A Brief History Of

Major Oil Companies

In The Gulf Region
With Corporate Contact Information

Compiled By
Eric V. Thompson

Petroleum Archives Project
Arabian Peninsula & Gulf Studies Program
University of Virginia

Prepared with support from
The Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences









Amoco


1889: Standard Oil (Indiana) founded as subsidiary of Standard Oil Trust

1911: Standard Oil of Indiana founded with dissolution of Standard Oil

1910s: Standard Oil of Indiana purchases Pan American Petroleum

1914: Standard Oil of Indiana licenses "thermal cracking" process for producing gasoline to competing oil companies

1925: Standard Oil of Indiana acquires controlling interest in Pan American Petroleum and Transport Company

1932: Standard Oil of Indiana sells Venezuela operation to Jersey

1954: Pan American and Standard of Indiana merge, new company is called American Oil Company [Amoco]

1957: Begins joint venture with Iran independent of Iranian Oil Consortium

1958: Amoco signs agreement with Shah of Iran

1960s: Amoco Egypt Oil Company, Cairo, founded

1980s: Amoco Sharjah Oil Company, Sharjah, U.A.E., in partnership with UEA, produces natural gas and natural gas liquids in Sharjah

1990s: Amoco Oman Oil Company begins oil and gas exploration program



Corporate Offices:

Amoco Corporation,
200 East Randolph Drive,
Chicago, IL 60601-7125;
phone: (312) 856-6111;
e-mail: info@amoco.com.



Arco


1866: Atlantic Petroleum Storage Company founded

1870: Atlantic Petroleum Storage Company establishes Atlantic Refining Company (Atlantic)

1874: Atlantic sold to John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust

1905: Richfield Oil Corporation founded

1911: Standard Oil Trust dissolved under Sherman Antitrust Act, and Atlantic is spun off as independent company

1916: Sinclair Oil Corporation, founded by Harry F. Sinclair

1931: Richfield goes into receivership and Sinclair merges with Rio Grande Oil and Prairie Pipeline and Prairie Oil and Gas Companies

1936: Richfield Oil Corporation emerges from receivership

1952: Atlantic begins offshore Gulf Coast production

1963: Atlantic purchased the Hondo Oil & Gas Company

1966: Richfield Oil Corporation merges with Atlantic Refining Company, creating Atlantic Richfield Company [ARCO]

1968: ARCO partners with Exxon for Alaskan North Slope production

1969: ARCO acquires Sinclair Oil Corporation

1972: ARCO headquarters moves from New York City to Los Angeles

1977: ARCO acquires the Anaconda Company

1985: ARCO divests East Coast marketing and refining operations

1988: Tricentrol acquired by ARCO

1988: ARCO completes merger with Houston based Union Texas Petroleum Holding Inc.

1989: ARCO forms anew publicly held company, Lyondell Petrochemical

1993: ARCO's U.S. oil and gas business restructured and divided into four business units—ARCO Permian, ARCO Western Energy, ARCO Long Beach, Inc., and Vastar Resources, Inc.

1994: Vastar Resources Inc. initiates a public offering of 17 million shares of its common stock

1996: ARCO signs Production Sharing Contract with Sonatrach, the Algerian state oil company, to undertake major Enhanced Oil Recovery project in Algeria's second largest oil field, Rhourde El Baguel

1997: ARCO and Russia's largest oil company, LUKOIL, sign joint venture agreement to invest in oil and gas projects in Russia and other countries

1998: ARCO subsidiary (Western Midway Co.) and a unit of Mobil Corporation reaches agreement to exchange oil and gas properties in California's San Joaquin Valley and the Gulf of Mexico; The California properties owned by Western Midway go to Mobil, while Mobil oil and gas properties in the Gulf go to Western Midway. Upon completion of the exchange, Western Midway will be sold to Vastar Resources Inc. (82.2% owned by ARCO)

1998: ARCO sells majority interest in ARCO Chemical Company and divests its coal assets in the U.S.




Corporate Offices:

Arco Corporate Headquarters
515 South Flower Street
Los Angeles, CA 90071
(213) 486-3511



Ashland Oil


1924: Ashland Refining Company of Ashland, Ky., founded as a refining arm of Swiss Oil Company of Lexington

1930: Ashland Purchases Tri-State Refining

1931: Acquires Cumberland Pipeline Company's eastern Kentucky pipeline network

1936: Ashland Refining merges with Swiss Oil to form Ashland Oil & Refining Company

1946: Ashland Oil & Refining Company products first sold under the brand name "Ashland"

1948: Ashland and Allied Oil merge

1949: Ashland and Aetna Oil merge, Ashland acquires Kentucky retail marketing operation Freedom-Valvoline, including Valvoline Motor Oil brand and also acquires Southern Pipe Line Company

1950: Frontier Oil Refining of Buffalo, N.Y., and National Refining of Cleveland, Ohio, join Ashland

1956: Acquisition of R. J. Brown Company of St. Louis.

