Chen came of age during the turbulent years of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976).  As a 14-year-old, he was one of the millions of Red Guards reviewed by Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square. 
          With schools closed, young Chen found jobs as porter and construction worker, but his thirst for knowledge led him to hand-copy several books, including William Shirer’s The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
Disenchanted with Mao’s politics, he participated in unauthorized study groups, leading to his first incarceration.  The second, he surmises, stemmed from political struggles in anticipation of Nixon’s 1972 visit to China. In 1977 authorities conceded that he had been wrongly jailed, setting the stage for formal rehabilitation.
          In 1977, Chen aced China's first college entrance exams in 11 years and was admitted to East China Normal University.  Five years later he received his M.A. in world history from East China Normal and Fudan universities.  In 1986 he was awarded a fellowship to Southern Illinois University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1990.  The massacre of June 4, 1989 gave him a “sense of losing home”.  Consequently he decided to stay in the United States.  Before coming to UVa, he taught at the State University of New York at Geneseo (1990-95) and Southern Illinois (1995-99).
          Professor Chen is eager to share the unique perspective gained from his experiences in Mao’s China.  He has coauthored a voluminous bibliography of publications on the Cultural Revolution and has written two books, China’s Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation (1994) and Mao’s China and the Cold War (forthcoming 2001).  He has also published more than twenty articles and book chapters.  His writings have appeared in The China Journal, Diplomatic History, The China Quarterly, and The Journal of American-East Asian Relations.  He is currently engaged in two major research projects:  “Revolution Under Heaven: Mao’s China Encounters the World, 1949-1976,” and “Twentieth Century Chinese-American Relations: An Interpretive History”.
          Professor Chen expresses excitement over joining UVa’s distinguished faculty, quipping that Virginia will offer “a larger stage to perform my drama”.  In addition to working to strengthen the East Asian Center, he hopes to see a bolstering of the University’s international activities, which he believes are not on a par with the University’s standing.  Among Chen’s courses offered for the first time at UVa is “China Encounters the World,” which he will teach in the spring of 2001.

 

   Inside:

   Spring 2001 Courses

   Reports from the Field

   William Speidel on China

   Weedon Grant Information



 

Dr. Chen Makes His East Asia Center Debut


          China does not pose a threat to the United States but a challenge.  That was the message delivered to a standing room only audience that squeezed into 225 Minor Hall for UVa Professor Chen Jian’s  September 22 East Asian Center lecture.
          China’s unprecedented economic growth over the past two decades, Chen argued, has led policy makers in the United States and elsewhere to embrace the “China threat” thesis.  That growth, he said, has in fact forced the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to focus on its own legitimacy crisis, ruling out any possibility that it would pursue aggressive or expansionist foreign policy goals.  Bellicose rhetoric and the cultivation of a victim mentality, continued Chen, should be interpreted in the context of the CCP’s campaign to maintain control over the Chinese people.  He contended that other than for a few border skirmishes, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has never attempted to forcibly expand its territory beyond areas which were considered part of historical China.
          With the CCP facing challenges to its authority as the country further embraces a market economy, Chen concluded that it is in the interest of the United States to help China’s rulers deal with these difficulties to dissuade them from resorting to an aggressive foreign policy to promote national unity.

 



 
 

Ellen Bayard Weedon East Asia Travel Grants


Each year the Grants Committee of the East Asia Center allocates money to be used to defray the cost of travel to East Asia by University faculty members and students.  These funds may be used to cover all or part of a round trip airfare between Charlottesville and East Asia. Travel within an East Asian country will not be covered by a Weedon travel grant.

ELIGIBILITY

The Ellen Bayard Weedon travel grant is available to any University of Virginia faculty member or student who:

  • intends to spend at least two weeks in East Asia pursuing study or research.
  • agrees to be in residence at the University during the subsequent academic year.
  • agrees to share with the University community knowledge and experience acquired in East Asia through lectures, colloquia, seminars, media presentations, etc.
In addition, student applicants must intend to enroll in structured programs offered by accredited academic institutions in East Asia, or plan to pursue a specific research project.

TRAVEL GRANT AWARDS

Applicants intending to spend two to eight weeks in East Asia under the conditions outlined herein may apply for a travel grant to cover 
partial (25% or more) round trip air fare between Charlottesville and East Asia.

Applicants intending to spend eight weeks or more in East Asia under the conditions outlined herein may apply for a travel grant to cover up to full round trip air fare between Charlottesville and East Asia

Under special circumstances students and faculty members may apply for up to full round trip air fare regardless of length of stay in East Asia, provided the trip has a sound and genuine professional or academic purpose, i.e., to attend a professional conference, to conduct research that can only be conducted in East Asia, etc. 

These travel grants cannot be used cover the following:  (1) trips designed to enable a student or faculty member to simply “visit” East Asia, (2) in-country travel, (3) program and/or conference fees, (4) lodging and accommodations.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Travel grant applications shall be judged according to the selection committee’s assessment of the quality of the applicant, the intellectual and academic cohesiveness of the applicant’s project, and financial need.  Preference shall be given to the applicants who have not recently been to East Asia and, in the following order, to:

               1 research, language and cultural study;
               2. participation in study tours;
               3. participation in conferences.

No single travel grant shall exceed one-third of available funds, and normally no more than half of the available funds shall be allocated to faculty members. 

APPLICATION PROCEDURES
 

  • Student applicants must submit three (3) copies of the application forms and two (2) supporting letters of recommendation from UVA faculty members.
  • Faculty applicants must provide a letter detailing their plans and anticipated travel costs. 
Application forms are available during office hours in the East Asia Center,  224 Minor Hall.  Completed applications are due by February 15, 2001 and should be returned to the East Asia Center.  (phone:  924-7836)



 
 

