Among the original schools contemplated in Mr. Jefferson's plan for the organization of the University of Virginia was "Law: Municipal and Foreign, Embracing the General Principles, Theory and Practice of Jurisprudence, together with the Theory and Principles of Constitutional Government." Accordingly, the Law School was established with the opening of the University in 1825 and has been an integral part of the University since that date.
Located on the North Grounds, along with the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration and the Judge Advocate General's School, the Law School features new classrooms, seminar rooms, and moot courtrooms. The law Grounds also include comprehensive computer facilities; an expanded library with a magnificent three-story reading room; a large career services complex; attractive offices for student organizations; and numerous student lounges. Surrounded by inviting gardens and an elegant, tree-lined lawn, the setting reflects Jefferson's conviction that locating an intellectual community within a beautiful environment fosters learning and personal growth.
As of 1999, the J.D. student body is composed of 1,090 students from 47 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. They hold undergraduate or graduate degrees from approximately 250 colleges and universities. The teaching faculty includes over 60 full-time members who have been educated at this and the country's other major law schools and who bring to Virginia wide experience in education, private legal practice, and government service. Their offerings are supplemented by several dozen distinguished adjunct faculty drawn from private practice, government agencies, and the judiciary.
The Law School is justly famous for the collegial environment that bonds students and faculty, and student satisfaction is consistently cited as among the highest in American law schools. Intellectual challenges are complemented by a spirit of cooperation and camaraderie. Small first-year sections promote individual inquiry while providing support and friendship. Students read each other's work and learn together, freely share course outlines and other materials, and rely on the honor system to maintain the highest ethical standards.
Intellectual rigor, dynamic teaching, and rich diversity of courses distinguish the Virginia curriculum. The Law School fosters creative scholarship in all aspects of law, blending skilled craftsmanship with an enlarged understanding of law's changing functions in contemporary society. At Virginia, law in its origins, impact, implications, and full range of possibilities is analyzed and debated in classes, workshops, lecture programs, student organizations, and faculty-student informal exchanges. Faculty meet with and mentor students, exploring ideas and fostering understanding and creative scholarship. Interdisciplinary thinking comes naturally at Virginia, with a third of the faculty holding advanced degrees in fields such as psychology, economics, philosophy, history, medicine, and the social study of science and technology.
The Arthur J. Morris Law Library, with nearly 800,000 volumes, is one of the largest law libraries in the country. While its primary mission is to support the Law School's faculty and student body, it also provides service to the University and the legal community beyond the University. As a member of a global community of research organizations, it links the Law School to local, national, and international information sources. It is an instructional unit within the Law School responsible for teaching techniques of effective legal research and publishing materials that assist the researcher in understanding legal bibliography.
University of Virginia
School of Law
580 Massie Road
Charlottesville, VA 22903-1789
Preliminary Education The study of law requires the constant application of a disciplined mind. Therefore, those courses are best suited to prelaw study that, either in content or method of instruction, are best adapted to inculcating habits of disciplined thought. Furthermore, the scope of law is so broad that no single field of study can be peremptorily excluded. Subjects such as economics and political science are customarily recommended, but to recommend these subjects is not to suggest that other courses, such as history, mathematics, English and American literature, philosophy, the natural sciences, psychology, Latin, and modern languages are not of equal value. A lawyer is constantly engaged in communicating ideas, and to that end, emphasis on the capacity to write clearly is properly stressed. Courses in English composition are therefore recommended. Courses in accounting and public speaking are often recommended. It should be noted, however, that the School of Law offers the opportunity for pursuing these courses as related to law, so they are not specifically recommended in preference to broader and more culturally oriented courses.
Profile of the 1999 Entering Class The 353 students who entered the first year of law study at the University of Virginia in August 1999 were selected from a total of 3,368 applicants from 522 different colleges and universities. Of the entering students, 194 came from 41 different states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The remaining members were from Virginia. This class also included 175 women students, and of the 287 students who identified their ethnicity, 50 were minorities.
Although widely differing approaches to college grading often serve to render comparative statements about undergraduate records misleading, it is significant that most students in this fall's entering class ranked in the upper 20 percent of their graduating classes. The median grade point average was 3.70 on a 4.0 scale. (This computation does not include several students whose grades could not be accurately interpolated to a 4.0 scale.) The mean LSAT score was 165. Many of these students had also completed advanced degree work. The average age was 24.
The Law School has continued its policy of giving preferred status to Virginia applicants, and a large number of highly qualified non-Virginians must be turned away for lack of space. A total of 806 Virginia residents applied for admission, compared with 2,562 out-of-state applicants.
Candidates for the degree of Juris Doctor must have attained the age of 18 years (counting to the nearest birthday) before entering the School of Law; they must produce a certificate of good character from each school or college attended, or from another satisfactory source; and they must conform to the general requirements set forth below. The Law School does not offer a summer session.
Applicants should inform themselves of the character and other qualifications for admission to the Bar of the state in which they intend to practice.
Academic Requirements Each candidate must present evidence that he or she is a graduate of an accredited college.
Candidates for admission who have not completed the required entrance credits will not be admitted with the privilege of making up the deficiency.
Applications for Admission Applications for admission must be submitted on forms obtained from the Admissions Office. Students are accepted only for the fall semester starting in late August of each year.
Applications may be filed after the completion of six semesters (or the equivalent) of undergraduate work. Application volume has been around 3,500 in recent years; applicants should therefore file and complete their applications as soon as possible in order to allow the Admissions Office sufficient time to process them efficiently. Because of the problems encountered with processing the large volume of applications, the Committee on Admissions established January 15 as the deadline for receipt of applications for admission. All required materials, in addition to the application form itself, should be received at the Admissions Office prior to that date. The Committee on Admissions may, at its discretion, accept or reject applications received after that date. Whenever possible, we suggest that the application be filed and completed by January 1.
It is the policy of the Committee on Admissions to make every effort to accommodate all those who wish a personal interview. Interviews are granted between October 1 and January 15. Unfortunately, it has been our recent experience that the volume of requests outstrips our interviewing capacities. Last year, for example, it was not possible to meet the heavy demand. Therefore, the committee asks that the applicant call or write for an appointment as early as possible, and urges that those who seek interviews try to arrange visits prior to the first of the year.
All applicants will be notified, upon acceptance, that they will be required to pay a deposit to secure a place in the entering class. This deposit will be credited toward tuition.
Standards for Admission In recent years, the admission process at the University of Virginia School of Law has been rigorously selective. Spatial restrictions have necessitated the denial of admission to hundreds of applicants who would otherwise have been routinely accepted.
The Committee on Admissions believes that an absolute standard based solely on a combination of LSAT score and undergraduate grade point average (GPA) is neither the most equitable nor the most effective way to select an entering class. Consequently, the committee considers a broad array of elements in addition to the essential factors of LSAT and GPA. The committee's purpose is to assemble a diverse student body while arriving at a fair appraisal of each applicant based on many factors, both subjective and objective, quantitative and qualitative.
This broad array of data used in determining admissions decisions makes it difficult to predict what action may be taken on an individual application. The LSAT score and GPA surely are the primary determinants for the committee. However, the committee views these factors in the context of the maturing effect on an individual of some years spent away from formal education; continuing improvement in academic performance as opposed to steady but unexceptional work; financial pressure requiring employment while a full-time student; significant personal achievement in extracurricular work at college or in a work or military situation; and unusual prior training, background, or ethnicity that promises a significant contribution to the Law School community. In addition, economic, social, or educational obstacles that have been overcome successfully by an applicant have contributed to favorable consideration. Other similar factors are also considered.
Law School Admission Test The School of Law cooperates with the Law School Admission Council in the preparation and development of the Law School Admission Test. All applicants for admission are required to take the test. Test scores are used to supplement college records and other criteria that determine admission.
For the convenience of applicants taking the Law School Admission Test, examination centers have been established in many colleges throughout the country, and the test is offered in October, December, February, and June. Applicants are urged to take the test in October. Applicants with outstanding academic records who score poorly on the first test and who have good reason to believe they can improve their performance significantly should seriously consider retaking the test. Application forms and further information concerning the test may be obtained from the Law School Admission Services, Box 2000, Newtown, PA 18940; www.lsac.org.
LSDAS The applicant should register with Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS) by completing and mailing the registration form obtained from LSDAS. A transcript from each college or university attended should then be sent not to the Law School but directly to: Law School Admission Services, Box 2000, Newtown, PA 18940.
The LSDAS will analyze and duplicate the transcript. If accepted, the student will be asked to submit a final transcript, showing the award of a bachelor's degree, directly to the School of Law.
Admission From Other Law Schools No person who has previously attended any law school in the United States shall be eligible for admission as a student in this School of Law unless he or she is eligible for re-admission to the Law School previously attended. Applications of students contemplating transfer with advanced standing will not be acted upon until one full year of work has been completed.
Advanced Standing Credit Credit toward the degree of Juris Doctor in this School of Law may be given, at the discretion of the dean or assistant dean or upon vote of the law faculty, for courses satisfactorily passed in a law school in the United States that is either approved by the American Bar Association or is a member of the Association of American Law Schools. However, in no event, is this credit to exceed the equivalent of the work of three full quarters or two semesters. Similar credits may be given, in like manner, for work done in law schools outside the United States.
No credit will be given for work in any single session during which the student failed in two or more courses, nor will credit be given for any course in which the student did not receive a grade of D (or the equivalent) or better, and credits once given may be withdrawn for unsatisfactory work in this school. The dean and assistant dean are given power to make such rulings and adjustments as necessary for the fair and equitable administration of this general provision.
Transfer students are eligible to participate in combined degree programs with other departments and schools of the University and to receive academic credit for graduate-level courses taken in other departments and schools of the University on the same basis as regularly enrolled students. In considering the admission of a transfer student to a combined degree program or the authorization of non-Law School credit for a transfer student, the faculty advisor or the assistant dean, as the case may be, may take into account the transfer applicant's academic record and the institution from which he or she has transferred.
Health Students who have been admitted to the University must complete a personal medical history form. Appropriate forms are sent after admission is granted. All health requirements must be met prior to registration.
A limited number of applicants who, though unable to fulfill the foregoing entrance requirements, can present proper evidence of good character, maturity, and training, may, in exceptional cases and by special action of the law faculty, be admitted as special students. (The limitation of the number of special students admitted conforms to the recommendation of the American Bar Association.) Applicants who fulfill the regular graduate entrance requirement but who are unable to meet the intense competition for places should note that the special student category is not available to them. Special student applicants must take the Law School Admission Test.
The applicant for admission as a special student must apply on forms available from the Admissions Office, supplemented with detailed information as to prior education, business experience, and general fitness to undertake the study of law. A statement explaining why the applicant is unable to qualify as a regular student must accompany the written application.
Financial Aid Information
Title IV Institutional Code = 003745
College Name = University of Virginia
Financial aid in the form of scholarships, federal loans, and federally supported work-study employment is available to students who demonstrate "need" according to the guidelines of the FAFSA form. Limited merit-based aid is also available. In addition to the scholarship, federal loan and employment programs, federal and non-federal loan assistance is available without regard to a family's ability to contribute toward meeting educational costs. Although there are deadlines which, in the student's self-interest, ought to be observed, the financial aid office recognizes that emergencies may arise and available financial resources may change unexpectedly. When unforeseen circumstances occur, or when questions arise about the nature of and/or responsibilities for the various forms of financial aid, inquiries should be addressed to, or an appointment made with, the director of financial aid.
All citizens and permanent residents of the United States are eligible to apply for financial assistance. All financial aid data provided is kept confidential.
First-Year Students: How To Apply Applicants for federal and institutional financial aid must file the FAFSA form. This form may be obtained from the financial aid office at the institution the student is currently attending; from any school in the applicant's area; from the Law School Financial Aid Office; or online at www.fafsa.ed.gov. Due to changing federal regulations, it is best to verify with the Law School financial aid office the required forms needed before beginning the financial aid process. The applications should be filed no later than February 15, if at all possible, in order to ensure its receipt at the school by March 1. The FAFSA contains sections to be completed by the applicant, spouse, and the applicant's parents. Parental information is required by our institution for all applicants under the age of 26, regardless of the FAFSA instructions.Turning age 26 by the time of matriculation does not exempt students from this requirement. An in-house financial aid application is required from admitted applicants only.