1963: Ashland acquires United Oil

1966: Ashland acquires Warren Brothers construction company

1967: Ashland purchases ADM Chemical Group and forms Ashland

1969: Ashland forms Ashland Petroleum operating division and Arch Mineral

1970: Ashland changes name to Ashland Oil, Inc.

1970: Ashland acquires Northwestern Refining of St. Paul, Minn. and the SuperAmerica retail marketing chain

1971: Exploration and production activities are consolidated into Ashland Exploration

1975: Construction division is formed, and Ashland Coal is created

1991: Ashland acquires The Permian Corporation and merges with Scurlock Oil Company

1992: Ashland Chemical acquires most of Unocal's chemical distribution business, establishing the IC&S Division

1994: Ashland's Valvoline acquires Zerex

1995: Ashland changes company's name to Ashland Inc.

1997: Ashland signs agreements with Marathon to combine the refining, marketing and transportation assets of the companies. Ashland acquires 38 percent of Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC



Corporate Offices:

Ashland Inc. Headquarters
1000 Ashland Drive
Russell, KY 41169
(606) 329-3333






Chevron


1879: Pacific Coast Oil Company established

1900: Pacific Coast Oil purchased by Standard Oil, but remains separate operation

1906: Pacific Coast Oil consolidated with other Western US operations of Standard Oil into Standard Oil Company (California)

1911: Dissolution of Standard Oil Trust makes Standard Oil of California (Socal) independent

1926: Socal merges with Pacific Oil Company

1929: Socal establishes Bahrain Petroleum Company to hold Bahrain concession

1932: Bahrain Petroleum strikes oil in Bahrain

1933: Socal wins Saudi Arabia concession; Socal establishes California-Arabia Standard Oil Company, Casoc, to hold concession for Saudi Arabia

1933: Socal discoveries oil in Saudi Arabia

1936: Texaco joins with Standard Oil of California (later Chevron), to found the Arab-American Oil Company [Aramco]

1936: Texaco purchases half interest in Bahrain Petroleum and California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (Calarabian) from Socal

1936: California-Texas company, Caltex, founded as a joint venture between Socal and Texaco as outlet for future oil production in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1961: Socal buys Standard of Kentucky

1974: Bahraini government acquires 60% interest in BAPCO

1980: Bahraini government acquires remaining interest in BAPCO

1984: Socal buys Gulf Corporation and after restructuring changes name to Chevron Corporation

1993: Chevron undertakes a joint venture with the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan forming a new company named Tengizchevroil

1993: Pennzoil Company assimilates Chevron


Corporate Offices:

Chevron Corporation
575 Market Street
San Francisco, CA 94105-2856
415-894-7700


Conoco


1875: Continental Oil and Transportation Company founded

1885: Continental Oil and Transportation Company reincorporated as Continental within the Standard Oil trust

1913: Continental Oil reincorporated after breakup of Standard Oil Trust

1917: Marland Oil Company founded

1929: Continental Oil company merged with portions of Rocky Mountain (a former component of Standard oil) and Marland

Mid-1950s: Continental joins partnership with Marathon and Amerada, called Oasis Group

1981: Conoco becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of by E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company

1981: Conoco reorganized as Continental Group




Corporate Offices:

Conoco Center
600 North Dairy Ashford
Houston, TX 77079
P.O. Box 2197
Houston, TX
ZIP Code 77252
Phone: (281) 293-1000
Telex: 775347
Fax: (281) 293-1440





Exxon


1882: Standard Oil of New Jersey formed by Standard Oil Trust

1888: Standard Oil of New Jersey establishes Anglo-American Oil Co. (predecessor of Esso Petroleum Co.) to market oil in the British Isles

1899: Standard Oil of New Jersey becomes a holding company for Standard Oil Interests, a subsidiary of Standard Oil

1898: Standard Oil of New Jersey gains control of Imperial Oil Limited of Canada

1928: Standard Oil of New Jersey acquires interest in Turkish (now Iraq) Petroleum Co.