Reports from the Field
Emily Weisbrod in Japan


          Imagine, fresh out of the university and being miraculously handed the title sensei [teacher]and a business class ticket to Japan!  As a new participant, I have been absolutely overwhelmed by the well-oiled machine that is the JET Program.  I have attended three different orientations, each in a different city.  I have received hundreds of pages of information concerning every feasible situation a JET may encounter.  I have practically had my hand held as I opened bank accounts, bought stamps, and applied for my foreign registration card.
          Yet while its hard to imagine more considerate hosts, it didn’t take long to figure out that I was just another JET, whose predecessor had a predecessor, and so on.  Its hard to maintain the novelty of my experience when I keep hearing so much about Brian and Jennifer, the two most recent JETs who held what is now my position and lived in what is now my apartment.  Everything has been prearranged for me, and the longer I am here the more I am convinced that JET is like the packaged tour of life in a foreign country.  I'm seeing all the sights, having a great time, and there is always an air-conditioned bus with an English-speaking tour guide waiting for me.  I definitely feel spoiled and in many ways sheltered from the reality of living on my own in a foreign country.   Yet this first month has been an amazing one and 
not for a second have I regretted my decision to participate in the program.  I hate to admit it, but between the stress of leaving home and Japan’s sweltering summer, this air-conditioned bus is a welcome ride.
          I would like to share a little bit about my life here. When it comes to housing, job requirements, and even paid leave, a JET must consider that every situation is different. Some people live in houses, some in apartments.  Some people pay rent, some don’t. Some teach in one school and some go to a different school every day.  I present this disclaimer to assure that no one mistakes my circumstances as customary. I have been placed in a small town called Takahashi, in Okayama Prefecture.  My little inaka [home away from home]is completely surrounded by mountains and has a beautiful river running through it.  The scenery is quite incredible, and Takahashi boasts the highest surviving castle in Japan.  Now with all the beautiful scenery, I have to laugh because my apartment is actually located directly above a small, not very picturesque, grocery store.  It is really quite convenient, but I was pretty taken aback the first time I was told, Here is your apaato [apartment]. My focus was on the clerk staring out of the window at me.  But since the building has only two stories, if there is a sudden earthquake and it collapses, I will merely fall down into the grocery store, where I can munch happily on foodstuffs until help arrives.
          My apartment, which is subsidized by my Board of Education, came complete with stove, refrigerator, rice-cooker, TV, VCR, stereo, and a bicycle.  I have three small tatami rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, and even my very own heated-seat toilet.  Thanks to former JETs both my bookshelf and spice rack are full.  As I said, this is definitely the packaged tour, and I cannot believe how lucky I am.  There is one drawback though I find it a bit unnerving that everyone in town knows exactly where I live.  During introductions I often hear, Ahh, Supa Toki no ue ni sunde imasu ne. [Ah, you’re living over the Supa Toki grocery, aren't you?] Such is life for a foreigner in the inaka of Japan.  People just seem to know where you are and what you are doing at all times.
          During the month of August Japanese students are on summer vacation, so each new JET has time to settle in and become accustomed to life here without the stress of classes.  For some this means being completely free of obligations, but my particular Board of Education requires that I report to work every day.  Monday through Friday, 8:30 to 4:30 I go into the Board and pretend to be busy.  I study Japanese, make lesson plans, and help with menial tasks around the office.  I observe office etiquette and make tea with all the other women.  (Note: I’m here to experience a culture, not judge it.)  This month has also been full of get-togethers with other JETs, local festivals, and some nigiyakana enkai [welcome parties].  I have actually seen some of my usually serious co-workers face down on the tatami arm-wrestling. How’s that for a cultural experience?
          As interesting as this first month has been, I find myself in great anticipation of September 1st.  That’s when I begin my circus act.  In three middle schools and two high schools, this imported foreigner will do her best to bring English to life and inspire international under-standing among Japanese teens. I look forward to telling you all about it. Ganbarimasu! [Wish me luck!]
Editor's Note:  the Japanese Exchange and Teaching (JET) Program, administered by the Japanese government, enables American college graduates to spend one to three years in Japan as assistant language teachers or coordinators for international relations.  Further information is available at the East Asian Center.



 
 

Gala Wan in China


          Last summer I spent a month in UVa’s  Beijing China Program led by Professor Huang Yunsheng of the School of Architecture.  Though I was born in Hong Kong,  this was the first time I had set foot on the Chinese Mainland.  Under Professor Huang’s expert guidance, we learned to become students rather than tourists.  It was truly an educational experience.
          Beijing’s authorities are struggling to preserve the city’s historical treasures despite rapid modernization.  I was impressed by the sheer size of  the historic structures.  You could tell by the architecture that in imperial times, anything associated with the Emperor had to be built on a grand scale.  Most grandiose was the Imperial Forbidden City where the Emperor once held court functions and lived with his family.  I found the place imposing but cold, befitting its status. I was particularly taken by the more intimate details such as the decorations on the edges of all the rooftops, unique to the architectural style of the Qing Dynasty. 
          I was thrilled to set foot in Tianenmen Square, defined by the Gate of Heavenly Peace,  places  I had read about all semester.  I had always pictured Tianenmen Square as a somber place.  To my surprise, when I was there at night, it had quite a festive atmosphere.  Due to the lack of wide open spaces in Beijing, many of the locals use the huge square to relax in the evenings.  I saw people flying kites, playing with remote control cars, or just sitting around talking with friends.
          Around the square, I visited Mao’s Mausoleum and the Great Hall of the People.  Having taken Professor Israel’s Modern China (HIEA 203) and read Dr. Li’s The Private Life of Chairman Mao, it was particularly interesting to see Mao’s body preserved under glass in the Mausoleum.
          The Temple of Heaven, or Tian Tan, is made up of the Altar to Heaven, the Temple of Agriculture, and a purification area.  During the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor would come to the temple once a year.  First, he would spend three days in the purification area abstaining from women, drink, meat, music, garlic, and onions before entering the actual temple compound.  While inside, he performed a series of rituals to worship heaven and seek guidance.  The Temple of Heaven’s architecture placed a significance on the four seasons and the twelve months of the year.  Manchu rule was acknowledged  by tablets inscribed in both Chinese and Manchu scripts.
          The Summer Palace, Yi He Yuan, is an architectural wonder in scale and wonder. For example, the ceiling of the Long Corridor is decorated with thousands of paintings, each one a unique work of art.  One entire section of the palace is made to imitate the canals in Soochow.  Supposedly, when the Emperor went on his yearly southern tour, he liked the architectural style of Soochow so much that he had it recreated in his Summer Palace.  This turned out to be my favorite place.  It is so huge that I could return multiple times and still have something new to see.  I was constantly impressed by both the natural and man-made beauty of the site,.
          Taking a break from  Qing Dynasty architecture,  I visited the Ming Tombs, of which only two have been excavated. Dingling, where Emperor Wanli is interred, is so deep beneath ground level that winter coats would have been helpful!  The amount of manual labor needed to build the tomb is simply awe-inspiring.  At the entrance to the tombs is the Way of the Spirits, which is lined with statues of officials and animals, both real and fictional. 
          Beijing now has numerous colleges, but the two most famous ones remain Qinghua  and Beijing universities, the latter also known as Beida.  Qinghua is known for its sciences and engineering while its rival, Beida, is strong in the liberal arts and humanities  But campuses aren’t as different as you would imagine, even halfway across the world.  I saw students biking to class and playing on computers.  In fact, most of the internet cafes in the city were located close to universities and used mainly by college students.
          The program took on additional dimensions with visits to the cities of Chengde to the north of Beijing and Guilin in China’s riverine south.  If you ever have the chance, I strongly encourage you to visit China.  You will never forget the experience.



