April 9-22, 2004
Vol. 34, Issue 7
Back Issues
IN THIS ISSUE
Pituitary Center brings life-changing treatment to thousands
Student health insurance plan
Headlines @ U.Va.
U.Va. marks the 261st birthday of its founder — Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medals in Architecture an Law
Aerospace institute becoming a reality in Hampton
Online applications aid admissions process
Fatton: No ray of hope for native Haiti
Grossman enters new world of responsibility
Women’s Center to honor Arizona’s trailblazing Gov. Janet Napolitano
Artist explores DNA and difference in
‘ Jefferson Suites’
Nobel Prize-winning poet
Seamus Heaney to read April 19
Roaming Rome, Wylie focuses on material and light
Simply the Best
Pituitary Center brings life-changing treatment to thousands
Dr. Edward Laws prepares to remove a pituitary tumor from a patient.
Photo by Andrew Shurtleff
Dr. Edward Laws prepares to remove a pituitary tumor from a patient. These tumors account for 20 percent of all primary brain tumors, and Laws is internationally recognized as the top pituitary surgeon.

By Fariss Samarrai

Dr. Edward LawsDr. Edward Laws stands on a wooden pedestal as he extracts a brain tumor through a woman’s right nostril. His resident, Dr. Adam Kanter, and a team of operating room specialists, have prepared the patient for the procedure by first anesthetizing her, and then, by sending long and slim instruments up the woman’s nostril, they have removed a thin wafer of bone, allowing direct access through the air sinuses to the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.

Laws’ job is to remove a tumor that has grown on the pituitary by carefully scraping loose and periodically removing fragments of the mass of bad cells while being careful to leave the healthy tissue of the pituitary and the brain intact. He does this while looking at the inside of the patient’s head through a binocular endoscope with a micro-camera attached, allowing everyone in the OR to observe the procedure on a video monitor.

He pulls out another fragment of the tumor.

“These tumors have the texture of tofu,” he says, though the tissue he is extracting is bloody. He mentions in passing that he used to tell people that pituitary tumors have the texture of tapioca, but that many people don’t seem to know what that is anymore.

Laws removes a final fragment of the tumor, and his work is done for now. The procedure is called trans-sphenoidal surgery — basically access-through-the-nose surgery. By day’s end Laws will have removed pituitary tumors from six patients, likely making the lives of these people immeasurably better.

Laws is director of the Pituitary Center at U.Va. He has removed pituitary tumors from more than 4,300 patients, more than any other doctor in the world. Most of these surgeries have been performed at the U.Va. center he helped found in 1972. Laws is internationally recognized as the top pituitary tumor surgeon. Medical residents from around the world come to U.Va. to train under him.

Illustration by Craig Luce

Pituitary Tumors
Where they are and how they are removed

The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain near the spinal cord, in the lower center of the head. This gland, normally the size of a pea, is the master gland that controls the production of all hormones. The pituitary controls growth, sexual maturation, fertility, metabolism, stress response and fluid balances. Pituitary tumors are reached by passing long and slim surgical instruments through the air sinuses to the diseased gland.

The procedure, like all planned operations, is methodical, calm, controlled, predictable, with precautions in place for possible problems or emergencies. The operation is so un-invasive, it more resembles routine dental work than major surgery. Yet, Laws and his colleagues are working at the very edge of the brain. There is little room here for error.

In past years, pituitary surgery was more dramatic, and intensive, for both the surgeon and the patient. It involved removing a portion of the skull and pushing the brain aside to reach the pituitary. The recovery period was long, and there was much greater risk for damage and complications. Laws and others invented and refined the current technique — passage through the nose — which rarely involves direct contact with the brain, even as they operate within its midst.

The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain near the spinal cord, in the lower center of the head. This gland, normally the size of a pea, is the master gland that controls the production of all hormones. The pituitary controls growth, sexual maturation, fertility, metabolism, stress response and fluid balances.

For reasons not well understood, the pituitary is subject to the slow growth of tumors. These tumors are the third-most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for 20 percent of all brain tumors. Though these tumors are almost always benign, they aren’t friendly. They can cause the pituitary gland to produce excessive or insufficient amounts of hormones, leading to a vast array of unpleasant symptoms, including severe and chronic headaches, infertility, sexual dysfunction, fatigue, weight gain, depression, apathy, sleep disorders, memory loss, and in some cases, loss of vision. Pituitary disorders also are the cause of Cushing’s syndrome, which results in obesity, “moonlike” features of the face, excess body hair and thin brittle bones.