1911: Standard Oil of New Jersey [Jersey] becomes independent with dissolution of Standard Oil Trust

1911: Humble Oil Company formed

1919: Jersey acquires majority ownership of Humble Oil

1930: Anglo-American acquired by Jersey

1933: Socony-Vacuum and Standard of New Jersey merge their Far East facilities and interests into a 50-50 venture called Standard-Vacuum Oil Co., or Stanvac

1947: Jersey affiliate, Imperial, strikes oil in Canada

1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran

1948: Jersey (30%) and Socony-Vacuum (10%) join Socal (30%) and Texaco (30%) in Aramco venture

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1959: Jersey buys remainder of Humble Oil

1959: Jersey strikes oil in Libya

1960: Jersey begins to market gasoline under the brand name Esso

1960: Jersey purchases Monterey Oil

1961: Jersey buys Honolulu Oil

1962: Assets of Stanvac split between Jersey and Socony Mobil

1972: Jersey changes name to Exxon

1972: Iraq nationalizes Iraq Petroleum Company, of which Exxon is 12% owner

1972: Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait and Qatar acquire 25% interest in Exxon's production operations (in country), with right to increase stake to 51% by 1982

1980: Exxon buys Colony Oil Shale Project

1981: Exxon sells Esso Standard Libya to Libyan government

1982: Exxon ends Colony Oil Shale Project

1985: Exxon acquires 48% of Hunt Oil Company's production sharing agreement in North Yemen

1998: Exxon and Mobil announce plans for merger




Corporate Offices:

5959 Las Colinas Blvd.
Irving, TX 75039-2298
Phone: 972-444-1000
Fax: 972-444-1882


Getty


1928: Pacific Western Oil Corporation incorporated as a holding company for Edward L. Doherty and family which subsequently came under the control of J. Paul Getty

1930s: Rocky Mountain division of Pacific Western, a Getty subsidiary, begins oil exploration in Saudi Arabia

1933: Pacific Western wins Saudi Arabia concession

1949: Getty's Western Pacific Oil Corporation signs concession for Saudi half of the Neutral Zone with Saudi government

1956: All of J. Paul Getty's oil holdings organized under Getty Oil

1953: Getty acquires Tidewater Oil

1984: Texaco acquires Getty




Gulf Oil


1901: Guffey Oil founded

1901: Gulf Refining Company founded

1907: William Mellon reorganizes Guffey Oil and Gulf Refining under name of Gulf Oil Corporation

1922: Gulf Oil Corporation forms Eastern Gulf Oil Company

1928: Gulf joins Turkish Petroleum Company

1929: Gulf buys Paragon Refining Company

1934: Gulf sells its share of Iraq Petroleum Company to Socal

1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1955: Acquires Warren Petroleum

1971: Gulf purchases 10% in Syncrude Canada Limited

1984: Chevron buys Gulf




Marathon


1887: Ohio Oil Company founded

1889: Ohio Oil Company purchased by J.D. Rockefeller subsequently consolidated into the Standard Oil Trust

1905: Marathon headquarters moved to Findlay, Ohio

1911: Standard Oil Company of Ohio [Sohio] separated from Rockefeller's "Standard Trust"

Mid-1950s: Sohio joins partnership with Continental and Amerada, called Oasis Group

1962: Ohio Oil Company renamed the Marathon Oil Company

1962: Marathon buys Plymouth Oil

1982: Marathon becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, which has since become USX Corporation

1991: USX issues separate shares of common stock to reflect the performance of its two major businesses (steel and oil) and reinstates Marathon's symbol (MRO) on major stock exchanges

1990: Marathon Oil Company headquarters moved to Houston

1997: Ashland signs agreements with Marathon to combine the refining, marketing and transportation assets of the companies; Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC formed Ashland acquires 38 percent of Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC



Corporate Offices:

Marathon Oil Company
539 South Main Street
Findlay, Ohio 45840


Mesa Petroleum


1956: After resigning as a geologist with Phillips Petroleum Co., T. Boone Pickens forms development and production company called Petroleum Exploration

1959: Altair Oil and Gas is established to conduct oil and gas exploration in Canada

1964: Petroleum Exploration, Inc., and Altair merge to form Mesa Petroleum Co.

1967: Mesa Petroleum Co. shares began trading on the American Stock Exchange

1969: In hostile takeover, Pickens merges larger Hugoton into Mesa

1979: Mesa sells holdings in Canada and the North Sea to reduce debt and buy additional Hugoton reserves; Mesa also creates the Mesa Royalty Trust

1983: Mesa forms Gulf Investors Group (GIG)

1984: Mesa repurchases nearly 90 percent of the GIG units in a $500 million public tender offer

1985: The Mesa Petroleum Company changes its name to the Mesa Limited Partnership

1986: Mesa purchases Pioneer Corporation

1988: MESA partnership acquires gas reserves from Tenneco Inc.

1991: Mesa Limited Partnership changes name to MESA Inc.



Corporate Offices:

712 Main St.
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713-216-6369
Fax: 713-216-5476







Mobil


1866: The Vacuum Oil Co. incorporated

1879: Standard Oil Co., headed by John D. Rockefeller, purchases a three-quarter interest in Vacuum

1870: Rockefeller and four partners organize Standard Oil Company in Ohio

1882: Rockefeller organizes his various oil holdings into the Standard Oil Trust, with headquarters in New York

1882: Standard Oil of New York formed

1911: Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony) founded with dissolution of Standard Oil

1918: Socony purchases a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co.