 
 

U.VA. Library Japanese Text Initiative
Web Site Receives International Award


          The Japanese Text Initiative, based at the University of Virginia Library's Electronic Text Center, has been named the winner of the second annual Digital Archives Award by Digital Frontier Kyoto, representing a consortium of the city and prefecture of Kyoto, Japan, and businesses and universities in Japan. The prestigious award is presented annually to a digital project that exemplifies cutting-edge technology and rich content in preserving world culture.
          The Japanese Text Initiative (JTI) is an ongoing collaborative electronic text project between the U.Va. Library and the University of Pittsburgh Library, with participation by scholars in the U.S. and Japan. The JTI puts on the Web authoritative editions in both Japanese and English translations of the masterpieces of classical Japanese literature, from its beginnings in the 8th century through modern novels and poetry. Among the online texts are The Tale of Genji, classics of haiku poetry, Kabuki plays, and others. The JTI is at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese
          According to JTI co-director, Kendon Stubbs, usage of the JTI Web site is growing dramatically. "The Japanese texts are now accessed 80,000 times per month by 22,000 visitors from all over the world. One hundred and fifty readers from Japan come to the site each day." Recent visitors came from not only larger countries like Japan, Australia, and Germany, but also countries such as Peru, Bulgaria, Monaco, and Tonga, Stubbs said.
          Lewis Cook, professor of Japanese literature at Queens College of the City University of New York, and a contributor to the JTI, stated, "The JTI was a trail-blazer in putting Japanese texts on the Web. The capability of searching for any word in any of the JTI texts makes the JTI indispensable to scholars. I am delighted that this achievement has been recognized by the Kyoto award."
          Sachiko Iwabuchi, U.Va. Library coordinator of the Japanese Text Initiative, accepted the award in a ceremony on September 27 in Kyoto.
          The Japanese texts are part of 51,000 online texts at the U.Va. Electronic Text Center site at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu. The Etext Center, founded in 1992, was the first electronic center of its kind, and provides Internet access to humanities-related XML texts.



 
 

Six Years in Sichuan: A View of China from the Interior


          William Speidel  witnessed “an enormous amount of change” during his six years  as the first director of America’s Peace Corps program in China.  Dr. Speidel, a Charlottesville native who has taught Chinese history and language at UVa, observed this transformation between 1993 and 1999 from Chengdu, capital of Sichuan province deep in China’s hinterland.
          In an October 27 East Asian Center lecture, Speidel rebutted the notion that China is suffering under the leadership of “a corrupt power-hungry ruthless Communistic leadership of old men”.  He blamed biased media and opportunistic politicians  for portraying a declining China marked by bankrupt financial institutions, massive unemployment, labor unrest, environmental degradation, a “me-first” morality, suppression of individual freedom, an aggressive foreign policy, and “dissatisfaction with life if not outright despair”.
          In addition to the country’s acknowledged economic advances, Speidel cited “enormous projects” to improve the environment, dramatic upgrading of educational requirements for teachers, a guaranteed 30-year land tenure to farmers, “cracking down on corruption in earnest,” and the appointment of some “wonderful” Communist Party secretaries at provincial and local levels.  He found “improvements in many small ways” in people’s lives and traditional moral values still vital. “It ain’t paradise,” he observed, “but it’s China”. 
          Speidel blamed resentment at America’s stream of “unsolicited advice” on Tibet, Falungong, and other problems for smoldering Chinese resentment that exploded after the April 1999 U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.  A mob broke into the American consular compound and burned the consul-general’s house.  Peace Corps volunteers were distraught to find carefully cultivated friendships with their students evaporate overnight. 
          Speidel’s Peace Corps operation, however, continues to prosper, expanding from eighteen volunteers in five Sichuan institutions in 1993 to seventy-two volunteers in thirty-five institutions in Sichuan, Guizhou, and Gansu in today.  UVa, the number one source of Peace Corps workers in the mid-Atlantic region and number six in the country, currently has no representatives in China.



 
 

Mao Zedong: A "Short" Appraisal


          It is unclear whether it was the provocative title of the lecture, the stature of the lecturer or the subject matter itself that attracted droves to the Commonwealth Room on Newcomb Hall on October 18th but droves there were.  The normally spacious Commonwealth Room was crowded to capacity, with many students and late comers relegated to the floor.  All had come to hear Philip Short, author of the recently published biography, Mao: A Life, share his thoughts on the life and accomplishments of Mao Zedong.
          Short asserted that Mao was a product of  the era in which he grew up and lived . Citing China’s ubiquitous violence, Short sought to place the deaths of millions of Chinese during the Chairman's reign (more deaths than during any other single leader's stay in power) in historical context without totally absolving him all blame.  Mao, he observed, did not, like Stalin,  sign off on lists of those slated for politically motivated executions.  If Stalin was guilty of mass murder, Mao's role in the deaths of millions of rightists, counter-revolutionaries, and class enemies might be considered  “manslaughter”. Short characterized Mao as a "poet with a subtle and complex mind," but also as "not a nice guy, ruthless."
          Against the backdrop of China’s unique historical experience, Short suggested, China’s China's accomplishments under Mao -- its development as a modern nation-state, its ascension  to the United Nations Security Council as a permanent member with veto power, and its development of inter-continental ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads
--  are all the more remarkable.
          Mao, concluded Short, was a man without peers, perhaps of greater historical importance (or infamy) than figures such as Churchill and Napoleon.  As to whether or not Mao's China was a necessary evil, Short  finds the question worth asking, if only for the debate and inquiry it might inspire.



 
 

East Asian Studies Spring 2001 Courses


Asian & Middle Eastern Languages & Cultures

AMEL 100 From Genghis Khan to Stalin: Invasion and Empires of Central Asia
Lyons                                                                                                                                                                                                   MW 1400-1515
Survey of Central Asian civilizations from the first to the twenty-first centuries, with particular emphasis on nomadism, invasions, conquests, empires and major religious-cultural developments.  Topics include ancient Eurasia, Shamanism, the Silk Road, the rise of Islam and Sufi Movements, the Mongol world empire, the Golden Horde’s rule over Russia, Timur (Tamerlane), Babur and the Mughal empire, Russian colonialism, Islamic reformist movements (Jadidism) and the establishment of Soviet and Post-Soviet states in Central Asia.