Pituitary surgeries are discussed prior to and after each operation.
Photographs by Andrew Shurtleff
Pituitary surgeries are discussed prior to and after each operation.

Because the symptoms of pituitary disorders are so varied, it can take years to arrive at a correct diagnosis,” Laws said. “Patients often think that their health problems are attributed to just getting older.”

It takes a brain scan in the form of magnetic resonance imaging to confirm the presence of a pituitary tumor. Sometimes the tumor is three times the size of the gland itself, putting pressure on the brain and optic nerve, resulting in headaches and vision loss. Small tumors often can be treated with hormones and drugs. Radiation may shrink the tumor or inhibit its growth. If the tumor continues to grow, and symptoms worsen, surgery may be necessary.

Laws discovered early, at the beginning of his medical training at Johns Hopkins University, that he was interested in neurosurgery. His fascination with the brain has continued throughout his 40-year career as a surgeon and brain tumor researcher.

“How beautiful the brain is,” he said recently. “I’m amazed with what happens with the human brain, and I love dealing with it in an intimate fashion.” He describes the brain as “one of the greatest of God’s creations.”

But he’s happy to fix that creation when something goes wrong.

“We can restore vision,” he said of pituitary surgery. “We can restore fertility and reverse body changes. This is enormously satisfying.”

These tumors are identified using magnetic resonance imaging.
These tumors are identified using magnetic resonance imaging.

One of the first patients Laws treated with the through-the-nose surgical method was a 21-year-old man named Harvey Gartner. The surgery was performed in 1969 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital where Laws was a neurosurgery resident. Gartner had been growing rapidly since he was 6 months old. His bones were elongated, and he suffered from arthritis and other ailments.

“Those were tough years,” Gartner said of his youth.

The operation took 12 hours to complete, and all of the pituitary gland was removed, as was standard at the time. Gartner, now 56, is on lifetime hormone replacement therapy, but his health is generally good.

“I would have died,” if not for the surgery, he said.

Gartner is now a computer programmer and businessman in Jacksonville, Fla. He has remained in contact with Laws, and the pediatrician who cared for him throughout his life, Dr. Robert Blizzard, a U.Va. professor emeritus of pediatric endocrinology. At the time of Gartner’s surgery, Hopkins was the top pituitary center in the United States. That title has long since shifted to U.Va. as a result of Laws, Blizzard and others coming here to establish their interdisciplinary center.

Today, surgeons rarely need to remove the entire pituitary gland. Instead, when surgery is necessary, they remove only the tumor attached to the gland. The entire procedure, including prepping the patient for surgery and the post-operative period, can be accomplished in a couple of hours. The patient is able to return home in two or three days and can resume normal activities in two to four weeks.

Within a few days after surgery, the patient’s severe headaches will have diminished. Vision will be restored within a day in cases where the tumor had pressed against the optic nerve. Body changes, such as weight loss and normalization of facial features, will occur in about six months. Throughout the patient’s life, teams of endocrinologists and other specialists will measure the patient’s hormone levels and develop and refine treatment plans. Laws said some patients might not even need hormone replacement therapy.

“I don’t think anybody does this work better than we do at U.Va.,” Laws said recently between surgeries. “We’re improving our techniques and reducing the recurrence of tumors after surgery.”

At this moment he is called back into the operating room. Another patient is prepped and waiting.

Cutting-edge center
For treatment and research

The interdisciplinary Pituitary Center at U.Va. pools the talents of leading specialists in endocrinology, neurosurgery, neuro-ophthalmology, neuropathology and other areas. The specialists work as a team to diagnose patients and develop treatment plans.

Health care professionals at the center evaluate about 500 new patients each year, most of them referrals from around the Commonwealth, and the rest from other states and around the world. More than 260 new patients are operated on each year at the hospital and more than a thousand patients per year are treated at the center’s clinic at Fontaine Research Park.

Every 18 months the center brings together patients and referring physicians. The center provides training and education for fellows, medical students and residents.

Center specialists are developing a national and international referral base, providing pituitary information to physicians and patients worldwide.

Researchers with the center are constantly looking for ways to control and perhaps someday stop the development of pituitary growths.

“We want to understand why these tumors develop in the first place,” said Dr. Edward Laws, the center director.

Clinical trials are conducted at the center to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments, and Laws and other surgeons are always refining surgical techniques and developing new ones. They have operated on more than 350 patients with a “gamma knife” — a precise beam of gamma radiation that can evaporate abnormal pituitary tissue. This, and other techniques, keep the center on the cutting edge.

 


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