1926: Socony purchases the properties of General Petroleum Corp. of California

1929: Vacuum acquires the Lubrite Refining Co., a refining and marketing company based in St. Louis

1930: Socony acquires White Eagle Oil & Refining Co.

1930: Vacuum acquires Wadhams Oil Corp., and the White Star Refining Co.

1931: Socony acquires all the assets of Vacuum Oil Co. and changes its name to Socony-Vacuum Corp.

1933: Socony-Vacuum and Standard of New Jersey merge their Far East facilities and interests into a 50-50 venture called Standard-Vacuum Oil Co., or Stanvac

1934: Socony-Vacuum Corp. changes its name to Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc.

1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran

1948: Jersey (30%) and Socony-Vacuum (10%) join Socal (30%) and Texaco (30%) in Aramco venture

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texaco and Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1955: Socony-Vacuum changes name to Socony Mobil Oil Company

1959: Magnolia Petroleum and General Petroleum merged with other domestic subsidiaries into Socony Mobil Oil Company; Two major operating divisions created within the company: Mobil Oil Co. for the U.S. and Canada, and Mobil International Oil Co. for the rest of the world (except the areas in which Stanvac had interests)

1960: Mobil Chemical Co. formed

1960: Mobil Petroleum Co. Inc. formed to oversee Socony Mobil's 50% interest in Stanvac

1962: Assets of Stanvac split between Jersey and Socony Mobil

1966: Socony Mobil Oil Co. changes name to Mobil Oil Corporation. Mobil Oil Co. becomes the North American Division; Mobil International becomes the International Division, with coordinating responsibility for Mobil Petroleum Co. Inc.

1971: Mobil enters joint venture with Iranian Oil Company

1972: Mobil's 11.875% stake in Iraq Petroleum Company is nationalized

1975: Mobil increases its share of Aramco from 10% to 15%

1976: Mobil completes acquisition of Marcor, the holding company for Montgomery Ward Department Stores

1976: Mobil Corporation formed as holding company

1979: Mobil sells 51% of its Turkish refinery to Turkish Petroleum

1984: Mobil acquires 100% of Superior Oil

1985: Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET), a joint venture petrochemicals complex at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia plant begins operation; Mobil and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) are 50-50 partners in YANPET

1996: The Qatargas project, in which Mobil has a 10% interest, comes on line producing first LNG from Qatar

1996: Mobil commissions two new plants in Yemen and Syria

1997: Second Qatargas liquefaction train completed

1998: Exxon and Mobil announce plans for merger




Corporate Offices:

3225 Gallows Rd.
Fairfax, VA 22037-0001
Phone: 703-846-3000
Fax: 703-846-4669






Occidental Petroleum


1910: Cities Service Company formed

1920: Occidental Petroleum founded

1953: Cities Service Company obtains Dhofar province concession in Oman

1956: Armand Hammer buys Occidental Petroleum

1965: Cities Service Company begins marketing products under the brand name "CITGO"

1965: Occidental wins oil concession in Libya

1983: Occidental acquires Cities Service Company

1983: Occidental reorganized Cities' assets and sells newly formed "CITGO Petroleum Corporation" to Southland Corporation

1980s: Libya nationalizes 51% of Occidental's operation in Libya

1986: Occidental acquired the Midcon Corporation,

1994: Occidental Petroleum Corp. completes acquisition of Placid Oil Co., which was founded in 1936 by H.L. Hunt

1995: Occidental purchases 19% stake in Clark USA

1998: Occidental and Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Dutch oil group complete a $1bn global asset swap

1998: Occidental sells Occidental Netherlands Inc. unit to TransCanada Pipelines Ltd.




Corporate Offices:

Corporate Headquarters
Occidental Petroleum Corporation
10889 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90024-4201
(310) 208-8800







Pennzoil


1889: South Penn Oil Company organized as a unit of Standard Oil Company

1916: Name "Pennzoil" trademarked by Pennsylvania Refining Company, a predecessor to Pennzoil

1954: Bill Liedtke, John Overby, and George Bush form Zapata Offshore Oil Company

1963: Pennzoil Company is formed through consolidation of South Penn Oil Company, STETCO Petroleum Corporation and Zapata Offshore Oil Company

1965: Pennzoil Company acquires United Gas Corporation

1993: Pennzoil Company assimilates Chevron

1994: Pennzoil Company signs oil development deal with Qatar

1995: Pennzoil Company agrees to concession agreement with Egypt for Gulf of Suez

1998: Pennzoil-Quaker State Company was formed with merger of Pennzoil and Quaker State