Anthropology

ANTH 329/719 Marriage, Morality, and Fertility
Shepherd                                                                                                                                                                                              MW 1400-1515
This course explores the ways that culturally formed systems of values and family organization affect population processes in a variety of cultures. Topics to be discussed will include (1) disease history, the impact of epidemics and famine, the differential impact of morality be gender, age, and class. The impact of improved nutrition and modern medicine; (2) marriage strategies and alternative, the problem of unbalanced sex ratios at marriageable age, systems of polygamy and polyandry, divorce, widowhood and remarriage; (3) fertility decision making, premodern methods of birth control and spacing, infanticide; and (4) migration, regional systems, and variation through time and space in the structure of populations.  ANTH 101 or equivalent recommended as background. This is an advanced course, adding to general offerings  in social organization, kinship, marriage, and gender. This course is cross-listed with women's studies. Upper level majors and non-majors. This course satisfies the second writing requirement and non-western perspectives requirement.
 

ANTH 522 Economic Anthropology
Damon                                                                                                                                                                                                    TR 0930-1045
This course introduces students to anthropologically useful ideas in Marxism and world system theory, provides an introduction to the last 30 years of writing in ‘exchange theory,’ and briefly, highlights some main avenues of research in newer versions of ecological anthropology and the anthropology of resource extraction in the West, especially with respect to the Indo-Pacific Region.  The course syllabus will be devoted to these divisions, though not in equal time slots. Students will write 5-10 page papers on each of the three parts, increasingly bending their papers to their longer-term research interests.  Individualized oral reports on readings designed to cover areas time does not allow the whole class to read are also expected, and all of these will enable individual students to work on something  appropriate to their own areas.  Additionally, there will be one two week section devoted to a collective examination of McDonalds in the international context: We shall debate the place of the organization of production versus consumption relations for the kind of structured activity which McDonalds represents. Students with interests in South and East Asia are strongly urged to consider this course. 
 

ANTH 529 EVAT 493/793 Climate and the History of Human Culture
Mann, Hayden,  & Damon (Team Taught)                                                                                                                                            W 1400-1700
This course addresses the interaction between human history and the  climatic environmental factors that have in part shaped it. Topics will include the Pleistocene/Holocene transition and development of agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent, putative abrupt climate events in the mid-Holocene, the onset of El Nino in the Holocene and its influence across the Indo-Pacific region and South America, and the relation between climate and worldwide cultural changes during the past 1500 years. Other topics include the relationship between cross-continent or transoceanic winds and cultural development, and the problem of cultural order and climate/weather understanding.
Contact Michael E. Mann, Bruce Hayden (both in Department of Environmental Sciences) or Fred Damon (Department of Anthropology: fhd@virginia.edu) for further information.  Damon in particular is looking for a student or two who might be knowledgeable in the calendrical, temple systems, or histories of agrarian systems in either or both South and East Asia and who would want to push their understanding of those systems up against what the course can learn about the relevant climatic conditions and histories for these areas.
 

Architecture

ARH 382/582 Architecture of East Asia 
Huang                                                                                                                                                                                                     TR 0900-1015
A survey and introduction of traditional architecture and allied arts in China, Japan and Korea.  Study of the main features, major monuments of East Asian architecture, and landscape architecture. 
 

ARH 585     Modern Japanese Architecture 
Huang                                                                                                                                                                                                       R 1230-1515
The history of architecture in modern Japan from Meiji period to contemporary.  Focus on the post-WWII development. The major influential architects like Tange, Kikutake, Maki, Isozaki, Kurokawa and Ando are to be discussed. 
 

Art History

ARTH 364 Early Chinese Art  (Neolithic to Tang) 
Wong                                                                                                                                                                                                    MW 1400-1515
A survey of early Chinese art from pre-historic times through the Tang dynasty (618 - 907). The course intends to familiarize students with the important artistic traditions developed in China: ceramics, bronzes, funerary art and ritual, Buddhist art, and painting. It seeks to understand the developments of artistic forms in relation to technology, political and religious beliefs, and social and historical contexts, with focus on the roles played by the state or individuals as patrons of the arts. It addresses the major philosophic and religious traditions  Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism  that have shaped Chinese cultural and aesthetic ideals. The course also introduces Chinese art theories and the writings of leading scholars.
 

USEM 171  Art, Death, and Ritual: Mysteries of Ancient China 
Wong                                                                                                                                                                                                        R 1230-1430
Great archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century have unraveled many riddles of China's ancient past. Astonishing finds include bronzes, jades, lacquer objects, and silk paintings of superb craftsmanship. Most of these objects were found in tombs and were intended as ritual objects. Through a study of several well-documented tombs and their grave goods, this seminar examines the form and content of ritual art of ancient China -- from the Neolithic period (5000 - 1000 BCE) to the Han dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE). It also explores the Chinese notions of afterlife, ancestor worship, state ritual, and immortality cults. Important tombs that will be examined include: the Fu Hao Tomb at Anyang, the Sanxingdui sacrificial site, Tomb of the Marquis Yi of Zeng, Tomb of the First Emperor of Qin (where the famous terra cotta army is found), and the Mawangdui tombs. No prerequisite knowledge of China is required. Through this seminar students will gain a knowledge of the material culture of ancient China, and a comprehensive understanding of the period when ancient Chinese civilization was formed.
 

Chinese

CHIN 102 Elementary Chinese
Tseng                                                                                                                                                       MTWRF 1100-1150/1300-1350/1400-1450
Students are introduced to the basic grammar and a set of vocabulary generally recognized as useful in everyday communication. Using integrated pedagogical and authentic materials, the course adopts a multi-faceted approach to help students gain training in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in standard Mandarin Chinese. The goal is the ability to communicate in everyday situations. Text: Integrated Chinese.
 

CHIN 202 Intermediate Chinese 
Shen                                                                                                                                     MWF 0900-0950&TR 1100-1150/MTWRF 1000-1050
This class is designed for students who have successfully completed Chinese 201 or equivalent. A good command of the Chinese phonetic pronunciation system and knowledge of about 600-800 hundred Chinese characters are the prerequisites for this class. The class will continue to focus on training students on four language skills--speaking, listening, reading, and writing.
 

CHIN 206 Accelerated Intermediate Chinese
Shen                                                                                                                                                                                              MTWRF 1300-1350
This class is designed for students who have successfully passed Chin 106 or equivalent. This class will cover study  materials normally covered in one year. The class will continue to focus on training students on speaking, reading, and writing skills
 

CHIN 302/502 Readings in Modern Chinese
Guo                                                                                                                                                                                                         TR 0930-1045
Prerequisite: CHIN 202, or equivalent, or permission of instructor.  Modern Chinese at the advanced level: reading and discussion in Chinese of various aspects of Chinese culture, society, and literature, using radio broadcasts and selections from newspapers, recent essays, short stories, etc.
 