Second- and Third-Year Students Financial aid is not automatically renewed. Each second- and third-year law student who is currently on financial aid must re-apply yearly to continue receiving financial aid. Since a person's financial circumstances can change significantly from one year to the next, new applications are necessary each year to reflect all such changes accurately. To renew financial assistance, each student must submit the FAFSA and an in-house application that serves the particular needs and programs available at this Law School. Parental information is required by our institution for all applicants under the age of 26, regardless of the FAFSA instructions. Turning age 26 by the time of matriculation does not exempt students from this requirement. Applications are available from the financial aid office.
Rising second- and third-year students should complete and submit the forms no later than April 15 of the year preceding the period for which aid is requested. Since the amount of scholarship and federal financial aid is limited, these funds will be distributed on a first-come, first-served basis. Scholarships are not automatically renewed. Tardy reapplications may diminish the extent of aid provided, or may exclude the late applicant altogether from either or both of these programs. The FAFSA is available online at www.fafsa.ed.gov.
Students' budgets are determined by the University Committee on Scholarships, Loans, and Employment, and are standardized for all graduate and professional schools at the University. Modifications are made to reflect the actual costs incurred by law students in general. Modifications are also made to reflect the particular circumstances of each applicant. Exceptions are kept at a minimum, however, due to the limited amount of scholarships and federal funds that are allocated to the Law School, and for the standardized distribution of financial assistance to all aid recipients. All expenses covered must be educationally related. Individual counseling may be appropriate, and the director of financial aid is available for such purposes.
Budgets for the 2000-2001 academic year are estimated as follows:
VA Resident Non-Resident
Tuition & Fees $15,803 $23,684
Room, Board, Misc. 10,808 10,808
Books 800 800
Loan Origination Fees 555 555
Allowances may be made to accommodate child care and other non-discretionary expenses, such as a computer, computer-related expenses, and medical expenses not covered by insurance. A written petition, with supporting documentation, is required. The Financial Aid Office may use its discretion in the amount of allowance permitted for each expense. Any adjustment made will be covered with additional loan funds.
Standard Forms of Financial Aid
Scholarships The Financial Aid Office has a variety of scholarships at its disposal that have been donated from individuals and groups, as well as federal and state government grants. The director of financial aid distributes gift assistance in such a way as to maintain a reasonable ratio of gift to loan or work-study assistance. Financial need is the primary principle by which scholarships/grants are awarded and, to the extent it is possible, effort is made to distribute gift aid to all recipients proportionately. Limited merit-based aid is also available. In addition, effort is made to keep the financial aid package constant from year to year. This principle may be mitigated by the number of students seeking aid, the timeliness of the application, the demonstrated need level, and funding allocations that occur yearly.
Emergency Loans Emergency loans can be obtained to cover unforeseen, educationally- related expenses that may arise during the academic year. Emergency loans are obtained by written petition to the director of financial aid, stating the amount needed (not to exceed $400), the nature of the expense, and the source from which the repayment will come. Emergency funds are "revolving;" that is, they are available only to the extent they are repaid. These loans are interest free and are limited to one per academic year.
Federal Direct Student Loan Program The University of Virginia is a Federal Direct Loan lending institution. Separate bank loan applications are not required. The FAFSA form will determine eligibility for both the Stafford Subsidized and Unsubsidized loans. The federal government will be the lender, rather than a bank. Applicants may be deemed eligible to receive both programs; however, the combined loan total may not exceed $18,500 per year. Loan information will be sent as part of the financial aid package. Additional information on both loans is cited below.
Federal Direct Stafford Subsidized Loan A need-based loan program that allows eligible students, as deemed by the financial aid office, to borrow up to $8,500 per year to help offset the total cost of education. Borrowers' loans will hold a variable rate capped at 8.25 percent interest. The interest rate for repeat borrowers with outstanding balances may vary depending upon prior loan terms and current Stafford regulations. The cumulative outstanding debt allowable from both undergraduate and graduate study is $65,500.
Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan This loan program allows graduate and professional students to borrow up to $18,500 a year. Unlike the Stafford Subsidized Loan program, interest begins accruing immediately. Payment of the interest must either be capitalized or made while enrolled. This loan program may be used to help offset a student's expected family contribution. The interest rate is variable but will not exceed 8.25 percent.
Private-Sector Educational Loans Private loans are available to students who have unmet need, based on the determined cost of education less any other scholarship and/or financial assistance received. These loans are based on credit history and ability to repay as determined by the lender. Interest rates are based on market indicators and vary from lender to lender. Most lenders allow interest to be deferred until graduation or when enrollment ceases or drops below half-time. An eligible co-borrower/co-signor may be required. The Law School's Financial Aid Office is not involved in the credit evaluation process. Private educational loan borrowing should be done conservatively and as a last resort. Our office is not in a position to provide substitute funding should a private-sector loan be denied.
Bar Examination Loans These loans are presently available through Law Access, Law Loans, or Law Achiever during the final year of study and are based upon the student's credit worthiness, as well as overall program restrictions. Repayment begins nine months after graduation.
Students may apply for part-time work through either the Law School or the University's part-time employment counselor in the Office of Financial Aid to Students. However, first-year students are discouraged from part-time work because of the extensive requirements of the first-year curriculum. In no event may any student engage in more than 20 hours of employment per week.
Students are employed in the Law School as research assistants to law professors and assistants in the Law Library, the Admissions Office, and the Career Services Office. Only second- and third-year students are eligible for work-study employment. All other positions are open to all students.
Over the years, students in the School of Law have consistently been able to obtain outstanding permanent and summer jobs. Most of these jobs are the result of contacts made during interviews with employers conducted at the Law School; the remainder are obtained by students on their own, often with the assistance of the Law School's Career Services Office or Public Service Center. They are among the very busiest offices in the country in terms of the number of employers contacting them annually with job opportunities. In the fall of 1999, for example, more than 900 public- and private-sector law offices from 44 states and the District of Columbia conducted nearly 8,000 interviews at the Law School from mid-September to early November. An additional 700 employers solicited resumes from Virginia students without visiting the Law School.
This volume of recruiting activity is a measure of the esteem in which Virginia students are held by legal employers. It has, moreover, resulted in a geographical pattern of job placement that is as diverse as that of any law school in the country. For example, the most popular employment locales for graduates of the Class of 1999 were Washington, D.C. (64 graduates); New York City (48); Richmond (18); Atlanta and Chicago (15 each); Alexandria (9); Boston and Los Angeles (8 each); Baltimore, Charlotte, and Houston (7 each); Birmingham, Charlottesville, Dallas, Denver, and San Francisco (6 each); San Diego (5); and McLean, Palo Alto, and Philadelphia (4 each).
The Career Services Office and the Public Service Center offer a wide range of services to students seeking permanent and summer employment. They maintain contact with students and employers through the CASE system, which links the offices with students and employers via the Internet. In addition to attending to the logistical demands of the fall interviewing season, both the Career Services Office and the Public Service Center provide individual counseling on subjects ranging from interviewing techniques to strategies for obtaining specific types of jobs to letter and resume writing. The offices also help students looking for jobs outside the formal interviewing process by corresponding with, and forwarding student resumes to, non-visiting employers posted on the CASE system and by assisting students in locating still other employers, often making use of the Internet and the comprehensive employer listings in the Career Services and Public Service Center libraries.
The Career Services Office and the Public Service Center have developed and maintain an extensive Law School Alumni Network, made up of more than 1,200 of its graduates who have volunteered to provide advice and assistance to students and graduates in the job market. The network is accessible to students and graduates via the CASE system.
Other projects conducted by the Career Services Office and the Public Service Center include panel discussions on various kinds of legal opportunities, including those not generally represented among visiting employers; online job listings for alumni in the job market; regional job fairs; an annual public interest job fair; symposia on job search techniques and strategies; a mock interview program for first-year students; and projects designed to promote careers in public service, such as Student Funded Fellowships, which provide stipends to students in summer public-service jobs, and the University of Virginia Public Service Loan Assistance Program, which provides loan assistance to graduates in public service positions.
Within a few months of graduation in 1999, 352 out of 371 graduates had informed the Career Services Office that they had obtained jobs: 241 with law firms; 66 as judicial clerks; 11 with federal, city, or state government agencies or public interest groups; 4 with corporations; and 11 with the military. The remaining graduates engaged in such disparate endeavors as graduate study, accounting, and investment banking.
The members of the Class of 1999 accepted positions in 30 states and the District of Columbia. Starting salaries varied considerably with location and type of work. For example, large New York firms offered 1999 graduates $110,000 per year, while similar jobs in large urban areas were generally more than $85,000, and in smaller urban areas they were typically around $45,000. Jobs with the federal government were, in most cases, at the $35,000 salary level. Although precise figures are not available, the average starting salary for graduates in the private sector was estimated by the Career Services Office to be about $92,000.
The degree of Juris Doctor is conferred upon both regular and special students who satisfy the residence and grade requirements described below and who maintain a satisfactory record such as should characterize a prospective member of the legal profession.
Residence Residence of six semesters is required except in the case of transfer students who have received credit for work done in other law schools and who enter with advanced standing credit. Students may claim full residence credit for a semester only if they receive grades of D or better for at least 9 credits, are enrolled in 12 credits, and meet the Law School's attendance requirement. (A credit represents one lecture period per week throughout one semester.) Students who fail to enroll in 12 credits in a semester without permission of the assistant dean for student affairs will receive no residence credit for that semester.
Grading System Candidates for the J.D. degree must accumulate 86 credits while satisfying two conditions: they must maintain a minimum grade point average of C+ (2.3) and accumulate fewer than three exclusion points at the conclusion of each academic year. A grade of D carries one exclusion point and a grade of F carries two exclusion points. Under the grading system, there are ten possible grades that can be used by the faculty in evaluating performance in courses and seminars--A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, D, F. It is the intent of the faculty that, for the purpose of allocating grades in a course or seminar and to assist in achieving grade uniformity, the mean grade for each course and seminar will be a 3.3 (B+). However, there is no particular grading curve to which a faculty member must adhere. Thus, the mean can be achieved by either averaging relatively high and low grades or having most grades grouped more closely around the B+ (3.3) mean.
The A+ is reserved for truly outstanding performance. A given class may well have no such performances. It would be very unusual if more than one or two grades of A+ were awarded in a class of 100, as the purpose of the grade is to permit the recognition of the clearly outstanding student. Such a grade would be particularly helpful, for example, in the consideration of candidates for clerkships, teaching positions, and certain other positions that require exceptionally high academic performance. The grade of F is used only for those very few students whose performance is wholly inadequate. As with the case of A+, a given class may well include no such performances. Once again, it would be unusual if more than one or two grades of F were assigned in a class of 100. No credit is given for a course in which a student receives an F; credit is given for a D.
Numerical grade point values for letter grades are provided below:
A+ 4.3 Grade Points
A 4.0 Grade Points
A- 3.7 Grade Points
B+ 3.3 Grade Points
B 3.0 Grade Points
B- 2.7 Grade Points
C+ 2.3 Grade Points
C 2.0 Grade Points
D 1.0 Grade Points
F 0.0 Grade Points
Master of Laws (LL.M) and Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.)
Admission Requirements This program of graduate study is designed primarily for graduates of foreign law schools (approximately three-quarters of the class) wishing to study one or more aspects of U.S. law and legal methods, and for foreign and U.S. law graduates seeking careers in legal education or government service. Admission is limited to specially qualified students and depends upon proven ability in the study of law.
A law graduate desiring to enter the School of Law and become a candidate for a graduate degree must prepare an application including, among other things, his or her objectives in pursuing graduate study and a proposed program of study or research. Application forms may be obtained on request from the Director of Graduate Studies, School of Law, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.