1998: Simultaneous with the Pennzoil-Quaker State merger, the Pennzoil Company's marketing, manufacturing and fast oil change businesses (Pennzoil Products Group) is spun off and renamed the PennzEnergy Company




Corporate Offices:

Pennzoil
700 Milam
Houston, TX 77002
(713) 546-4000






Phillips Petroleum Company


1905: Phillips brothers begin oil exploration

1917: Phillips Petroleum Company founded by Frank Phillips

1922: Phillips forms the predecessor to what today is GPM Gas Corp

1925: Research and Development Group formed

1969: Phillips' Kenai LNG Plant begins operation

1985: Phillips successfully fends off hostile take-over attempts

1992: GPM Gas Corporation formed



Corporate Offices:

411 S. Keeler Ave.
Bartlesville, OK 74004
Phone: 918-661-6600
Fax: 918-661-6279



Shell


1833: Marcus Samuel starts import export business in London

1890: Royal Dutch Company launched

1892: Marcus commissions the first special oil tanker and delivers 4,000 tons of Russian kerosene to Singapore and Bangkok

1897: Samuel's company begins to operate under the name Shell Transport and Trading Company, Limited

1903: Shell and Dutch company N.V. Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot Explotatie van Petroleum-bronnen in Nederlandsch-Indië form the Asiatic Petroleum Company

1903: Royal Dutch and Shell group begins joint marketing campaign under name "British Dutch"

1906-1914: British Dutch Group acquires producing interests in: Romania (1906), Russia (1910), Egypt (1911), Venezuela (1913) and Trinidad (1914)

1907: Royal Dutch/Shell partnership is extended worldwide, with the creation of the Royal Dutch / Shell Group of Companies

1912: Trading in the US starts after the acquisition of the American Gasoline Company, an American marketing company

1912: Turkish Petroleum Company founded with 50% ownership by Turkish National Bank, 25% Deutsche Bank, 25% Royal Dutch/Shell

1915: Formation of the Shell Company in California

1918: Royal Dutch/Shell buys Mexican Eagle

1922: Shell Union Oil Corporation [later Shell Oil Company] formed to consolidate Shell interests in the US with those of the Union Oil Company of Delaware

1937: Shell, Total, and Partex form the consortium Petroleum Development (Oman and Dhofar) later, Petroleum Development Oman

1945-55: Exploratory drilling in Tunisia, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad and offshore in British Borneo; Production from the Iraq Petroleum Company increases dramatically

1949: Royal Dutch shortens its corporate title to "Shell"

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1956: Shell discovers oil in the Sahara

1959: Joint Shell/Esso exploration company called N.V. Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) discovers gas fields in Groningen in the Netherlands

1974: Omani government claims 25% interest Petroleum Development Oman

1975: Omani government raises its interest in Petroleum Development Oman to 60%

1979: Shell acquires Belridge Oil

1984: Shell buys minority interest (30%) in Shell Oil US

Mid-1980s: Royal Dutch/Shell buys remaining 31% of Shell Oil U.S.A. (the remainder that it did not yet own)

1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%

1998: Occidental and Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Dutch oil group complete a $1bn global asset swap




Corporate Offices:

Shell Oil
One Shell Plaza
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713-241-6161
Fax: 713-241-4044

Royal Dutch/ Shell Group
2596 HR The Hague, The Netherlands
Phone: +31-70-377-3395
Fax: +31-70-377-4848







Sun Company Inc.


1886: Robert Pew founds Sun Oil Company

1901: New Jersey Oil and Gas incorporated

1968: Sun buys Sunray (DX)

1971: Sun Oil Company reorganized and renamed Sun Company Incorporated



Corporate Offices:

Ten Penn Center 1801 Market Street
Philadelphia Pa 191031699
Telephone: 215-977-3000



Texaco


1897: Joe Cullinan founds Texas Fuel Company

1903: Joe Cullinan and Arnold Schlaet found The Texas Oil Company in Beaumont, Texas

1906: Texas Oil Company registers the trademark name, "Texaco"

1936: Texas Oil Company purchases half interest in Bahrain Petroleum and California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (Calarabian) from Socal

1936: Texas Oil Company joins with Standard Oil of California (later Chevron), to found the Arab-American Oil Company [Aramco]

1936: California-Texas company, Caltex, founded as a joint venture between Socal and Texas Oil Company as outlet for future oil production in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1956: Texas Oil Company acquires Regent Oil, a British company

1959: Texas Oil Company purchases the Paragon group of companies

1959: Texas Oil Company adopts the name Texaco for all of its businesses

1962: Texaco acquires White Fuel Corporation

1964: Purchases Superior Oil Company Venezuela

1984: Texaco acquires Getty Oil Company

1988: Texaco Forms Star Enterprise, a 50/50 joint venture with Saudi Refining Inc., to refine, distribute and market Texaco-branded products in the Eastern U.S.