CHIN 582  Topics:Media Chinese
Guo                                                                                                                                                                                                         TR 1530-1645
Prerequisite: CHIN 302/502, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Introduces the electronic and print media in Chinese with special emphasis on current events as reported in the Chinese speaking world, to further develop oral and written proficiency.
 

CHIN 584 Topics in Chinese Literature: Introduction to Classical Chinese Poetry
Kinney                                                                                                                                                                                                    TR 0930-1045
This course serves as an introduction to the grammar, structure and cultural background of Chinese poetry from the eighth to the tenth century A.D. CHIN 584 will concentrate on the poetry of the Tang dynasty, the golden age of China's lyric tradition. Normally students must first complete CHIN 583, but this requirement may be waived with the permission of the instructor. This course is especially intended for undergraduate students of East Asian languages and cultures, majors in Asian Studies, graduate students in history, religious studies or anthropology, or students whose competence in Chinese enables them to enroll in this course. One year of Chinese, Japanese or Korean is required. Fulfills Non-Western Perspectives Requirement. 
 

CHTR 301 Legendary Women of Early China 
Kinney                                                                                                                                                                                                    TR 1230-1345
"Legendary Women of Early China" will examine the biographies of female heroines and villains as found in the early Chinese text Traditions of Exemplary Women (ca. 18 B.C.). This text occupies a unique position in China's cultural tradition not only as the first book designed specifically for the moral education of women but also because it continued to mould female behavior in China well into the twentieth century. The book's content is far from predictable, ranging from maternal paragons who commit infanticide to women of political genius who advise kings and generals. The text contains seven chapters, each organized around a category of exemplary female behavior. Each category is illustrated in a series of short biographies of women and girls who embody these traits. Class sessions will be devoted to discussion of the biographies and what these life histories say about the role of women in traditional China. The course website contains Chinese woodblock illustrations of the stories, which will also be used for class discussion. One class session will be devoted to the true history of Mulan, the Chinese heroine made famous in this country by Disney. The goal of this course is to familiarize students with 1) the history of women in early China, 2) the evolving codes of behavior that shaped Chinese women's culture for two millennia, and 3) the ways in which the Chinese understood gender. The course will also work toward an enhanced understanding of the function of role models in both ancient China and their own lives. Course Website: http://etext.virginia.edu/chinese/lienu/browse/Lienu.html 
 

CHTR 322/AMEL 802 Chinese Literature in Translation:
Gender, Family, & Sexuality in Chinese Fiction 
Kinney                                                                                                                                                                                                   TR 1100-1215 
This course will examine gender, sexuality and the family as represented in masterpieces of Chinese fiction from the Tang Dynasty through the twentieth century. We will read two novels (Dream of the Red Chamber, vol. 1 and Ba Jin's Family), but will concentrate on short fiction. The readings and discussion for each class will revolve around one assigned theme (stated in syllabus). We will also devote a number class sessions to viewing videos related to our readings, including a brief introduction to Chinese theatre. The purpose of this course is threefold: first, to encourage a critical exploration of the art and meaning of Chinese fiction; second, to introduce traditional and modern Chinese concepts of gender, family and sexuality; and third, to provide a multicultural perspective on social issues of universal importance. Fulfills Second Writing Requirement and Non-Western Perspectives Requirement. 
 

Education

EDLF 589 Childhood and Culture 
Hoffman                                                                                                                                                                                                   R 1100-1345 
This course examines concepts and discourses about childhood around the world, with special focus given to Japan, Korea, and China. The focus is on contemporary writings about children and parenting and their implications for early family socialization and education.

EDLF 765 Comparative Education 
Hoffman                                                                                                                                                                                                        T morning
This course considers differences and similiarities in educational systems around the world with special focus given to East Asia-U.S. comparisons.
 

EDLF 770 Culture, Identity, and Education
Hoffman                                                                                                                                                                                                   W 1000-1245
Ideas about identity and the self are explored through readings about education and learning in cross-cultural and multicultural contexts.  Special attention is given to changing discourses about the self in Japan and their implications for a wide range of social phenomena.
 

Government & Foreign Affairs

GFIR 424(A) Japan in World Affairs
Kokten                                                                                                                                                                                                     M 1530-1800
The sudden end of the Cold War, which has provided for an amazing degree of stability in the security relations of nations in the postwar period, has called into question many assumptions about the necessity of existing alliance relationships. At the same time, the decline of American hegemony in the maintenance of the postwar system of liberal international economic relations has raised concerns about which nation (or nations) will become the leader of the economic realm in the future.  In this era of change Japan is playing and will continue to play a crucial role.  This seminar by way of looking at a broad array of international issues such as trade disputes, international peace keeping efforts, which put Japan's ability to lead at test, will provide a basis for improving our understanding of Japan's place in world affairs. There are no prerequisites for this class, but students who had not taken a International Relations course before are required to meet with the instructor and obtain her permission.
 

GFIR 424(B) Southeast Asia in World Affairs
Johnson                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TBA
This course serves as an introduction to the role of Southeast Asia in global affairs.  The course will introduce students to the making of foreign policy in the Southeast Asian states as well as the role of Southeast Asia in the foreign policies of the great powers.  The course will take a three-step approach.  First, students will learn about the development of the region's international relations from pre-colonial and colonial times as well as through the national liberation era.  Second, students will study the foreign policies of selected Southeast Asian states in greater depth.  Finally, the course will consider important international relations issues like the future of the regional organization ASEAN and the international relations impacts of the East Asian economic crisis.  There is no prerequisite for the course.
 

GFIR 872 Chinese Topics in World Affairs
Sutter                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TBA
Analyzes the course of China-US relations in the context of broader Asian and global trends.  Special stress will be placed on recent trends and issues.  Background materials will be provided on China's role on world affairs.
 

GFCP 424 Chinese Politics
Johnson                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TBA
This course serves as an introduction to Chinese domestic politics. We will focus on explaining domestic political outcomes by examining history, culture, ideology, and the evolution of the institutions of governance.  In the first part of the course, the course will adopt an historical approach.  Later, the course will move into consideration of contemporary issues in domestic politics, including economic reform, decentralization, prospects for democratization, the integration of Hong Kong into China, and the role of women.  There is no prerequisite for the course, but because the course is at the 400-level, students should be prepared for a demanding reading load.
 