Foreign students whose native language is other than English are required to demonstrate satisfactory proficiency in the English language. Such students are required to submit results on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) as part of their complete application.
All graduate students are normally admitted at the outset as candidates for the LL.M. LL.M. graduates and others are admitted to candidacy for the Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) degree only after the candidate is in residence and the graduate committee is satisfied as to his or her qualifications. To be considered for S.J.D. candidacy, one normally must hold the LL.M. or have taught or practiced for some time. Admission to candidacy for the S.J.D. degree does not follow automatically from admission to the graduate program, but depends upon the judgment of the candidate's qualifications by the graduate committee.
Application Deadline Applications must be received by March 1. However, candidates are strongly advised to submit their applications earlier in the fall semester.
Fellowships Fellowships are limited to a portion of tuition and are based on merit and need. Foreign students may compete for fellowship funds on the same basis as Americans. Fellowships are normally granted for one year and are limited in number.
Master of Laws (LL.M.) The degree of Master of Laws is conferred upon students who, having been admitted to candidacy, have satisfactorily completed at least two semesters of residence and a minimum of 24 credits. With the exception of required first-year courses and graduation requirements, all policies and regulations listed in the Course Offering Directory as applicable to J.D. students also apply to graduate students. At least two credits must be earned in producing a substantial written work of publishable quality, either within a seminar or as supervised research. Foreign students may be required to attend one or more orientation lectures specially designed for them.
Specialization in Oceans Law and Policy Exceptionally qualified students with proven interests in the field, who are otherwise qualified for the regular LL.M., may be admitted to the LL.M. program with specialization in oceans law and policy. The program, administered by the chair of the Law School graduate program and the director of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy, requires the student to complete 30 credits, at least 15 of which must be with a B or better. The student must also fulfill a 12-week externship, normally in Washington, D.C., to be completed in the summer following the second semester in residency.
Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) The degree of Doctor of Juridical Science is conferred upon students who, having been admitted to candidacy, have:
1. completed two semesters of residency demonstrating honors ability in a program of work approved by the graduate advisor and including a minimum of six credits of courses or seminars. Formal courses and seminars may be prescribed as deemed useful to the particular student. Normally, the program should include work in legal education and legal philosophy. Candidates for the S.J.D. degree must usually take additional periods of time, either in residence or in absentia, to prepare for the oral examination and submit a satisfactory dissertation;
2. completed a dissertation that is an original contribution to the literature of law, demonstrating mastery of the principles of scholarly research, critical analysis, and reasoned presentation of results. The doctoral dissertation is normally of book or monograph length or suitable for a series of law review articles. The subject must be approved by the student's advisor;
3. satisfactorily passed an oral examination by a special committee appointed for that purpose. When the dissertation has been approved by the faculty member supervising the student's research, three examiners are appointed to question the applicant orally and report to the law faculty in writing their opinion of his or her work and fitness for the degree.
The dissertation required for the degree may be submitted, and the oral examination held, any time within five years after the completion of the required period of residency. This period may be extended at the discretion of the graduate committee on showing of cause in writing to the committee.
Master of Laws in the Judicial Process This degree program was inaugurated by the Law School in 1980 as a special graduate program designed for American appellate judges. The program requires attendance at two resident summer sessions of six weeks each and the submission of a thesis.
A class is admitted to the program only once every three years. The present class enrolled in the summer of 1999 and the next class enrolls in the summer of 2002. Priority in admission is given to judges of the federal and state appellate courts, although trial judges will be considered for admission.
Additional information may be obtained from the Director, Graduate Program for Judges, University of Virginia School of Law, Charlottesville, VA 22903.
Combined Degree Programs
Credit for Courses Taken Before Enrollment as a J.D. Candidate With the exception of transfer students, credit is not granted for academic work completed prior to enrollment as a J.D. candidate, including law courses in this Law School and graduate courses in schools and departments at this University with whom the Law School maintains joint degree programs.
Limited Enrollment While in Residence While enrolled in the Law School, no student may be simultaneously enrolled in courses as part of a degree-granting program or otherwise at another institution without prior approval by the curriculum committee.
Documentation for Joint Degree Programs Students must present documentation indicating acceptance into a joint degree program to the Student Records Office. During one semester of their tenure in the School of Law, students must be registered in the school in which the second degree will be obtained. The Student Records Office must be informed of the semester in which the student will be enrolled in the other school.
J.D.-M.A. (Bioethics) Program
The following program for a combined M.A. degree was instituted in 1998 by the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
Administration of the Program The program is administered by a program committee, consisting of two members of the Law faculty appointed by the dean of the School of Law, two members of the faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences appointed by the dean of the graduate faculties, and the director of the Center for Biomedical Ethics in the School of Medicine.
Admission to the Program Students are required to secure admission separately to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the Law School through the normal admissions processes in the two schools. Students must meet the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. Once admitted independently to the two schools, students may then apply to the program committee for admission to the joint program.
Curriculum The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes three and one-half to four years to complete and requires a minimum of 98 credits. In effect, the program consists of the complete first-year program at the School of Law and at least two and one-half years of courses taken from the curricula of both schools and, when appropriate, from other graduate offerings at the University. Students must meet all of the requirements set by the respective schools for the award of both the J.D. and M.A. degrees. In the School of Law this means that students are required to earn a minimum of 86 credits and complete the required curriculum of the Law School. In the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, minimum requirements for the M.A. degree include 24 credits in an approved program and completion of a thesis under the supervision of a faculty advisor. With the approval of Law School representatives on the program committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for his or her J.D. degree in appropriate graduate-level work in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Similarly, with the approval of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences advisor on the program committee, a student may receive up to nine of the 24 credits required for the M.A. degree in appropriate work in the School of Law. No student, however, may have more than 12 credits applied toward both degrees.
Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint program with approval of the program committee and continue toward a single degree at either school.
Grading Standards The student is required to meet the grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing
Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors Richard J. Bonnie and Paul A. Lombardo.
J.D.-M.A. (Economics) Program
It is possible to pursue both the J.D. degree in the Law School and an M.A. degree in the Graduate School of Arts and Science's James Wilson Department of Economics, but admission and course requirements are handled independently by each school. The Law School advisors for this program are Professors Charles J. Goetz and George Cohen.
J.D.-M.A. (English) Program
The following J.D.-M.A. program was instituted in 1994 by the School of Law and the Department of English.
Administration of the Program Management of the program and advising of participant students are entrusted, on the Law School side, to a faculty member designated by the dean, and, on the side of the Department of English, to its director of graduate studies.
Admission to the Program Admission to the program requires three steps. (1) The student must secure admission to the English department graduate program through the department's normal admissions process. A student will be held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program will not be considered at this stage. A student may apply to the English department either while a first-year law student or prior to entering the School of Law. (2) The student must secure admission to the School of Law through its normal admissions process. A student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint degree program is not considered at this stage. (3) The student must secure admission to the joint program by petitioning the joint faculty committee.
Curriculum The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes four years to complete. It may be possible to complete the program in less time, however, by additional summer work and by carrying a higher than average load. In brief, the program consists of the complete first-year program in the School of Law, followed by three years of courses taken from the curricula of the two schools and, in appropriate cases, from other graduate offerings at the University.
Students are required to meet all of the requirements set by the respective departments for the award of both the J.D. and the M.A. degrees. In the School of Law this means that the student is required to earn a minimum of 86 credits and complete the required curriculum of the Law School. In the English department, requirements for the M.A. degree vary from program to program. There are three: the M.A. in English, the M.A. in English and American Studies, and the M.A. in English and Medieval Studies. The programs' different requirements appear in the department's regulations for graduate studies, and all applicants should thoroughly familiarize themselves with these rules.
With the approval of the Law School representative on the program committee, students may receive up to 12 of 86 credits required for their J.D. degree in appropriate graduate-level work in the Department of English or other departments at the University. Graduate school courses in literary theory or cultural studies are the most likely candidates for such credit, and Law School credit is not usually given for literature courses. When directly relevant to a particular student's Law School program of study, however, the Law School representative may grant Law School credit for literature courses containing a significant component of cultural studies, literary theory, or cultural, intellectual, or social history. In all cases, the Law School representative must approve credit for any course taken outside the School of Law before the student takes the course. Similarly, with the approval of the director of graduate studies of the English Department, a student may receive up to nine of the credits required for the M.A. in appropriate work in the School of Law. Whether a student may receive the full nine credits varies from program to program within the English department.
Change in Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint degree and continue toward a single degree at either school. A student is then obligated to satisfy the normal requirements of the school elected, which may include credit for some of the work completed in the other school, as determined by the appropriate officials of the school in question.
Financial Aid During the first year, financial aid is available to law students on the usual basis by application to the School of Law. Financial aid during remaining years may be available from each school under that school's normal procedures in proportion to the number of credits taken in each school and depending on the availability of assistance.
Tuition and Fees During the first year of the program, the student is treated for these purposes as a regularly matriculated student at the School of Law. During the remaining years, the student pays the higher of the tuitions of the two schools, plus the required fees, plus the special fees exacted by both schools. For any semester during which a student is in full-time residence in the Department of English, however, he or she is treated for these purposes as a regular student in that department. Tuition is allocated among schools as determined by the program committee.
Extracurricular Activities The student is eligible to participate in the extracurricular activities of both schools to the extent that time permits, but should be particularly alert to the possibility of over-commitment, and should seek the counsel of the program committee before undertaking any formal extracurricular activities of a time-consuming nature.
Grading Standards In the first year of the combined program, while enrolled exclusively in the School of Law, the student is required to meet the grading standards of that school. In remaining years, when enrolled in both schools, the student will be required to meet the session and cumulative grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing. Grades will be recorded on the student's transcript under the system in effect at the school in which the course is taken.
Faculty Advisors The Law School Faculty advisor for this program is Professor George Rutherglen.
J.D.-M.A. (Government and Foreign Affairs) Program
The following J.D.-M.A. program was instituted in 1970 by the School of Law and the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs.
Administration of the Program Management of the program and advising of participating students are entrusted, on the Law School side, to a faculty member designated by the dean, and, on the side of the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, to its regular graduate advisor.
Admission to the Program Admission to the program requires three steps. (1) The student must secure admission to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs through the department's normal admissions process. A student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. A student may apply to the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs while a first-year law student or prior to entrance at the School of Law. (2) The student must secure admission to the School of Law through its normal admissions process. A student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. (3) The student must secure admission to the joint degree program by petitioning the joint faculty.
Curriculum The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes three and one-half years to complete. It may be possible to complete the program in three years, however, by additional summer work and by carrying a higher than average load. In brief, the program consists of the complete first-year program in the School of Law, followed by two and one-half years of courses taken from the curricula of both schools and, in appropriate cases, from other graduate offerings at the University. The student must meet all of the requirements set by the respective departments for the award of both the J.D. and the M.A. degrees. In the School of Law, this means that the student is required to earn a minimum of 86 credits and complete the required curriculum of the School. In the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, requirements for the M.A. degree in government or in foreign affairs include 24 credits, satisfactory performance on two comprehensive examinations, completion of a thesis under the supervision of two faculty advisors, and demonstration of appropriate competence in a foreign language or in quantitative research methods. With the approval of the Law School representatives on the program committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for his or her J.D. degree in appropriate graduate-level work in the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs or other graduate offerings at the University. Similarly, with the approval of the graduate advisor of the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, a student may receive up to six of the 24 credits required for the M.A. in appropriate work in the School of Law. The same rules pertain to the M.A. degree in public administration, except that 27 credits and only one comprehensive examination are required, and there is no language requirement.
Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint degree and continue toward a single degree at either school. A student is then obligated to satisfy the normal requirements of the school elected, which may include credit for some of the work completed in the other school, as determined by the appropriate officials of the school in question.
Financial Aid During the first year, financial aid is available to law students on the usual basis by application to the School of Law. Financial aid during remaining years is available from each school in proportion to the number of credits taken in each school and the availability of assistance. The program committee has the responsibility of working with the financial aid officers of each school and with the student to coordinate any problems of financial aid that arise.
