Students in valid F-1 status with an unexpired I-20 may seek employment on-grounds for UVA for up to 20 hours per week during the fall and spring semesters and full-time while UVA is not in session. A Graduate Teaching Assistantship (GTA) or Graduate Research Assistantship (GRA) is considered equivalent to 20 hours per week, and no further employment is permitted during the semester.
F-1 students may not provide goods or services beyond the boundaries of on-grounds employment (off-grounds or self employment) without the express permission of the ISO, and, in most instances, U.S. immigration. If there is any question about whether or not a particular endeavour qualifies as employment, students should inform the ISO before undertaking it. Note that employment outside of UVA includes self-employment; working within the U.S. for a foreign-based entity, and can even include work for which no compensation is gained. Please read the Department of Labor Fact Sheet on Unpaid Internships.
Students wishing to engage in employment beyond on-grounds for UVA may be eligible for "practical training". In most cases, no student is eligible for any type of practical training until completion of one full academic year.
As outlined in the below links, there are two types of practical training employment authorization: optional and curricular.
Additionally, you may be eligible for employment authorization based on severe economic hardship or by working for a specific type of international organization.