History

HIEA 206 Korean Culture and Institutions 
Dimberg                                                                                                                                                                                             MWF 1100-1150
Students enrolled in HIEA 206 will study the history of Korea from the late 14th century through the end of the 20th century: the rise of the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910), changes wrought by the full-scale Confucianization of Korean society, the unfolding and ultimate collapse of the unique relationship between the Yi court and Ming/Qing China, challenges to the territorial integrity of Korea in the late 19th century, the rise of Korean nationalism, Japanese colonization (1910-1945), post-World War II social, political and economic developments, and the role of Christianity throughout the 20th century.
Reading material for the course will include KOREA OLD AND NEW; SOURCES OF KOREAN TRADITION; STATE AND SOCIETY IN CONTEMPORARY KOREA; LOST NAMES: SCENES FROM A KOREAN BOYHOOD; excerpts from such books as  LAW AND STATE IN TRADITIONAL EAST ASIA and THE FOUR LITTLE DRAGONS: THE SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALIZATION IN EAST ASIA; and articles from scholarly journals.  In addition to assigned reading students will be required to read and then write a critical review of a book selected from a list provided by the course instructor. The course grade will be based on the review essay (25%), a midterm examination (25%), and the final examination (50%).
 

HIEA 312 Imperial China: 1000 to 1900
Reed                                                                                                                                                                                                                       TBA
HIEA 312 covers the late imperial period of Chinese history, from the founding of the Song dynasty in the tenth century to the final decades of the imperial system in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although the course covers the basic elements of social, political, and cultural history, emphasis is placed on analyzing events and trends in an attempt to come to grips with two rather thorny questions: 1) How can we account for the remarkable stability and longevity of the late imperial system of government as well as its basic patterns of social-economic relationships? 2) To what extent were the factors that contributed to this historical success story also responsible for the fragmentation and failure of the imperial system when it faced fundamentally new challenges, from both within and without, in the nineteenth century? These and other questions will be considered through an investigation of several inter-related issues: The ideological and philosophical foundations of state and society; the linkage and tension between elite and popular  culture and life-styles; the cultural assimilation of non-Chinese peoples; the formation of popular traditions of religious faith, protest and rebellion; and problems of systemic decline.  Although HIEA 312 is the second of a two-semester sequence on Imperial China, neither HIEA 311 nor any previous study of Chinese history is required. The course is based on lectures along with occasional discussions. Readings, drawn from a basic text and translated primary materials, average between 100-150 pages per week. Evaluation is based on an essay (30%), a mid-term exam (35%), and a final exam (35%).
 

HIEA 314 Modern Chinese Political & Social Thought 
Israel                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TBA
To a considerable degree, China's destiny depends upon the ability of men and women of ideas to make their contribution in the intellectual and political arenas. After the overthrow of the monarchial order in 1911 and the Republic's degeneration into warlordism, China's educated minority began a thorough-going critique of their country's culture and a quest for personal emancipation that continues to the present day. This course will focus upon the Chinese state and society of the past century as seen through the eyes of scholars, philosophers, social critics, writers, and artists. Simultaneously it will examine the attitudes and policies of China's rulers toward the intellectual elite.

One way to understand modern Chinese political and social thought is through writings by sinologists such as Jonathan Spence and Orville Schell. Also assigned is Yue Daiyun's autobiographical account of a Chinese scholar who lived through the troubled decades of mid-twentieth-century China. Other readings will include essays, fiction, and polemics by Chinese political and intellectual leaders as well as western scholarly critiques.

This course will feature a series of films addressed to political and social issues of the twentieth century. These post-1949 productions also yield insights into Communist policies toward the arts. Students unable to attend large-screen Tuesday afternoon showings may use videotapes on reserve, but the films must be viewed before discussion sections. The course grade will be based upon a mid-term examination (20%), a comparative review of Yue/Wakeman and one other volume selected from a list of approved readings (30%), a final examination (40%), and performance in discussion sections (10%).
 

HIEA 316 China Encounters the World
Chen                                                                                                                                                                                                       TR 0930-1045
This is a lecture and discussion course focusing on how China has encountered the world in the past fourhundred years, with an emphasis on the late 19th and 20th-centuries.  In particular, we will analyze the age-old Chinese "Central Kingdom" conception and how the conception was challenged during modern times as the result of Western and Japanese incursion and China's inability to deal with the consequences of the incursion.  We will further analyze the impact of the Chinese "victim mentality" in order to pursue an understanding of why radical revolutions have dominated China's modern history.  While the emphasis of this course is China's external relations, foreign policy issues will be examined in the context of China's political, economic and social developments in broader terms.  The course will provide a chronological depiction of main historical events and historical figures, but its purpose is not just to impart information; it also aims to cultivate a basic understanding of the significance of the Chinese experience in the age of worldwide modernization.  Grade in this class will be calculated on the basis of class participation, one midterm exam, one final exam, and one essay assignment.
 

HIEA 402 Intellectuals, Students, and Change in Modern China
Reed                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TBA
In the Spring of 1989, students from China's most prestigious universities in Beijing staged a series of demonstrations in the public square known as Tiananmen demanding steps toward democratic reform from the country's communist leadership. But although the students briefly captured the attention people around the world, their movement came to a tragic conclusion on June 4th in the form of a military crackdown that killed hundreds of people and imprisoned many of the movement's leaders. In this seminar, we will attempt to understand the meaning and significance of these heroic and tragic events by placing them in their historical context. In doing so we will concern ourselves with two sets of related issues. The first revolves around the role played by intellectuals and students in the turbulent and often violent process of political and social transformation in China during the twentieth century. Why, for example, have these groups so often been at the forefront of both reform and revolution in China? Why have Chinese governments throughout the twentieth century reacted so strongly to what intellectuals and students have had to say? The second set of issues turns on the specific forms which political protest has taken in this century. What were the students of 1989 asking for? What symbols and traditions of protest did they draw upon to legitimize their claims in the public eye? What does democracy mean in the Chinese context and why have efforts at democratic reform so often been linked to questions of cultural identity and transformation? And, finally, what forms has political protest taken in the years since the tragedy of 1989?  HIEA 402 is designed for students who want a more detailed look at aspects of Chinese history than is available in survey courses. Weekly meetings will be devoted to the analysis and interpretation of assigned readings (both secondary and translated primary documents) averaging from 150 to 200 pages per week. Grades for the course will be based on the quality of participation in discussions (50%) and a 20 to 25 page paper on a topic or your choice (50%). Although there are no prerequisites for the course, it is strongly recommended that students have at least some knowledge of late imperial and/or twentieth-century Chinese history. Those without such should contact the instructor for an appropriate survey text before the end of Fall semester. HIEA 402 satisfies the second writing requirement.
 