Tuition and Fees During the first year of the program, the student is treated for these purposes as a regularly matriculated student at the School of Law. During the remaining years, the student pays the higher of the tuitions of the two schools, plus the required fees, plus the special fees exacted by both schools. For any semester during which a student is in full-time residence in the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, however, he or she is treated for these purposes as a regular student in that department. Tuition is allocated among schools as determined by the program committee.
Extracurricular Activities The student is eligible to participate in the extracurricular activities of both schools to the extent that time permits, but should be particularly alert to the possibility of over-commitment, and should seek the counsel of the program committee before undertaking any formal extracurricular activities of a time-consuming nature.
Grading Standards In the first year of the combined program, while enrolled exclusively in the School of Law, the student is required to meet the grading standards of that school. In remaining years, when enrolled in both schools, the student is required to meet the session and cumulative grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing. Grades are recorded on the student's transcript under the system in effect at the school in which the course is taken.
Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisor for this program is Professor John Norton Moore.
J.D.-M.A. (History) Program
In order to encourage the study of legal history and to attract able students into the field, the School of Law, in conjunction with the Corcoran Department of History, offers a combined J.D.-M.A. degree program. Persons admitted to the M.A. program commence their work in history at the beginning of their second year. Eight courses are required for the M.A. degree, which is generally awarded simultaneously with the J.D. at the end of the third year of Law School. Of the eight three-credit courses, six may be credited toward both the 24 credits required for the M.A. degree and the 86 credits required for the J.D. degree. Students generally take two history courses per semester during the second and third years of law study. Five courses in legal history are offered by the law faculty. Two other courses, drawn from the general offerings of the Corcoran Department of History, are chosen in consultation with the law-history program advisor. Other requirements for the M.A. degree include a thesis, completed in a three-credit research seminar during the third year; proficiency in a foreign language (two years of college study or the equivalent); and creditable performance in a one-hour oral examination. Three credits for passing the oral exam are awarded for the M.A., but not for the J.D.
The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors G. Edward White, Michael Klarman, and Charles McCurdy.
J.D.-M.A. (Philosophy) Program
This program generally follows the format of the J.D.-M.A. (English) program. Applicants interested in this program should write for further details to either of the Law School faculty advisors, Professors Jody Kraus and Dan Ortiz.
J.D.-M.A. (Sociology) Program
The following program for a combined J.D.-M.A. degree was instituted in 1971 by the School of Law and the Department of Sociology.
Administration of the Program The program is administered by a program committee, consisting of two members of the Law faculty appointed by the dean of the School of Law, and two members of the Department of Sociology faculty, nominated by the department chair and appointed by the dean of the graduate faculties.
Admission to the Program Students are required to secure admission separately to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the Law School through its normal admissions processes. Students must meet the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. Once admitted independently to the two schools, students may then apply to the program committee for admission to the joint program.
Curriculum The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes three and one-half to four years to complete and requires a minimum of 98 credits. In effect, the program consists of either the complete first-year program at the School of Law or the complete first-year program in the Department of Sociology and at least two and one-half years of courses taken from the curricula of both schools and, when appropriate, from other graduate offerings at the University. Students must meet all of the requirements set by the respective departments for the award of both the J.D. and M.A. degree. In the School of Law, this means that students are required to earn a minimum of 86 credits and complete the required curriculum of the Law School. In the Department of Sociology, minimum requirements for the M.A. degree include 24 credits in an approved program and completion of a thesis under the supervision of a faculty advisor. With the approval of the Law School representatives on the program committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for his or her J.D. degree in appropriate graduate-level work in the Department of Sociology. Similarly, with the approval of the graduate advisor in the Department of Sociology, a student may receive up to six of the 24 credits required for the M.A. degree in appropriate work in the School of Law. No student, however, may have more than 12 credits applied toward both degrees.
Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint program with the approval of the program committee and continue toward a single degree at either school.
Grading Standards The student is required to meet the grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing.
Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors John Monahan and Richard Bonnie.
External Combined-Degree Programs
in Public International Law
The Law School does not maintain formal combined degree programs with schools in other universities. However, for a student who is admitted both to the Law School and to one of the following three schools, the Law School will approve a combined degree for the study of public international law on application by the individual student:
J.D.-M.P.A. (Public Affairs) in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University;
J.D.-M.A.L.D. (Law and Diplomacy) in the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
at Tufts University;
J.D.-M.A. (International Relations and
International Economics) at the Johns
Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.
Students must be admitted independently to the University of Virginia School of Law and one of the above-named schools. The student may begin the program by attending a year at the University of Virginia Law School first or a year at the other school. However, only after completion of the first year of Law School, consisting of all required credits and two semesters of residence, may credits earned at the other school be applied to the J.D. Students may apply up to 14 semester hours of credit and one semester of residence credit from the other school toward the J.D. Details of the requirements at Princeton, Tufts, and Johns Hopkins must be obtained from those schools, as the programs are administered independently. A student must have a faculty advisor at the other school who approves the student's degree curriculum.
The Law School faculty advisor for a public international law combined degree is Professor John Norton Moore. Professor Moore's permission is required in order to pursue one of the above degree programs. Transfer students and students who visit at another school for their third year are not eligible. External studies projects may not be undertaken by students in external combined degree programs.
The Law School offers a combined program with the University of Virginia Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, in which the student may obtain both the M.B.A. and the J.D. degree in four years instead of the five that would be required if each were taken separately.
Administration of the Program The program is administered by members of the Law and Darden School faculties, as designated by the respective deans. These faculty members are the faculty advisors for the program.
Admission to the Program A student who wishes to be admitted into the joint program must secure separate admission to both the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration and the School of Law through the normal admissions process. In both cases, the student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. Application to one school may be made either prior to entrance or while a first-year student at the other. No students are admitted to the joint program after completing the first year of either Law or Darden. Students who have been admitted to both schools and who wish to undertake the joint program should notify the registrar of each school and apply to the faculty advisors for permission to do so. Admission requires approval of both the Law and Darden faculty advisors.
Curriculum The program takes four years to complete. It consists of the complete first-year program of each school, followed by two years of courses taken from the curricula of the two schools and, in appropriate cases, from other graduate offerings at the University. Students who have been admitted to the program may elect whether they want to start in the School of Law or the Darden School, and in any event must spend their first year in full-time residence in either the Darden School or the School of Law. The second year is spent in the other school, again in full-time residence and, in effect, as regular first-year students.
Thereafter (assuming the student has earned 30 Law School credits and successfully completed the first-year program at the Darden School), the student is required to earn 32 credits per year for the next two years, 12 each year in the Darden School and 20 each year in the School of Law. As part of these credits, the student must take all of the required curricula of both the Darden School and the School of Law. The remaining credits are electives and may be chosen from the respective law and business curricula. At the successful conclusion of the four years, the student is awarded both the M.B.A. and J.D. degrees.
Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint degree and continue toward a single degree at either school. The student must then satisfy the normal requirements of the school elected, which may include credit for some of the work done in the other school, as determined by the appropriate officials of the school in question.
Financial Aid Financial aid is available during the first two years by application to the school at which the student is a resident. The school at which the student was a resident for the first year also provides for the third year, and the other school provides for the final year.
Tuition and Fees During the first two years of the program, students are treated for these purposes as regularly matriculated students at the school in which they are in residence. The student pays Law School tuition and fees while in residence at the School of Law, and Darden School tuition and fees while in residence at that school. During the third and fourth years, the students pay the higher of the tuitions of the two schools, plus the required fees, plus the special fees exacted by both schools.
Extracurricular Activities The students are eligible to participate in the extracurricular activities of both schools to the extent that their time permits. Students should be particularly alert to the possibility of over-commitment, however.
Grading Standards In the first two years of the combined J.D.-M.B.A program, while enrolled exclusively in either the School of Law or the Darden School, students are required to meet the grading standards of the school in which they are enrolled.
In the final two years, when enrolled in both schools, students are required to meet the session and cumulative grading standards of each school independently to remain in good standing.
Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors Edmund W. Kitch and Paul G. Mahoney.
The Law School offers a combined program with the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning of the School of Architecture, in which the student may earn both the degrees of Master of Planning (M.P.) and the J.D. in four years' time. This program is similar in format to the JD.-M.B.A. program. Thus, a student must be independently admitted both to the Law School and to the Architecture School, Department of Planning. The student spends one full year in each school during his or her first two years in the program. Twelve credits earned in planning courses may be counted toward the J.D., and nine hours of credit earned in Law School courses may be counted toward the M.P. Prospective applicants to the Law School who are interested in the J.D.-M.P. program should write for detailed information to Timothy Beatley, Chair, Department of Urban and Environmental Planning, School of Architecture, Campbell Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22903. The Law School faculty advisor for this program is Professor Thomas R. White III.
J.D.-M.S. (Accounting) Program
Persons admitted to the School of Law can earn both the J.D. and M.S. in Accounting degrees. Individuals must apply for admission to the Graduate School of Commerce in the usual manner. Commerce studies usually begin after one year in the School of Law. Students must meet all of the requirements specified by the respective schools. A student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for the J.D. degree by successful completion of graduate-level work in the Graduate School of Commerce. Similarly, a student may receive up to six of the 30 credits required for the M.S. degree for successful completion of course work in the School of Law. Law students completing the M.S. program also have the option to write a thesis for six credits, reducing the course work requirement to 24 credits, six in the School of Law and 18 in Commerce. The Law School faculty advisor for this program is Professor Thomas R. White III.
Prerequisites Without permission from the instructor, students are not permitted to take any course before they meet the normal prerequisites for that course.
Attendance at Lectures To qualify for the residence credit required for graduation and to be eligible to take most state bar examinations, students must have been in regular attendance during their time in the Law School. Regular attendance is defined as attending a minimum of eighty percent of class sessions. However, instructors have the authority to determine a higher standard of regular attendance for their classes. Absences from class are not authorized. A student who accumulates an excessive number of unwarranted absences may not be permitted to complete the work for the course, may be given a WF (withdrawn, failing), may be denied residence credit for that semester, or, in extreme cases, may be requested to withdraw in accordance with the provisions detailed below.
Change of Courses A student may resign from, change, or add courses during a designated period at the beginning of a semester. Thereafter, a student may resign from a course only with the permission of the assistant dean for academic services. Permission will be granted only for good cause, such as illness or other adverse circumstances beyond a student's control and, in the case of seminars, small courses, and independent research, only after consultation with the instructor teaching the course.
Credit for Courses in Other Law Schools No credit is given to any student registered in this school for courses taken in other law schools, unless permission to take such courses is obtained in advance from the assistant dean for academic services and unless the student earns a grade of D (or its equivalent) or better. In no event are students given permission to take elsewhere for credit a course in which they have received a grade of F in this school. No credit is given for any courses taken in summer school programs conducted outside the United States, even if such programs are sponsored by ABA-accredited law schools.
Credit for Courses Taken Before Enrollment as a J.D. Candidate No credit is granted to any student, except transfer students, for any academic work completed prior to enrollment as a J.D. candidate, including Law School courses in this Law School and graduate courses in schools and departments at the University of Virginia with whom the Law School maintains joint degree programs.
Credit for Graduate Courses at the University Students may supplement their Law School curriculum during their second and third years with courses from other schools and departments of the University. To qualify for credit toward a law degree, the courses must be on the Law School's list of approved non-law courses for Law School credit, must be graduate-level, non-language, and must be directly relevant to the student's intellectual development in the study of law. Students are permitted to register for such courses on a graded basis for a maximum of 6 credits. No pass/fail credit is accepted. No more than one non-law course may be taken in a semester during the second and third years. Students may petition for an additional 6 credits. The option of enrolling in, and receiving credit for, non-law courses is not available to first-year students.
Examination and Paper Extensions Except for good cause, such as illness or other circumstances beyond a student's control, extensions of the regular examination dates and paper deadlines are not given. Lack of good cause results in a grade of F for the course, seminar, or research. Upon a showing of good cause, a student is permitted, at the discretion of the assistant dean for academic services, the assistant dean for student affairs, or the assistant registrar, an appropriate new exam date or paper deadline.