1995: Texaco and Norsk Hydro formed a joint venture, Hydro Texaco, to market petroleum products throughout Scandinavia

1998: Texaco acquires Monterey Resources, a California based independent oil and gas producer

1998: Texaco and Shell Oil form downstream alliance in the Western U.S.

1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%




Corporate Offices:

Texaco Inc.
2000 Westchester Ave.
White Plains, NY 10650
(9140 253-4000


Union Oil (Unocal)


1890: Union Oil formed in California by merger of Hardison & Stewart Oil Company, the Sespe Oil Company, and the Torrey Canyon Oil Company

1917: Union purchases Pinal-Dome Oil Company

1922: Shell buys 25% of Union Oil of California

1922: Shell Union Oil Corporation formed to consolidate Shell interests in the US with those of the Union Oil Company of Delaware

1965: Union acquires Pure Oil

1983: Union Oil changes name to Unocal

1992: Ashland Chemical acquires most of Unocal's chemical distribution business, establishing the IC&S Division




Corporate Offices:

2141 Rosecrans Ave., Ste. 4000
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone: 310-726-7600
Fax: 310-726-7817







British Petroleum (Anglo-Persian Oil)


1886: Burmah Oil founded in Scotland

1901: Shah of Iran signs concession agreement with William D'arcy

1904: Burmah Oil signs agreement to supply oil to British Admiralty

1905: Burmah Oil and D'arcy oil merged into Concession Syndicate

1908: Oil struck in commercial quantities in Iran

1909: Anglo- Persian Oil formed and Burmah Oil buys majority (97%) of shares in initial public offering

1914: British government becomes majority stockholder in Anglo- Persian Oil

1918: Anglo- Persian Oil purchases British Petroleum from British Government, which in turn had seized the company form Deutsche Bank during W.W.I.

1932: Shah cancels Anglo-Persian concession

1933: Anglo-Persian wins back Iran concession

1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC

1935: Anglo-Persian renamed Anglo-Iranian Oil Company Ltd.

1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran

1951: Mossadegh nationalizes Anglo-Iranian assets in Iran and founds National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) to administer nationalized assets

1954: Anglo-Iranian re-named British Petroleum, previously the name of one of its subsidiaries

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1962: British Petroleum begins commercial development in Abu Dhabi

1966: British Petroleum begins commercial development in Libya

1969: British Petroleum signs agreement with the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, which became effective in January 1970; According to the agreement Standard takes over BP's leases in Alaska; In return, BP acquires 25% of Standard's equity, a stake that would rise to a majority holding in 1978

1970: BP sells 33% of El Bunduq oilfield to a Japanese consortium in exchange for access to Japanese markets

1972: BP sells 33% of Abu Dhabi Main Areas Ltd. to Japanese oil company

Mid-1980s: BP buys 53% of Sohio, Sohio becomes BP's American arm, eventually buying all of the outstanding stock

1987: British government sells of its stock in BP

1987: British Petroleum acquires remaining stock of Sohio as well as British company Britoil

1987: Sohio merged with other BP interests to form BP America

1988: Kuwait Investment Office holding of BP stock reaches 21.6%

1989: British government forces reduction in KIO holding to 9.9% of BP stock

1998: BP announces merger with Amoco, new company will operate under the name BP Amoco p.l.c.




Corporate Offices:

Britannic House, One Finsbury Circus
London EC2M 7BA, UK
Phone: +44-171-496-4000
Fax: +44-171-496-4630






Elf Aquitaine


1941: Societe Nationale des Petroles d'Aquitaine (SNPA) incorporated at the initiative of the French government

1966: French government merges gas and oil interests into Enterprise de Recherches et d'Activities Petrolieres (ERAP), giving ERAP majority ownership of SNPA

1974: ERAP begins onshore and offshore exploration in Iran

1976: ERAP is reorganized and increases share of SNPA ownership to 70%

1976: ERAP changes name to Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine, known as Elf Aquitaine Group




Corporate Offices:

Elf Aquitaine, Inc.
444 Madison Avenue - 20th floor
New York - NY 10022
USA
Tel: (1) 212 922 30 04
Fax: (1) 212 922 30 74


Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI)


1953: Enrico Mattei founds Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi [ENI] as a conglomeration of 36 subsidiaries including AGIP, with government sanction

1956: Signs 50-50 oil cooperation deal with National Iranian Oil Company

1970-75: Founds Agip (Qatar) Ltd,

1980s: Libya gains control of 50% of ENI Libya

1981: Enoxy, a joint ENI Occidental petrochemical and mining venture founded

1985: ENI wins contract to construct pipeline in Iraq

1986: ENI wins portion of a pipeline contact for Yemen

1992: ENI transformed into joint stock company traded on Italian and NYSE




Corporate Offices:

Piazzale Enrico Mattei 1
00144 Rome, Italy
Phone: +39-0-6-59-822-624
Fax: +39-0-6-59-002-141






Iraq Petroleum Company


1912: Turkish Petroleum Company founded with 50% ownership by Turkish National Bank, 25% Deutsche Bank, 25% Royal Dutch/Shell

1914: Turkish Petroleum Company reorganized, with Anglo-Persian holding 50%, Deutsche Bank and Shell each holding 25%

1914: Ottoman Grand Vizier promises Mesopotamian concession to Turkish Petroleum Company, but final concession agreement is not signed

1922: CFP joins Turkish Petroleum Company

1925: Turkish Petroleum Company gains oil concession in Iraq

1928: Gulf joins Turkish Petroleum Company

1928: Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Persian, CFP, Exxon, Mobil, Atlantic Richfield, Gulf Oil Corporation, Standard Oil of Indiana [Amoco], and Participations and Explorations Corp., establish a joint venture called the Near East Development Company; The Near East Development Company signs "Red Lines Agreement" binding participating companies to cooperate with Turkish Petroleum Company in any ventures in Turkey, the Levant, Iraq and Arabian Peninsula (Atlantic, Gulf, and Standard eventually sell their shares to other participants)

1929: Turkish Petroleum changes name to Iraq Petroleum Company

1932: Mosul Petroleum Company formed to hold northern portion of IPC's Iraq concession

1938: Basrah Petroleum Company formed to hold southern portion of IPC's Iraq concession

1939: IPC establishes Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company Ltd. (ADPC) to hold Abu Dhabi concession

1939: British government seizes IPC shares held by CFP

1966: Iraq revokes portions of IPC concession and nationalizes these concessions

1972: Iraq nationalizes remaining IPC concessions

1973: Iraq nationalizes assets of foreign assets in Basrah Petroleum Company



National Iranian Oil Company


1951: Iran nationalizes National Iranian Oil Company

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Jersey, Socony, Texaco and Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Iricon Agency Ltd., Richfield Oil Corp., Signal Oil and Gas, Aminoil, Sohio, Getty, Atlantic Oil, Tidewater Oil, San Jacinto Petroleum Corp., and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP). IOP then negotiates agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1973: Oil Services Company of Iran (Osco) formed by NIOC to take over operations of IOP

1957: National Iranian Oil Company signs deal with ENI for oil production

1971: Mobil enters joint venture with National Iranian Oil Company

1990: National Iranian Oil Company signs agreement to import about 200,000 barrels a day of gas oil and kerosene from Bahrain, Qatar and Abu Dhabi refineries ending embargoes established during the Iran-Iraq war



Kuwait National Petroleum Company


1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC

1934: Sheikh Ahmed grants 75-year concession to KOC

1951: KOC oil concession extended for additional 17 years

1960: Kuwait National Petroleum Company established as a shareholder company owned by the government and the private sector

1968: KNPC commissions Shuaiba Refinery, the world's first all hydrogen refinery

1974: Kuwaiti government acquires 60 ownership of KOC

1975: KNPC becomes a fully state-owned company

1980: Kuwait Petroleum Corporation created, KNPC becomes fully owned by KPC; KNPC takes charge of the three oil refineries; Mina Al-Ahmadi, Mina Abdulla and Shuaiba, in addition to the LPG plant in Mina Al-Ahmadi

1981: Kuwait Oil Company purchases the Santa Fe International Corp., of California




Corporate Offices:

Head Office
P.O. Box 70 Safat
13001 Safat - Kuwait
Telephone:
Buildings 1 & 2: (+965) 2420121/2425553
Emad Center: (+965) 2436333
Behbehani Building: (+965) 2449401
Fax: (+965) 2433839





Saudi Aramco


1933: King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud signs agreement authorizing Standard Oil of California (Socal) to explore for oil in what is now the Eastern Province of the Kingdom

1933: Saudi government signed a concession agreement with the Standard Oil Company of California, predecessor of today's Chevron

1938: Commercial oil production begins in Saudi Arabia

1944: Calarabian a joint venture of Socal and Texaco changes name to Arabian –American Oil Company [Aramco]

1948: Jersey and Socony-Vacuum join Socal and Texaco in Aramco venture

1949: Saudi Arabia builds Tapline through northern Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon to the Mediterranean

1973: Saudi Arabian Government begins purchasing Aramco's assets from its shareholders, Socal (later Chevron), Texaco, Exxon and Socony-Vacuum (Mobil)

1975: Aramco initiates work to design, build and operate twin industrial cities at Jubail on the Gulf and Yanbu on the Red Sea

1980: Saudi Government acquires 100 percent of Aramco's shares, although Aramco partners continue to operate and manage Saudi Arabia's oil fields