HIEA 702 Late Imperial China
Reed                                                                                                                                                                                                                       TBA
HIEA 702 is designed to provide graduate students with a basic understanding of the historiographic issues pertaining to late imperial Chinese history, from the founding of the Song dynasty in the tenth century to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. Along with attending all lectures and completing the reading assignments for HIEA 312, graduate students are also required to write five short reviews of additional assigned texts.

HIEA 706 Modern Chinese History 
Israel                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TBA
This seminar focuses on the preparation, presentation, polishing, and perfection of a paper on modern China. Though designated a graduate history seminar, it has generally attracted a diverse group of graduate students from the social sciences as well as  fourth-year Asian studies majors working on theses. The seminar will include library orientation, a writing workshop, and, possibly, discussion of selected primary and secondary sources. Participants will critique each others' papers at various stages of preparation.

HIST 753  The New Cold War History
Chen                                                                                                                                                                                                          T 1530-1800
This is a seminar with an emphasis on the "new" Cold War history--a scholarly phenomenon emerging in the 1990s, along with the end of the global Cold War and the new opportunities to conduct multi-archival and multi-source research.  Students in this class will be exposed to the various new interpretations, new methods of research, and new ways of thinking associated with the new Cold War history studies.  Readings in this class will be focused on the scholarship that has appeared since the early 1990s.  Students are required to write several feature reviews and a comprehensive review essay, as well as to present them, in the course.  Grade in the course will be calculated on the basis of evaluation of both the written work and oral presentations, as well as of class participation.
 

Japanese

JAPN 102 Elementary Japanese
Koyama                                                                                                              TR 1400-1530 MWF 1100-1150/1200-1250/1400-1450/1500-1550
Prerequisite: JAPN 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (Continuation of JAPN 101.) This course introduces the basic speech patterns and grammatical units, including casual, daily spoken style as well as polite speech used in formal occasions. The emphasis is on speaking , hearing, and reading. Writing hiragana, katakana, and 100 kanji are also introduced. 
 

JAPN 202 Intermediate Japanese
Marshall                                                                                                                                                                    MWF 9, 10, 11 TR 11:00-12:15
Prerequisite: JAPN 201 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Continuation of Elementary Japanese introduces more complex sentence patterns, idioms and vocabulary to prepare students for intermediate-level communication. The course reinforces spoken Japanese skills with writing and reading exercises, 125 kanji are introduced.
 

JAPN 302/502 Advanced Reading and Conversation I
Marshall                                                                                                                                                                                            MWF 1300-1400
Prerequisite: JAPN 301/501 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. This course emphasizes comprehension and active reproduction of modern Japanese beyond the basic patterns of speech and writing. Various topics on current Japanese culture and society will be introduced.
 

JAPN 584 Advanced Reading and Conversation II" (fourth-year Japanese)
Kimbrough                                                                                                                                                                                           MW 1400-1515
This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of authentic Japanese written materials from a variety of contemporary sources.  Although the emphasis will be on written  Japanese, activities involving listening, speaking, and writing will all be integrated into the course.  Prerequisite:  JAPN 502, or permission of the Japanese language coordinator.
 

JAPN 594 Language Seminar II
Wilson                                                                                                                                                                                                    TR 1230-1345
This seminar exposes students to the most advanced training in modern Japanese language; we read, interpret, and discuss in Japanese modern literary texts, including poetry and critical essays.  Fulfills Non-Western Perspective. Prerequisite:  JAPN 583, 584 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
 

JPTR 306 Courtesans and Bathhouses: The Floating World in the Literature of Early-modern Japan
Kimbrough                                                                                                                                                                                             TR 1400-1515
This course examines some of the conceptions and evocations of the Floating World--the ever-changing realm of love, longing, grief and death in which we all live--in the literature and art of Edo-period Japan, approximately the 17th through 19th centuries.  In particular, we will explore issues of love, duty and honor, women's indentured servitude in the so-called 'pleasure quarters,' and the nature of sexuality and the homoerotic in works of early-modern Japanese fiction.  Authors to be read include Fujimoto Kizan, Ihara Saikaku, Ejima Kiseki, Ueda Akinari, Jippensha Ikku, Shikitei Sanba and other representatives of the 'new' Edo urban literature, as well as the poets and playwrights Matsuo Bashô, Chikamatsu Monzaemon and Takeda Izumo.  Knowledge of Japanese is neither expected nor required.
 

JPTR 322/522:  Women, Nature & Society in Modern Japanese Fiction
Wilson                                                                                                                                                                                                      W 1500-1730
Introduction to the modern Japanese canon (1890s to the present).  This course interprets and re-reads the canon from feminist and gender perspectives as it explores the cultural and political factors that combine to make certain literary texts part of the literary canon of Japan. Writers studied include Natsume Sôseki, the first modern writer to delve into the human psyche; Mori Ôgai, the surgeon-turned writer; Ryûnosuke Akutagawa, the consummate writer of short fiction whose two stories, "Rashomon" and "In the Grove" are the bases for the internationally well-known Akira Kurosawa's Cannes Grand Prix winner, "Rashomon."   Also, Shiga Naoya, the "god" of "I-Novel" Japanese autobiographical fiction; Yukio Mishima, whose seppuku suicide caused a world-wide sensation; Endo Shûsaku, the Christian writer; two Nobel laureates, Yasunari Kawabata, the pure aesthetician and Kenzaburo Ôe, the political gadfly.
 

JPTR 350  Bashô and Beyond:  Japanese Poetry from Earliest Times to the Present
Kimbrough                                                                                                                                                                                             TR 1100-1215
This course explores Japanese poetry and poetics from the pre-historical 'Age of the Gods' through the late twentieth century. Works to be read and discussed include selections from Kojiki, Man'yôshû, Kokinshû, Ise monogatari, Wakan rôeishû and Shinkokinshû, the poetic memoirs / biographies of Izumi Shikibu and the monk Saigyô, the comic and linked-verse traditions of medieval Japan, the haiku and poetic travel journals of Matsuo Bashô and Yosa Buson, the early-twentieth-century poets Ishikawa Takuboku and Masaoka Shiki, and the contemporary poet Fujii Sadakazu.  We will consider issues of translation and adaptation (both from Chinese to Japanese and Japanese to English), poetry theory, and associations of text and image in Japanese art.  Knowledge of Japanese is neither expected nor required.
 

Religious Studies

RELB 102 Literary and Spoken Tibetan II (Second Year Tibetan)
McCauley                                                                                                                                                                                   MTWRF 0900-0950 
This course offers an introduction to literary and spoken Tibetan and is designed with special attention to undergraduates. Students will study classical and modern grammar systematically with examples drawn from a wide variety of literature, and with a native speaker use new digital instructional materials to develop proficiency in spoken Tibetan. This sequence of courses can count towards fulfilling the University requirement of two years of foreign language study. Prerequisites: Tibetan I. Requirements: Class attendance and participation, three exams, four translation assignments.
 