Excess Employment Students may not engage in employment in excess of what is compatible with a full-time commitment to the study of law. No full-time student may be employed for more than 20 hours per week. Particularly where a student is self-employed or works at other than an hourly wage, the assistant dean for academic services shall decide whether a course of employment is excessive. A course of employment may be excessive even if the person intends to work less than 20 hours per week. The test is one of compatibility with a full-time commitment to the study of law. In making this determination, the assistant dean may consider the responsibilities of the employment, the rate of pay, the extent to which the student has control over the obligations attached to and the timing of participation in his or her employment, and other factors relating to the burden likely to arise from the employment that may conflict with legal study. Failure to observe this regulation will result in loss of residency status for the semester in which the student is in violation.
Exclusion for Academic Deficiency Students who are academically deficient are excluded from the School of Law. Academic deficiency is defined as either a grade point average of less than C+ (2.3) for the academic year or accumulation of three or more exclusion points within an academic year. (Exclusion points are not cumulative from one year to the next.) Exclusion for academic deficiency occurs immediately following the end of the academic year.
The system of exclusion works as follows: First, the student who has a grade point average of less than C+ (2.3) for the fall semester of the academic year but earns a year-long average of C+ or better (2.3 or better) is not excluded. Second, any student who has a grade point average of less than C+ (2.3) for the five semesters preceding the semester in which graduation is planned will not be permitted to be a candidate for graduation at the conclusion of his or her sixth semester, but he or she will, if he or she attains a grade point average of C+ (2.3) for six semesters, graduate at the next regular graduation date. If the grade point average for six semesters is below 2.3, the student is excluded for academic deficiency. Third, a student who accumulates the requisite three exclusion points during the fall semester of a particular academic year is not allowed to complete the spring semester.
In calculating exclusion points, the grade of D is awarded one point and the grade of F two points. The number of credits for a particular course is not considered in calculating exclusion points because the important determination here is the number of independent, concurrent faculty judgments about a student's performance, and not the number of hours per week that a class meets. A student excluded from the school for academic deficiency may petition the Academic Review Committee for readmission; however, readmission is granted only in exceptional cases.
Minimum/Maximum Course Load (Upper-class) All upper-class students must carry at least 12 credits (excluding audits) and are strongly advised not to carry more than 16 credits (including courses audited in the Law School or courses taken for credit or audited in another school or department) each semester. Any student who wishes to take more than 16 credits must petition the assistant dean for academic services prior to the end of the first week of classes of the semester for which credit is desired. This includes students pursuing a joint degree. Such a petition is granted only upon a showing that there is good cause for the overload and that the student has a sufficiently strong academic record to support the overload. Under no circumstances will a student be permitted to carry more than 21 credits. Students wishing to take fewer than 12 credits must petition the assistant dean for student affairs; such petitions are granted only for illness or other circumstances beyond the student's control.
Minimum/Maximum Course Load (First Year) All first-year students must enroll in the required fall curriculum of five courses for 16 credits. In the spring semester, first-year students must enroll in required and elective courses, totaling at least 14, but no more than 16, credits. First-year students are not allowed to take over 16 credits per semester under any circumstances.
Course Enrollment Students are required to enroll in courses in advance with the Law School. Registration is not complete until: (1) fees have been paid or proper arrangements for payment have been made with the bursar; (2) Student Health information is complete; (3) Law School registration is complete; and (4) University registration is complete.
In some states, students are required to register with the State Board of Bar Examiners before or shortly after entering Law School. Each student is therefore advised to consult the Board of Bar Examiners of the state in which he or she expects to practice for the purpose of ascertaining whether such registration is required.
Required Withdrawal The School of Law reserves the right to require the withdrawal of any student who, in the opinion of the faculty, is not profiting or is not likely to profit by the instruction offered, whose grades are unsatisfactory, whose neglect or irregular performance of required duties indicates indifference, or whose character and habits are inconsistent with the good order of the School of Law or with the standards of the legal profession. The faculty has delegated the authority to make such determinations to the Committee on Academic and Professional Misconduct, appointed by the dean of the School of Law. The actions of that committee may be reviewed by the dean but will be reviewed by the full faculty only when the dean recommends.
Resignation and Leave of Absence from the School of Law Students resigning from the school must, in order to maintain their good standing, comply with a procedure initiated by seeing the assistant dean for student affairs. Students resigning from the school must do so prior to the beginning of the examination period for that semester. Otherwise they are expected to complete requirements for each course in which they are enrolled that semester or receive an F if they do not.
If, at the time students resign, they are in good standing in all of their courses and have not accumulated (or do not subsequently accumulate) sufficient points to be excluded for academic deficiency, they may be readmitted to the school at the discretion of the assistant dean for student affairs if they apply for readmission within a reasonable period of time, generally considered to be two years.
Student Activities and Awards:
A Partial List
Moot Court Competition Second-year students may voluntarily compete in teams of two persons in the William Minor Lile appellate Moot Court competition. The field of competition is narrowed by a process of elimination that continues through the third year, culminating in the final round argument in the spring of each year. Distinguished judges from both federal and state courts preside in the semi-final and final rounds. Students competing in the final three rounds receive certificates, and the names of the members of the winning team are inscribed on a plaque in the Moot Court Room.
Teams of students chosen from among those entered in the Lile competition represent the School of Law in the National Moot Court competition and other intramural competitions with law schools in Virginia and neighboring states.
Moot Court is the largest single student activity in the Law School, with well over 250 students involved in the various activities administered by the Moot Court Board. Through participation in Moot Court activities, a student receives valuable training in legal writing and the art of advocacy.
Student Bar Association As the official representative of the Law School student body, the SBA advises the dean of student sentiment, appoints students to joint faculty-student committees, initiates projects furthering student interest, and arranges social activities. Law students annually elect a president, four representatives from each of the three Law School classes, one representative from among the post-graduate students, an ABA Law Student Division Representative, and delegates to the University-wide Judiciary Committee, Honor Committee, and Student Council, all
of whom serve on the SBA.
Peer Advisor Program Second- and third-year students conduct orientation activities for first-year students, providing guidance and support throughout the academic year. Approximately five peer advisors are assigned to each of the twelve first-year sections. The application/selection process begins in late March or early April.
Virginia Law Review, established in 1913, is a student publication of scholarly journals of the legal profession that criticize, support, or propose nearly every important American legal development. The Virginia Law Review and its 70 members contribute eight issues a year to this unique tradition. Original student work makes up approximately half of each issue. Review members are responsible for all phases of editing and publication. The Review selects the majority of its members on the basis of academic performance. The remainder are chosen on the basis of writing ability, a combination of academic performance and writing ability, or writing ability and potential for other contributions (Virginia Plan).
Virginia Journal of International Law is the oldest continuously published, student-edited journal of international law. Published quarterly by a board of student editors, issues of the Journal include articles by noted practitioners, scholars, and jurists, as well as student-written notes and comments. Topics covered in the Journal range from public international law issues such as human rights, Law of the Sea, and foreign sovereign immunity, to private international law issues such as arbitration, international trade, and taxation. The Journal's subscribers include individuals, firms, corporations, and libraries in more than 40 countries. The Journal selects its members through writing tryouts held every spring and fall.
Virginia Journal of Law and Technology is a student organization dedicated to publishing articles and notes germane to the practice of law in the twenty-first century. The focus of the Journal's subject matter is on, but not limited to, intellectual property, environmental, and communications law.
Virginia Journal of Sports and the Law was founded in 1998 as a student-edited law journal that focuses on all aspects of sports law. The Journal offers not only the traditional scholarly articles found in most law journals, but articles written by sports law practitioners that address the practical impact sports law has on athletes, coaches, compliance officers, and athletic directors. The Journal is published twice a year by members selected from a written tryout held each fall and spring.
Virginia Law Weekly is the newspaper of the Law School community. Its editorial board and staff are comprised entirely of students. Circulated among students, faculty, alumni, and numerous law libraries, it provides a forum for the discussion of issues and activities in the Law School.
Virginia Journal of Natural Resources Law is a legal periodical published by law students at the University. Initially funded by a grant from the Virginia Environmental Endowment, VJNRL presents articles and student-written notes on a broad range of issues in environmental, energy, and natural resources law. VJNRL encourages a creative approach to legal issues, incorporating scientific and technical analysis as well as economic, sociological, and political perspectives.
Public Interest Law Association (PILA) is a student-run organization dedicated to promoting and supporting public interest law among law students. PILA provides fellowships to students who accept volunteer or low-paying summer internships in public services, educates the Law School community about public interest law, and serves as a support network for students interested in public service.
The Order of the Coif is the Law School's one academic honor society. Membership is limited to those individuals who have graduated in the top ten percent of their class, based on three years attendance at the Law School, and who have otherwise met high standards of integrity and dedication.
John Bassett Moore Society has promoted interest and scholarship in the field of foreign affairs and international law since its founding in 1951. The first international law society at a major university, it is named in honor of the late John Bassett Moore, a graduate of the College (1880), long-time professor of international law, a Justice of the Permanent Court of International Arbitration at the Hague, and one of the first judges selected for the Permanent Court of International Justice (1921).
The John Bassett Moore Society welcomes active participation by students from the entire University community in all of its projects. The society sponsors the team that represents the Law School at the Jessup International Moot Court Competition and publishes books on a wide variety of international legal subjects.
Legal Assistance Society This student organization provides legal services to low income and disadvantaged persons in Central Virginia. Student members participate in nine different projects: Legal Aid Office Interns, Domestic Violence Project, Western State Hospital Project, Labor Project, Rights of the Disabled Project, Public Benefits Project, Migrant Farm Workers Assistance Project, Legal Education Project, and Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Project.
Environmental Law Forum is a student group organized to promote a greater understanding of the natural environment and the institutions involved in environmental decision-making. The group sponsors educational programs on environmental issues, seeks to encourage members' direct legal involvement in these issues, and sponsors outdoor activities such as canoeing and hiking trips. Recent activities include co-sponsoring a symposia on international law and pollution, inaugurating an aluminum recycling program at the Law School, and providing research assistance to the Southern Environmental Law Center in Charlottesville on a variety of environmental issues.
Students United to Promote Racial Awareness (SUPRA) A student organization funded completely by the Law School Foundation in order to promote communication, interaction, and understanding among students with different racial and ethnic backgrounds. This is accomplished primarily through autonomous dinner groups that are purposefully racially diverse.
Post-Conviction Assistance Project (P-CAP) This organization provides a substantial amount of practical experience for law students while providing a number of valuable services to the community. P-CAP operates a bail project, which assists the Charlottesville Joint Security Complex in determining which prisoners should be granted bail; visits detainees in the Beaumont Training Center, a juvenile home, to provide role models for the youths living there; aids local attorneys handling cases in juvenile court; and answers prisoners' letters requesting information on a variety of legal issues. In addition, the project represents inmates in various habeas corpus and civil rights actions in U.S. District Court and in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, under the third-year practice rule. The organization also files amicus curiae and certiorari briefs with the U.S. Supreme Court.
Virginia Law Women (VLW) addresses the needs and interests of women at the Law School, at the University, and in the Charlottesville community. Its main goals are to make law students and others aware of the sexism within the legal profession, and to provide a support system for women. To accomplish these aims, VLW invites and sponsors speakers, networks with law student organizations, and with other University and Charlottesville women's groups. VLW is committed to establishing a more equitable life for women and welcomes all who wish to further these goals.
Virginia Tax Review is the first student-edited law journal focusing on tax law issues. Published four times per year, the Review consists of articles written by practitioners and academics, as well as notes and comments written by students. Membership in the Virginia Tax Review Association offers students an opportunity to assist in the editing and production of the second-most-widely subscribed journal at the Law School and to sharpen their skills in legal writing and analysis. Members are selected on the basis of their performance in a writing tryout held every spring and fall.
Asian/Pacific American Law Students Association (APALSA) is a network of Asian-American law students at the University of Virginia that provides academic and social support to its members and reaches out to the law community on issues pertaining to Asian-Americans.