1985: Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET), a joint venture petrochemicals complex at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia plant begins operation; Mobil and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) are 50-50 partners in YANPET

1988: Royal decree establishes the Saudi Arabian Oil Company [Saudi Aramco] to take over the management and operations of Saudi Arabia's oil and gas fields from Aramco

1988: Saudi Aramco forms a joint venture with Texaco called Star Enterprise; Under the agreement, a Saudi Aramco subsidiary acquires a 50 percent share in Star's three refineries in the United States

1991: Saudi Aramco acquires a 35 percent interest in SangYong Oil Refining Company, South Korea's third-largest refiner and leading lubricant manufacturer,

1993: Royal decree merges all of the Kingdom's state-owned refining, product-distribution and marketing operations, as well as the Government's half-interest in three joint-venture refineries into Saudi Aramco

1994: Saudi Aramco enters joint venture with the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) purchasing a 40-percent stake in Petron Corp

1996: Saudi Aramco acquires a 50 percent interest in Motor Oil Hellas and Avin Oil, the refining and distribution affiliates of Greece's Vardinoyannis Group

1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%




Corporate Offices:

PO Box 5000
Dhahran 31311
Saudi Arabia
Phone: +966-3-875-4915
Fax: +966-3-873-8490






Total Oil (CFP)


1924: Foundation of the French Compagnie Francaise Des Petroles (CFP), which assumes French shares of Turkish Petroleum Company

1927: Discovery of the first oil field near Kirkuk in Iraq

1954/5: Creation and registration of the trademark TOTAL, and foundation of the first companies marketing TOTAL products

1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran

1956: Discovery of the Hassi-Messaoud oil field and Hassi R'Mel gas field, in the Algerian Sahara

1960: CFP absorbs the OFP (Omnium Francais Des Petroles) group

1970: French Petroleum Company of Canada founded. The company is renamed Total Petroleum (North America) later that year

1973: First listing of CFP shares on the London Stock Exchange

1978: CFP signs an agreement with Abu Dhabi covering development of the Upper Zakum field and production of butane and propane as well as the condensates associated with the oil produced by ADPC (GASCO)

1980: TOTAL acquires Vickers Petroleum Corp., expanding TOTAL's presence in the United States

1985: CFP changes company name from CFP to TOTAL CFP

1985: TOTAL CFP acquires all United States hydrocarbon assets of Lear Petroleum Partners

1987: TOTAL CFP acquires hydrocarbon assets held by TIPCO in the United States as well as those of Francarep Italia, and divests of all refining assets and most of the Group's marketing interests in Italy

1988: TOTAL CFP acquires CSX OIL & GAS in the United States

1991: TOTAL CFP changes company name to TOTAL

1991: Reduction of the French government's direct share holding in TOTAL from 31.7% to 5.4%

1995: TOTAL signs agreements for establishing the Yemen gas liquefaction project and a development contract for the Iranian offshore fields Sirri A and E

1996: Divestment by the French State of a further 4% of TOTAL's capital, reducing the government's stake to 0.97%; TOTAL signs a production-sharing agreement for development of Algeria's Tin Fouyé Tabankort field

1998: TOTAL announces details of its development plans for Iran's giant South Pars gas field in coordination with the National Iranian Oil Co.




Corporate Offices:

TOTAL
24, Cours Michelet
92069 Paris La Défense Cedex
France
phone : 33 (0)1 41 35 40 00 (Switchboard)
fax : 33 (0)1 41 35 28 27







American Independent Oil Company (AMINOIL)


1947: Consortium of Phillips, Ashland, Signal Oil and Gas, J.S. Abercrombie, Sunray Mid-Continent Oil Co., Globe Oil and Refining Co., and Pauley Petroleum Inc formed to bid on Neutral Zone concession; Consortium is named American Independent Oil Company [Aminoil]

1948: Aminoil wins Neutral Zone concession from Kuwait

1970: Aminoil acquired by R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.




Eastern and General Syndicate


1919: Major Frank Holmes establishes Eastern and General Syndicate

1925: Eastern and General Syndicate wins al-Hasa Concession

1925: Eastern and General Syndicate awarded oil concession in Bahrain





Standard Oil Company


1870: John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler found Standard Oil

1882: Rockefeller organizes his various oil holdings into the Standard Oil Trust, with headquarters in New York

1886: Standard Oil founds Natural Gas Trust

1901: Standard establishes regional affiliate, Republic Oil

1907: Standard establishes Standard Oil of California

1911: Standard dissolved under court order, creating Standard Oil of New Jersey (Exxon), Standard Oil of New York (Mobil), Standard Oil [California] (Chevron), Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio, arm of BP), Standard Oil of Indiana (Amoco), Continental Oil (Conoco), Atlantic (ARCO)




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