Issued: March 16, 1987
Owner: University Comptroller
COPYING OF COPYRIGHTED MATERIALS: REPRODUCING
**ACTIVE BUT UNDER REVISION**
All copyright policies (XV.F.1-9) are considered by the University to be out-of-date and under revision. New policies on Copyright Compliance will be issued by the University Library in early 2009. For general guidance in the interim, consult the following resources: US Copyright Office: http://www.copyright.gov/ and http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf The Association of Research Libraries: http://www.knowyourcopyrights.org/
This policy describes the general guidelines for reproducing copyrighted material.
2.0 Policy [Top]
Under certain conditions, a person may make "fair use" of a copyrighted work without violating the exclusive rights of the copyright owner. Section 107 of the Copyright Law lists the factors determining if the use is "fair use." Prior to the passage of the Copyright Act of 1976, Congressional Committees established guidelines to illustrate the boundaries of the "fair use" exemption. These guidelines are not law, but illustrate situations which would be considered "fair use." These guidelines represent MINIMAL standards of "fair use" and should not be interpreted as strict legal limits in all situations. The extent of the permissible copying for educational purposes may change in the future. Judicial decisions may alter the types of copying now permitted under the standards of fair use.
All University Printing Services Copy Centers now offer a copyright approval service to obtain permission for material to be copied for educational purposes. Contact a copy center or the Printing Office for more information.
For this policy, REPRODUCTION is defined as:
- Duplicating copies of visually-perceptible material, e.g., photocopying, microfilming, videotaping, etc., or
- Recapturing sounds by making phonorecords, e.g., sound recordings, taping off the air, etc.
2.1 Permissible Copying
Single copying for research, teaching, or classroom preparation of a chapter, article, short story, poem or essay, and of a chart, diagram, picture, etc. is allowed (whether or not from a collective work).
Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per student in a course) may be made by or for the instructor giving the course for classroom use or discussion, provided such copying meets the tests of BREVITY, SPONTANEITY, and CUMULATIVE EFFECT as defined below. EACH COPY MUST ALSO INCLUDE A NOTICE OF COPYRIGHT.
- Brevity Poetry: Complete poems of less than 250 words, AND not more than two pages; or An excerpt from a poem of not more than 250 words.
- Prose: Complete article, essay or story if less than 2,500 words, or An excerpt if less than 1,000 words or 10% of the work (minimum of 500 words), whichever is less.
- Illustrations: One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture per book or per periodical issue.
- Special Works: Certain works in poetry, prose, or in "poetic prose" which often combine language with illustrations and which are intended sometimes for children and at other times for a more general audience fall short of 2,500 words in their entirety. Such "special works" may not be reproduced in their entirety. However, an excerpt comprising not more than two of the published pages of such special works and containing not more than 10% of the words found in the text thereof may be reproduced.
Copying is "spontaneous" if it is the inspiration of the individual instructor and the decision to use the work is so close to the actual use that there would not be time for the copyright owner to reply to a request for permission.
2.3 Cumulative Effect
Copying should be limited to:
- Only one course for one semester,
- One work or two excerpts from the same author,
- No more than three excerpts from the same periodical volume/collection during the same semester,
- No more than nine instances of multiple copying for one course during a semester.
The limits do not apply to current news periodicals, newspapers, and current news sections of other periodicals.
Copying of Copyrighted Material:
- Should not have a significant effect on the market of the work,
- Should not be used to create, replace, or substitute for anthologies, compilations, or collective works, even if accumulated or reproduced and used separately,
- Is not allowed for works intended to be consumable, e.g., workbooks, exercises, test booklets, etc.,
- Is not a substitute for purchasing copyrighted material,
- Is not allowed if directed by higher authority,
- Is not to be repeated under the same circumstances term after term.
Charges to students should not exceed copying costs.
3.0 Definitions [Top]
4.0 References [Top]
Policy XV.E.1, "Copyright Policy"
Policy XV.E.2, "Patent Policy"
Policy XV.F.1, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: Introduction"
Policy XV.F.3, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: Special Circumstances"
Policy XV.F.4, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: Videotaping"
Policy XV.F.5, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: Copying Works of Music"
Policy XV.F.6, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: For Academic Purposes"
Policy XV.F.7, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: Obtaining Permission"
Policy XV.F.8, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: Infringement"
Policy XV.F.9, "Copying of Copyrighted Materials: Licensed Computer Software"
 Completing an unfinished poetry line or prose paragraph may be permitted.
5.0 Approvals and Revisions [Top]