Black Law Student Association (BLSA) articulates and promotes the personal and professional needs of black law students; encourages professional competence; instills in the black attorney and law student a greater awareness of, and commitment to, the needs of the black community; and attempts to make the legal system more responsive to the needs of black Americans.
First-Year Council Elected representatives plan social events for the first-year class, act as liaisons between the first-year class and the administration, and help plan orientation activities for the following year. Class officers and Student Bar Association representatives for the first-year class are elected from this council.
Bisexual, Gay, and Lesbian Law Students Association serves as both a support group for bisexual, gay, and lesbian students at the Law School, and as a bisexual, gay, and lesbian rights advocacy organization. Recent social activities include potluck dinners and parties. Political activities include sponsoring speakers to address issues related to gay and lesbian rights.
Journal of Law and Politics published four times yearly by law and graduate students, is the first and only publication devoted exclusively to analyzing the role of politics in the legal system and the role of law in the political process. The Journal publishes articles by prominent scholars and practitioners, as well as student-written notes and comments. Its members are selected by writing tryouts held each spring and fall.
Law Partners An organization for both female and male spouses of law students that offers a wide range of social and service-oriented activities. Meetings are held monthly, with activities scheduled throughout each semester and announced in a monthly newsletter sent to all members. Law Partners' best known service activity is its book exchange, which sells used law textbooks at reduced prices each semester.
Libel Show Each spring, law students satirize the faculty, administration, and Law School in a musical-comedy featuring the many hidden talents of the student body. This production is written, directed, and performed entirely by students.
Jewish Law Students Association (JLSA) integrates Jewish cultural, religious, and academic interests into the Law School environment. Activities include lectures in Judaic law, holiday dinners, and informal happy hours. The group also promotes awareness of the needs of Jewish students at the Law School.
Virginia Health Law Forum (VHLF) promotes interest in the health care field by sponsoring speakers, seminars, and informal discussions with faculty and students from other disciplines including medicine, business, and philosophy. VHLF works with Law School faculty to develop new health law courses, expand placement opportunities, encourage publishable student research, and build clinical opportunities in health law.
Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law is a student-edited law journal that publishes articles exploring the intersection of law and social policy issues. Recognizing the significant impact of the law and legal institutions on social conditions, the Journal provides a forum in which to examine contending legal, judicial, and political perspectives. An array of issues are addressed, including--among others--health care and welfare reform, criminal justice, voting and civil rights, family law, employment discrimination, reproductive rights, immigration issues, gay rights, and juvenile court reform. The Journal is published twice a year, in the late fall and late spring.
Voz Latina is the Latin-American law students' association at the University of Virginia. Its mission is to promote an awareness of, and appreciation for, Latin culture at the Law School and to serve as a tool for the recruitment of Latin law students. In addition, support is given to Latin law students with respect to professional placement. Voz Latina welcomes members of any race or ethnicity.
Annual Law School Awards
Bracewell and Patterson Oral Advocacy Awards Established by the Houston firm in 1988. Twenty-four outstanding first-year oral advocates are selected to receive a check and a certificate.
Mortimer Caplin Public Service Award Established in 1992 by Mr. Caplin, '40, the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service under President Kennedy, and given at commencement to a graduating student who is entering a career in the public service sector and who demonstrates the qualities of leadership, integrity, and service to others.
Edwin S. Cohen Tax Prize This monetary prize is given annually to the graduating student who has demonstrated, by the sustained excellence of his or her performance in tax courses, superior scholarship in the tax area.
Hardy Cross Dillard Prize Established in honor of Hardy Cross Dillard, retired Judge of the International Court of Justice and former Dean and James Monroe Professor of Law. This monetary prize and plaque are awarded to the author of the best student note in a current volume of the Virginia Journal of International Law.
Charles J. Frankel Award in Health Law Established in 1989 by the American College of Legal Medicine Foundation in honor of Dr. Frankel, a graduate of the Law School. The monetary award is presented to a third-year student who has shown distinction in the field of health law.
Robert E. Goldsten ('40) Award Established by the man for whom it is named and given to the student who has, in the opinion of the faculty, contributed the most to classroom participation. The winner receives a certificate of recognition at graduation and a lifetime membership in the University of Virginia Alumni Association.
Eppa Hunton IV Memorial Book Award Established in 1977 by the Richmond, Virginia law firm of Hunton & Williams, in honor of Eppa Hunton IV, '27. The award is presented annually to a third-year student who has demonstrated unusual aptitude in litigation courses and shown a keen awareness and understanding of the lawyer's ethical and professional responsibility.
Margaret G. Hyde Award Established in 1930 by Forrest J. Hyde, Jr., '15. Under the terms of the donation, a monetary award is made to an outstanding member of the graduating class whose scholarship, character, personality, activities in the affairs of the school, and promise of efficiency have, in the opinion of the law faculty, entitled him or her to special recognition.
Jackson and Walker Award This monetary award is presented by the Dallas law firm to the student who has attained the highest grade point average in his or her class after four semesters.
Robert F. Kennedy Award for Public Service Established in 1989 by the Student Legal Forum, a monetary award is presented to the graduate who, during his or her Law School years, best exemplifies the ideals of the late Senator Kennedy through active and effective community service.
Herbert L. Kramer Community Service Award Established in 1989 by Mr. Kramer, '52. This monetary award is given annually to a third-year student who has contributed the most to the community during his or her stay in Law School.
Law School Alumni Association Award for Academic Excellence An engraved julep cup is presented to the student who has had the most outstanding academic record during his or her three years in Law School.
Law School Alumni Association Best Note Award This monetary award is presented to the member of the Law Review who wrote the best note in the current volume of the Review.
Thomas Marshall Miller Prize Established by Emily Miller Danton in 1982 in memory of her father, Thomas Marshall Miller, who attended the Law School, this monetary award is given annually to an outstanding and deserving member of the graduating class, selected by the faculty.
National Association of Women Lawyers Award This honorary membership in the National Association of Women Lawyers is awarded each year to an outstanding woman in the graduating class.
John M. Olin Prize in Law and Economics A monetary award given by the Olin Foundation to the graduate or graduates who have produced outstanding work in the field of law and economics.
Mary Claiborne and Roy H. Ritter Prizes These four prizes for character, honor, and integrity were established in 1985 by C. Willis Ritter ,'65, to honor his parents. Under the terms of the award, four monetary prizes are given annually to two female and two male members of the second-year class. The prize is applied against each recipient's tuition during his or her final year of study. In addition, each recipient is given an appropriate certificate and the names of the winners also appear on a plaque in the library.
Shannon Award Established by the Z Society to encourage outstanding scholarship at the University, the award is presented each year to the student who has contributed the most to the academic excellence of the Law School.
Earle K. Shawe Labor Relations Award Established in honor of the late Hardy C. Dillard, by Earle K. Shawe, '34. Mr. Shawe is the founder and senior partner of Shawe & Rosenthal, a Baltimore firm devoted exclusively to labor and employment law. This monetary award is given to the graduating student who shows the greatest promise of becoming a successful practitioner in the field of labor relations.
James C. Slaughter Honor Award This monetary award was established by the Textile Veterans Association in honor of James C. Slaughter, '51, and is presented to an outstanding member of the graduating class.
Stephen Pierre Traynor Award This award for excellence in appellate advocacy was established in 1970 by the late Roger J. Traynor, former Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court, in memory of his son. The monetary award is presented to the participant in the final round of the William Minor Lile Moot Court Competition who, in the opinion of the judges of the final round, presents the best oral argument.
Roger and Madeleine Traynor Prize Established in 1980 by a gift from retired Chief Justice and Mrs. Traynor of California, these prizes are awarded each year to acknowledge the best written work by two graduating students. Each winner receives an appropriate certificate and a monetary award.
Trial Advocacy Award The Virginia Trial Lawyers Association presents an award to a graduating student who best exemplifies the attributes of an effective trial lawyer.
Virginia State Bar Family Law Book Award Established by the Family Law Section of the Virginia State Bar and the Virginia Chapter of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, this award is presented to the graduating student who has demonstrated the most promise and potential for the practice of family law.
Frequency of Course Offerings The courses listed on the following pages have been taught in recent academic years. Not all courses are offered each year. Although many similar courses are taught in subsequent years, the nature of the Law School curriculum allows significant variations in course titles and course content depending on the interest of the faculty members.
Note For the current year's specific course offerings, please consult the Course Offering Directory (COD), School of Law. This COD, along with other current information about the Law School, may be found online at www.law.virginia.edu.
LAW1 603 - (4)
Civil Procedure I
Basic problems of the civil adjudication process. Federal practice provides the focus.
LAW1 605 - (4)
Constitutional Law I
Provides a functional analysis of the various parts of the Federal Constitution and an examination of the techniques the Supreme Court uses in dealing with them.
LAW1 606 - (4)
An examination of the legal obligations that attach to promises.
LAW1 609 - (3)
Criminal Law I
Exploration of the general principles of criminal liability. Modern statutory developments provide a significant focus for study.
LAW1 620 - (2)
Legal Writing and Research
Research exercises and several written assignments are used to introduce students to legal research, legal reasoning, and the writing of legal memoranda and briefs.
LAW1 623 - (4)
General introduction to property concepts and different types of property interests. Principal focus is real property interests. Surveys present and future estates in land, concurrent ownership, leasehold interests, conveyancing, various land use restrictions and eminent domain. Personal property issues are also considered.
LAW1 629 - (4)
A course in the law and theory pertaining to accidents and injuries caused by wrongs that are often uncontrolled by contract, constitutional, or criminal law. Medical malpractice, pollution, and automobile accidents are three of the many subjects of tort law.
LAW2 604 - (3)
What do the following have in common: the calculation of damages in a wrongful death action, the proof of an employer's discrimination on the basis of race or sex, the proof of causation in a tort case involving a release of hazardous chemicals, the determination whether a commodity-indexed bond should be regulated as a security or a futures contract, and the valuation of a small business for federal estate tax purposes? Each involves the application of statistical or mathematical procedures to data to reach a legal conclusion. Modern legal practice constantly involves questions that require quantitative analysis. This course provides an introduction to the basic mathematical tools that a lawyer needs. The topics are drawn principally from probability, statistics, microeconomics, accounting, and finance. This course emphasizes the use of statistical and quantitative reasoning in litigation and in policy debates. It is targeted at first-year students and designed for those who have little or no background in mathematics. Students who are proficient in applied mathematics and statistics are discouraged from taking the course. At the student's option, the class may be taken on a pass/fail basis so that the truly math-phobic can get the benefits of the course without undue stress.
LAW2 611 - (3)
Managing to Scale: From Grassroots to
Globalism in Environmental Policy
This seminar examines efforts to solve environmental problems of different scales--from the local to the global. The course concentrates on problems that are not addressed (or at least not adequately addressed) by existing environmental management regimes. These problems include non-point source pollution in large watersheds; destruction of forest ecosystems; urban sprawl; and species protection on an ecosystem basis.
LAW3 602 - (4)
Introduces the federal administrative process. Subsequent elective courses in the curriculum build upon this introduction or provide intensive treatment of substantive regulation in specific areas, e.g., Labor Law, Securities Regulation, Communications Law, and Environmental Law. Examines the reasons for creating regulatory agencies and supposed constitutional constraints on Congress' authority to delegate lawmaking power; explores the limits of presidential power to control how delegated functions are performed by subordinate officers; investigates the procedures by which regulatory agencies and administrative bodies operate; and examines judicial review of administrative action.
LAW3 603 - (3)
Examines the basic substantive and procedural doctrines in admiralty and compares them to analogous doctrines in other areas of law. Topics include carriage of goods by sea, salvage, general average contribution, recovery for death or injury to seamen and longshoremen, maritime liens, subject-matter and personal jurisdiction, and the relationship between state and federal law.
LAW3 605 - (3)
Agency and Partnership
An introduction to liabilities arising from the actions of servants, agents, and employees; the common law association; the non-profit corporation; the labor union; the partnership; the limited partnership; the limited liability corporation; and the business corporation. Introduces the basic tools necessary to help clients structure their affairs in a manner that is consistent with their personal and business aspirations and that minimizes unwanted legal or tax liability.