RELG 104 Intro to Eastern Religions
Lye                                                                                                                                                                                                       MW 1300-1350
This course provides an historical and thematic overview to the major religious traditions of "the East"  (i.e. Asia), focusing particularly upon those of India, Sri Lanka, Tibet, and China. Through careful examination of a variety of primary and secondary sources, we will consider the many ways in which South Asian Hindus, Indo-Tibetan Buddhists, and Chinese Taoists have attempted to understand the nature of the world, human society, and the individual person's place therein. In examining religious traditions that for many may seem wholly foreign or "other," our emphasis will be on the internal logic of each, on the resources that each provides for the construction of meaning, value, and moral vision. Requirements: weekly readings, participation in discussion section, two one-hour examinations and one three-hour final examination. Fulfills: Non-Western Perspectives Requirement 
 

RELB 324 Mysticisms in East Asia
Chen                                                                                                                                                                                                     MW 1100-1150
This course surveys some main trends of the East Asian mystical tradition, as were manifested in some major East Asian religions including Daoism, Buddhism, Shinto and Confucianism (a long-forgotten East Asian mystical trend). We focus on the main features and interactions between these traditions in medieval East Asia. In particular, we will discuss how these interactions contributed to the configuration of some specific East Asian religious schools, like the formation of Chan Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism as a response to the interactions between Daoism and Buddhism, Confucianism and Buddhism respectively. After a detailed examination of the mystical features in East Asian cultures: arts (painting and sculpture), literature (poems, 
novels and literary critical theories) and politics (statecraft and some political institutions), this course will end with a brief comparison of the East Asian mystical tradition with its counterparts in Indian (an important source for the East Asian tradition), Islamic, Judaic and Christian cultures.
 

RELB 501 Literary and Spoken Tibetan II (Second Year Tibetan)
McCauley                                                                                                                                                                                    MTWRF 0900-0950
This course offers an introduction to literary and spoken Tibetan and is designed with special attention to undergraduates. Students will study classical and modern grammar systematically with examples drawn from a wide variety of literature, and with a native speaker use new digital instructional materials to develop proficiency in spoken Tibetan. This sequence of courses can count towards fulfilling the University requirement of two years of foreign language study. Prerequisites: Tibetan I. Requirements: Class attendance and participation, three exams, four translation assignments.
 

RELB 534 Colloquial Tibetan 4
Germano, S                                                                                                                                                                                          MW 1000-1050
A continuation of Colloquial Tibetan III, this course uses multimedia programs in Colloquial Tibetan to develop verbal fluency, acquire vocabulary, and master advanced topics in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisites: Tibetan III. Requirements: "Requirements: class attendance, participation, preparation of programs outside of class, multiple exams and quizzes.
 

RELB 536 Literary Tibetan 4
Tsering                                                                                                                                                                                                   TR 1530-1645
A continuation of Literary Tibetan III, this course is designed to expose students to a variety of styles/genres in Tibetan literature and advanced Tibetan grammar. Prerequisites: Literary Tibetan III. Requirements: Class attendance and participation, three exams, four translation assignments.
 

RELB 543 Colloquial Tibetan 6
Germano, S                                                                                                                                                                                          MW 1100-1150
A continuation of Colloquial Tibetan V, this course uses multimedia programs in Colloquial Tibetan to develop verbal fluency, acquire vocabulary, and master advanced topics in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisites: Tibetan V. Requirements: "Requirements: class attendance, participation, preparation of programs outside of class, multiple exams and quizzes.
 

RELB 548 Literary Tibetan 6
Germano, D                                                                                                                                                                                             M 1530-1800
A continuation of Literary Tibetan V, this course is designed to expose students to a variety of styles/genres in Tibetan literature and advanced Tibetan grammar. Prerequisites: Literary Tibetan V. Requirements: Class attendance and participation, three exams, four translation assignments
 

RELB 702 Readings in Chinese Buddhist Texts
Chen                                                                                                                                                                                                                       TBA
This course has two complimentary parts: in-class coursework, and individually supervised research. For the coursework, we will read selections from Chinese Buddhist texts belonging to different periods and schools, emphasizing some common doctrinal and methodological problems in reading Chinese Buddhist texts. We will introduce and develop the skills needed for these problems. For the individual supervision, the instructor will work with each student separately on the specific text that s/he is currently studying as a basic source for his or her Ph. D. Dissertation or MA thesis. In addition to intensive reading of the original texts, participants of this course will be introduced to some basic methods indispensable for Sinological research in general and for the study of Chinese Buddhism in particular. By the end of this course students are expected to be able punctuate Chinese Buddhist texts correctly, translate them appropriately and interpret them both literally ("read the lines") and creatively ("read between the lines").
 

RELB 821 Literary Tibetan 8
Germano, D                                                                                                                                                                                             M 1530-1800
A continuation of Literary Tibetan VII, this course is designed for training in the literary forms of the Tibetan language. Emphasis is on exposure to a wide variety of styles/genres in Tibetan literature and in-depth knowledge of Tibetan grammar. Prerequisites: Literary Tibetan VII. Requirements: Class attendance and participation, midterm, final and three translation assignments.

RELB 823 Advanced Tibetan
Hopkins                                                                                                                                                                                                                 TBA

RELB 826 Advanced Topics in Tibetan Literature
Germano, D                                                                                                                                                                                                           TBA
Directed readings in Tibetan literature for advanced students in Tibetan language.

RELB 828 Colloquial Tibetan 8
Germano, S                                                                                                                                                                                          MW 1100-1150
A continuation of Colloquial Tibetan VII, this course uses multimedia programs in Colloquial Tibetan to develop verbal fluency, acquire vocabulary, and master advanced topics in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisites: Tibetan VII. Requirements: Requirements: class attendance, participation, preparation of programs outside of class, multiple exams and quizzes
 

Studies in Women and Gender

SWAG 355/SOC 355 Women's Social Movements in Modern East Asia 
Fuller                                                                                                                                                                                                       M 1400-1630 
This course is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of collective action by women in China, Japan, and Korea from the latter part of the 19th century to the present.  Utilizing materials from anthropology, history, sociology and women's studies, we will explore women's activities in three arenas: 1) labor unrest and factory strikes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; 2) periodic government-sponsored campaigns to direct the focus of women's public (and private) activities; and 3) feminist politicking in the last three decades.  In analyzing the issues that have brought women together in both large and small social movements for change, we will draw upon classic social theory (Marx, Weber, Durkheim) and consider the ways in which these theories both help and hinder our understanding of the realities of women's lives.