LAW3 612 - (3)
Focuses on the Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Acts (rather than the Robinson-Patman Act) and the principal Supreme Court opinions construing these statutes. Prepares a student to provide counsel or conduct litigation in the antitrust area; introduces the student to the history of the law's efforts to identify those private arrangements or practices inconsistent with competition; and explores the relevance of economic analysis to these problems.
LAW3 614 - (2)
Children and the Legal System
Explores historical and constitutional development of the state's relationship to families and children, and examines today's juvenile justice system. Special attention is given to child abuse and neglect, foster care, and termination of parental rights. Complements the basic offering in Family Law with minimal overlap.
LAW3 615 - (3)
Children's Health Care
This offering, a complement to the basic Law and Medicine course, explores legal, economic and policy issues associated with providing health care for children. In addition to existing programs such as Medicaid, new proposals for expanding access and coverage are analyzed. Topics include medical neglect and endangerment; providing for defective neonates; tensions between state, parent, and child in medical decision making by and for minors; regionalization of intensive care; religious preference regarding specific treatment; and special problems of infants and maternal substance abuse.
LAW3 616 - (2)
Civil Procedure II
Builds on the required four credit Civil Procedure course. In a few instances, it provides elaboration of a topic, such as res judicata, covered in some detail in the basic course. Addresses topics that were either omitted entirely from the required course or were given only a brief prefatory treatment. Considers multiple claims; right to jury trial under the Seventh Amendment; and party structure as revealed and governed by such devices as impleader, interpleader, intervention, required joinder, and class actions.
LAW3 618 - (3)
Civil Rights Litigation
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I; Federal Courts is a desirable precursor, but not required
Deals with the general subject of suits against states and state officers as authorized by federal civil rights statutes. The course is limited to civil rights litigation under Reconstruction era civil rights statutes. The main focus is on civil rights litigation under 42 U.S.C. §1983, although consideration is given to§1981, 1982, and 1985(3).
LAW3 619 - (3)
Deals with regulation of electronic communications, principally FCC regulations. Covers major contemporary issues in telecommunications (competition among, and control of, telecommunication carriers--AT&T, MCI, Bell Operating Companies, etc.); mass media (regulation of broadcast and cable); new technologies/services (development of HDTV, personal communications systems, etc.).
LAW3 620 - (3)
Introduces students to the legal regulation of the commercial contracting process. Its primary focus is on the law of sales under Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code. Examines franchising and other relational contracts. Emphasizes both the business environments and the consumer relationships that arise in retail sales. An underlying theme of the course is whether the same legal framework can successfully accommodate both commercial and consumer concerns in areas as disparate as sales warranties, risk of loss, remedy limitations and excuse.
LAW3 621 - (3)
Deals primarily with the law that governs a common form of financing commercial sales--secured transactions under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code. The course, however, necessarily explores alternative forms of financing (e.g., leasing, unsecured credit, sale of equity interests) in order to determine the relative advantages and disadvantages of secured credit. Considers the relationship between debtor and creditor to determine whether the law should assume that these parties have conflicting or common interests.
LAW3 623 - (3)
Explores in detail some of the legal, theoretical, and practical issues concerning financially troubled debtors and their creditors. Emphasis on the provisions of the Federal Bankruptcy Code and on the impact that Code has on general nonbankruptcy law.
LAW3 626 - (3)
A study of nonprofit firms and the nonprofit sector. Topics include a survey of the role of nonprofits, justifications for the nonprofit form, nonprofit statutes, the formation, operation and dissolution of nonprofits, and tax and tax policy issues related to nonprofits.
LAW3 627 - (3)
Complex Civil Litigation
Addresses the dramatic expansion of the role of civil litigation in our society in recent years, and the accompanying development of new and often innovative procedural mechanisms for coping with that expansion. The class action is emphasized, and other topics include discovery, judicial control of complex cases, trial, and preclusion. The course is particularly relevant to students interested in litigation concerning products liability, securities regulation, and civil rights.
LAW3 628 - (3)
Constitutional History II:
From Reconstruction to Brown
Examines, from an historical perspective, constitutional developments from the enactment of the Civil War amendments to the Brown decision. While the subject matter overlaps that of the basic constitutional law course, its emphasis on the historical perspective, as well as its attempt to integrate social and political history with legal developments, should keep duplication to a minimum.
LAW3 629 - (3)
Comparative Constitutional Law:
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law. Fall course in Constitutionalism: History and Jurisprudence is useful but not required.
Examines the writing of new constitutions and other steps taken toward constitutional democracy. Focuses on new constitutional developments, seeking to set new constitutions and other fundamental institutions in the context of the norms and precedents found in the established democracies and in regional and international documents. Considers, from a comparative perspective, important issues such as the drafting of bills of rights, restraints on executive power, and judicial review. Emphasizes case studies of developments in specific countries, such as Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, South Africa and others.
LAW3 631 - (3)
Constitutional Law II: Church and State
Examines the two constitutional clauses that define religious freedom, the one barring an establishment of religion and the other protecting free exercise of religion. The interaction of these two provisions takes place in many contexts, from public school classrooms and assemblies to government support of private schools, to religious symbols (such as nativity scenes) on public property. Tensions also arise in such varied settings as prisons, public health programs, and the licensing of motor vehicle drivers, among others that have recently been before the courts. The accommodation of two very durable constitutional safeguards is the central theme of this course.
LAW3 633 - (3)
Constitutional Law II: First Amendment
Offers a comprehensive view of the First Amendment's provisions during the bicentennial of the Bill of Rights. Major attention is given to the guarantees of free expression--freedom of speech, of the press, and of association. The other focus of the First Amendment is religious liberty. The course explores the two constitutional clauses, one barring an establishment of religion and the other ensuring freedom of worship and religious belief. Accommodation of the two religious freedom clauses has never been easy and forms a central theme of this course.
LAW3 634 - (3)
Constitutional Law II: Speech and Press
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I
This elective sequel to the required introductory course focuses significantly on First Amendment doctrine in theory, including free speech, freedom of the press, and religion. In addition, attention is given to current debates about constitutional interpretation including the "original intent" doctrine, the "imperial judiciary," and the role of extratextual sources in constitutional adjudication.
LAW3 637 - (3)
Constitutionalism: History and Jurisprudence
Developments in Eastern Europe, Southern Africa, and elsewhere have brought heightened interest in the modes of constitution-making and constitutional thought. Indeed, the events of the late 1980s and early 1990s invite comparison to the 1770s and 1780s in Europe and America and to the revolutionary era of 1848 in Europe. Focuses on various ways of thinking about constitutions and constitutionalism.
LAW3 639 - (3)
Prerequisite: Federal Income Tax I; corequisite: Corporations or Corporate Governance and Finance
Deals with the problems and considerations involved in the formation, operation, reorganization, and liquidation of corporations. It analyzes the relevant sections of the Internal Revenue Code and explores alternative directions that the law might have taken. From policy and practical perspectives, the course examines the tensions between large and small businesses, corporations and individuals, managers and shareholders, profitable and unprofitable enterprises, and tax avoiders and the government.
LAW3 640 - (4)
Prerequisite: Corporations or Corporate
Governance and Finance I
Introduces the connection between corporate finance theory and the legal rules that govern corporations. The initial focus is on valuation and the contractual relationships between and among common and preferred equity investors, low- and high-priority creditors, and corporate managers. Discusses how contractual relationships divide a firm's value. Focus then shifts to statutes and cases from corporate, securities, and bankruptcy laws.
LAW3 641 - (4)
Deals with the formation and operation of corporations and other business forms. Examines the roles and duties of those who control businesses and the power of investors to influence and litigate against those in control. Dwells on the special problems of closely held corporations and on issues arising out of mergers and attempts to acquire firms. Uses new tools, derived from corporate finance and related literature, and traditional tools to explore a range of transactions associated with the modern business enterprise.
LAW3 642 - (3)
Looks at the way the judicial system handles criminal cases. Includes bail and preventive detention, the right to counsel (and the concomitant right to "effective assistance" of counsel), prosecutorial discretion and plea bargaining, discovery, the right to jury trial, and double jeopardy. Time permitting, explores sentencing, comparing traditional discretionary systems with mandatory guidelines-based systems. Can be taken before, after, or instead of, Criminal Investigation.
LAW3 644 - (3)
Examines the constitutional doctrines that surround and control the investigation of crime. Primary topics are the law of searches and seizures, police interrogation, and the fifth amendment privilege against self-incrimination. In each instance, the aim is to cover the basic doctrine, explore underlying themes, and construct workable theories that make sense of the existing legal framework.
LAW3 645 - (3)
Capital Crimes and Dangerous Criminals
A course in advanced criminal law. Addresses topics in substantive criminal law not covered elsewhere in the curriculum, with particular emphasis on capital punishment and incapacitation of dangerous sex offenders.
LAW3 646 - (3)
In contrast to the traditional labor law course, which focuses on collective bargaining, this course offers students an introduction to the diverse body of law that governs the individual employment relationship. Topics include wrongful discharge, unemployment insurance, the Fair Labor Standards Act, ERISA, workers' compensation, and OSHA.
LAW3 647 - (3)
Focuses on the principal federal statutes prohibiting discrimination in employment on the basis of race or sex: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Civil Rights Act of 1966, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Equal Pay Act. Also examines the federal constitutional law of racial and sexual discrimination, primarily as it effects judicial interpretation of the preceding statutes.
LAW3 648 - (3)
Explores the fascinating world of legal protection for intellectual, artistic, and literary property. Major emphasis is on the Copyright Act of 1976 and the body of case law interpreting that Act and its predecessors. Such issues as the nature of copyright, the requirements of notice and publication, remedies for infringement, and the doctrine of fair use are explored in depth. Looks at the complex relationship between federal and state protection for intellectual property, and also explores analogous sources of protection, such as moral right and the international status of copyright law under the Berne Convention.
LAW3 650 - (3)
Contemporary Political Theory
Traditional political philosophy asks whether political coercion is morally justified. The latter half of the twentieth century has seen the rebirth of the contractarian answer to this question. This course begins by presenting the general contractarian framework underlying contemporary game-theoretic versions of Hobbes' Leviathan. It then focuses on John Rawls' A Theory of Justice. Rawls presents a contractarian defense of liberalism that has defined the agenda for contemporary political theory. After discussing Rawls, the class considers libertarian, communitarian, and feminist reactions to liberalisms. The final section of the class examines political issues in legal education and the critical race theory debate.
LAW3 651 - (3)
Prerequisite: Administrative Law recommended
Provides an overview of the Federal statutory and regulatory standards governing environmental quality. Largely a course on the law of pollution control, with a focus on air and water pollution, toxic substances and hazardous waste. The course proceeds through careful and extensive examination of the scope of Federal statutes governing these forms of pollution. Emphasizes the relation between Congress, the courts, the Environmental Protection Agency and the states in fashioning strategies for protecting the environment.
LAW3 653 - (3)
A working knowledge of the law of evidence is critical to the functioning of any practicing lawyer. The law of evidence is more than a set of rules to be assimilated, it is a dynamic that is inseparable from the context in which evidentiary questions arise. Among others, the course covers questions of relevance, hearsay, privilege, and expert testimony, and it focuses largely on problems arising in concrete factual settings, as opposed to traditional case analysis. Major emphasis placed on the Federal Rules of Evidence.
LAW3 654 - (3)
Critical Race Theory
Focuses on race as a social construct and the failure of liberalism and its progeny, integrationism, to achieve meaningful racial progress in American society. Emphasizes the methodology, narrative, and voice used to express the concerns of people of color. Also compares Critical Race Theory to the other critical theories, Critical Feminist and Critical Legal, to illuminate its salient characteristics.
LAW3 655 - (3)
Focuses on legal problems of marriage, marital breakdown, and the establishment of nonmarital relationships. Substantial coverage is devoted to antenuptial agreements, divorce jurisdiction and grounds, economic aspects of marriage dissolution (including equitable division of property by courts as well as private ordering through contracts), establishing parenthood, child support, child custody, and adoption.
LAW3 657 - (4)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law
Focuses on federal-state judicial relations. Topics include the jurisdiction of the federal courts; the choice of federal or state law; Supreme Court review of state court decisions and federal habeas corpus; and various doctrines of justiciability and abstention.
LAW3 660 - (3)
Federal Criminal Law
Deals with various issues related to the role of the federal government in defining and prosecuting crimes. Topics include the jurisdiction of the federal government over crimes; constitutional (federalism) limits on the prosecution of crimes by the federal government; modern principles of interpretation of federal criminal statutes developed by the Supreme Court; an exploration of several illustrative federal criminal statutes; a careful examination of the civil and criminal RICO statutes; and the federal sentencing guidelines.
LAW3 661 - (3)
Federal Income Tax of Trusts and Estates
Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Tax I
A study of the federal income taxation of trusts, estates, grantors, and beneficiaries. Develops the concept of "conduit taxation" and examines the ways in which income taxation of individuals differs from that of trusts and estates.
LAW3 662 - (3)
Estate and Gift Tax
Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Tax
A study of the taxation of gratuitous transfers made during life and at death. The federal taxes on estates, gifts, and generation-skipping transfers are examined both separately and as they interrelate with each other by drawing together legislation (including policy and philosophical underpinnings), the basic administrative interpretations, and judicial decisions.
LAW3 663 - (4)
Federal Income Tax I
An introduction to federal taxation in general, and income tax in particular. It concentrates on the provisions that apply to all taxpayers, with particular concern for the taxation of individuals. Provides grounding in such fundamental areas as the concept of income, income exclusions and exemptions, nonbusiness deductions, deductions for business expenses, basic tax accounting, assignment of income and capital gains and losses. Processes for creating law and determining liability in the tax area, the role of the Treasury and the taxpayer in the making of tax law and formulation of policy, and the significance of the income tax in government and business.
LAW3 665 - (2)
Considers ways in which law and legal theory may effect the realization of gender equality and the rights of women. Emphasizes the relationships between theory and practice and between the "norm" and the "exception."
LAW3 668 - (3)
Food and Drug Law
Considers the Food and Drug Administration as a case study of an administrative agency that must combine law and science to regulate activities affecting public health and safety. Covers issues such as regulation of carcinogenic substances in foods and color additives, the use of risk-assessment techniques in regulatory decision making, the economic effects of FDA drug approval requirements on research and competition in the pharmaceutical industry. Regulation of new or experimental technology and the ethics of drug testing.
LAW3 670 - (3)
Prerequisite: Administrative Law is recommended
Introduces the complex substantive provisions of U.S. immigration laws and the procedures used to decide specific immigration-related issues. The course is not meant only as a technical study for those expecting to practice in the field. Considerable attention is given to underlying constitutional issues, selected questions of international law and politics, and the interaction of Congress, the courts, and administrative agencies in dealing with major public policy issues, such as treatment of undocumented aliens and U.S. refugee and asylum policy.
LAW3 671 - (3)
Examines legal solutions to the challenges of health care policy. Considers the roles of public and private institutions in providing the right level of access to health care, in the most cost efficient manner, while maintaining quality control over the product delivered. Looks at the sources of law that create individuals' claims against the state and private entities for medical care. The contours of this societal obligation informs the discussion of how to finance health care, which is the central concern of this course. Examines competition within the health care industry, focusing on the role of private insurance and the changing level of antitrust scrutiny directed toward the industry. Closely analyzes the managed competition model, making use of public choice theory to examine proposed legislative solutions.
LAW3 672 - (3)
Insurance is an increasingly important tool for the management of risk by both private and public enterprises. This course provides a working knowledge of basic insurance law governing insurance contract formation, insurance regulation, property, life, health, disability, and liability insurance, and claims processes. Emphasizes the link between traditional insurance law doctrine and modern ideas about the functions of private law.
LAW3 674 - (3)
Prerequisite: Federal Income Tax I
A survey of the income tax aspects (1) of foreign income earned by U.S. persons and entities, and (2) of U.S. income earned by foreign persons and entities. The course focuses primarily on the U.S. tax system, but some attention is also devoted to adjustments made between tax regimes of different countries through tax credits and tax treaties. The political and economic forces underlying the evolution of these rules is also considered.
LAW3 675 - (3)
International Business Transactions
Addresses the domestic and international law of transnational commercial transactions and relationships. Topics include the law of international goods transactions (documentary sales, letters of credit, bills of lading, etc.); technology licensing and the international treatment of intellectual property; international investment; dispute resolution; the GATT; "unfair trade" laws, including antidumping, countervailing duty, and "Section 301" actions; and export controls.
LAW3 677 - (3)
International Human Rights Law
This problem-oriented course is designed both for persons seeking a general understanding of the subject and for those wishing to acquire specific skills for personal involvement in the promotion of International Human Rights, whether in government service or in private practice. Considers substantive international human rights norms, especially civil and political rights; the role of such norms in international and domestic law; forums--international, regional, and domestic--available for adjudicating or promoting the observance of human rights standards; the procedural rules that govern in those forums; the methods by which the decisions of these forums are made and enforced; and problems of including international human rights concerns as an integral element of a nation's foreign policy.
LAW3 678 - (3)
The basic offering in the international legal studies area. Surveys a wide range of problems arising in private and governmental practice that are affected by international law provisions and principles. Topics include the sources and subjects of international law; the relation of international law, the relation of international law to national law, the peaceful settlement of international disputes, international agreements, jurisdiction and immunities from jurisdiction, the use of force, the responsibility of states for injuries to aliens, and the individual's role in international law, including international human rights law.
LAW3 679 - (3)
Employment Law: Principles and Practice
Prerequisite: Employment Law and Employment Discrimination Law, or permission of instructors
The dominant source of legal rights for employees in the 1990s is a disorderly body of federal and state statutes and common law doctrines often called "employment law." Ranging from Title VII to defamation law, from ERISA to workers' compensation, from the ADA to the law of employee handbooks, employment law encompasses a vast body of law regulating the nonunion employment relationship. This course examines employment law doctrine and theory from a practical perspective. Problems drawn from litigated cases and counseling practice illustrate how attorneys use these doctrinal rules and theoretical principles to control the legal consequences of their clients' employment relationships. Class discussion and weekly assignments focus on topics such as drafting, enforcement, and preclusion issues surrounding arbitration agreements, the standards governing vicarious liability for employment discrimination and employee torts, the task of designing internal complaint procedures, handling harassment and discrimination complaints, responding to EEOC investigations, problems associated with drafting and litigating severance agreements, FMLA compliance issues, the interactions between the ADA and other statutes, and employment practices' liability insurance. There is no paper or examination required. Grades are based on periodic written and oral assignments and on class participation.
LAW3 682 - (3)
Judicial Role in American History
A survey of leading American Supreme Court judges from Marshall through the Burger Court. The course primarily consists of lectures and readings, with some discussion of topics announced in advance.
LAW3 683 - (2)
Focuses on selected issues, mostly within what is broadly termed analytical and normative jurisprudence. Treatment ranges from traditional topics, such as the nature of law, legal systems, and legal rights, to the role of moral theory in private law and legal justification. Recent contributions to such topics (e.g., legal pragmatism) are considered and assessed.
LAW3 684 - (3)
Examines the legal rules governing the relations between workers, managers, unions, and firms. Topics include the right to join, or refuse to join, unions; the power of managers over workers; and the weapons available to unions to confront employer power. Introduces laws regulating substantive employment terms: Title VII, employment at will, and ERISA.
LAW3 687 - (3)
Law and Economics
Introduction to the economic analysis of legal rules and institutions. Develops economic reasoning in analyzing legal doctrine. Establishes a broader and more systematic understanding of the interrelationships among legal subject areas from an economic perspective. Explores the strengths and limitations of the law-and-economics approach. Focuses on the common law areas of property, contracts, and torts, as well as law enforcement and procedure.
LAW3 688 - (3)
Law and Medicine
Focuses on issues of professional liability, harvesting and donation of organs for transplantation, defining death, care of terminally ill patients, public health regulation, and integration of modern technology into clinical practice. The role of such regulatory mechanisms as licensure, peer review procedures, and hospital committees are examined in these contexts, along with the implications of new measures aimed at cost containment.
LAW3 689 - (3)
Accounting: Understanding and Analyzing
Introduces financial accounting to students with no previous formal education in accounting. Focuses on understanding the concepts of financial accounting and the resulting published financial statements. Attorneys need a basic understanding of financial statements in order to work with corporate clients and certified public accountants. This knowledge is particularly important if the practice involves investment banking, initial public offerings, and the issuance of securities. Course contact includes the conceptual framework of accounting, specialized accounting terminology, generally accepted accounting standards, and the distinction between financial accounting and income tax accounting. The roles of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, and the Internal Revenue Service is delineated. Upon completion of the course, the student should be able to understand how components of financial statements, such as inventories, plant and equipment, bonds, leases, sales revenues, cost of goods sold expense, and depreciation expense are measured and reported. Students will also be able to analyze financial statements to derive more information about a corporation. Ideally, this course should be elected in the second year prior to, or contemporaneously with, related business law courses. The content is relatively extensive and rigorous.
LAW3 692 - (3)
Law and Political Participation
Considers legal regulation of the right to vote and otherwise participate in the political process. Begins with an overview of restrictions on the franchise--residency requirements, discrimination on the basis of sex and race, and registration practice. The bulk of the course considers constitutional and statutory constraints on apportionment and districting--one person, one vote, political and racial gerrymandering, and the role of the Voting Rights Act.
LAW3 697 - (3)
A broad survey course in the history of American law, ranging from the Articles of Confederation period through Reconstruction. Emphasizes constitutional history, although overlap with the basic constitutional law course is minimal. Topics include the framing and ratification of the Constitution, the Alien and Sedition Acts, the early contracts clause decisions of the Marshall Court, the constitutional ramifications of slavery, and constitutional issues raised by the Civil War and Reconstruction.
LAW3 698 - (3)
Contemporary Legal Theory
Considers several of the main strands of legal theory in the last 30 years. Topics include feminism, critical legal studies, law and economics, public choice, critical race theory, narrative legal theory, legal hermeneutics, constitutional theory, law and literature, and the republican revival in legal thought.
LAW3 703 - (3)
Land Use Law
Explores the legal regulation of how land may be used, emphasizing the application of constitutional, civil rights, and environmental law to land-use issues. Begins with basic elements of the land development and regulation process, including the basics of zoning and planning. Topics include constitutional constraints on land-use regulation, including those imposed by the First Amendment and the Fifth Amendment's Taking Clause; housing discrimination on the grounds of race, income, lifestyle, and disability; environmental justice issues, including regional obligations of municipalities for noxious facilities; and environmental law as a constraint on land use. Although the focus is primarily on the public regulation of land, the course also addresses private, market-based alternatives to public regulation.
LAW3 709 - (3)
Environmental Drafting and Negotiation: Principles and Practice
Prerequisite: Administrative Law, Environmental Law, International Law, or Legislation
This course is about the tasks of lawyers representing clients in, or before, the legislative and executive branches of the U.S. government or representing national governments in an international treaty negotiation. Although focused on environmental problems and governmental processes, the course develops skills that are of general use in negotiating and resolving policy issues in complex institutional settings for either public or private clients. Substantively, the course examines two environmental problems in depth, one focused purely on U.S. environmental policy and one with a strongly international flavor. Procedurally, the course emphasizes simulations, such as congressional hearings, committee mark-ups, administrative rule-makings, and treaty negotiations. At each phase in each problem, students tailor drafted documents and bargaining positions to the interests of the particular client they represent at that point in the simulation, whether that client is a government agency, an entire government, a private corporation, or a non-profit public-interest group.
LAW3 710 - (3)
Environmental Risk: Principles and Practice
Prerequisite/corequisite: Environmental Law; Administrative Law recommended
Features elements associated with other Principles and Practice seminars, particularly in the two or three written assignments that students are required to complete, which mimic those assumed by practicing lawyers. The course also has a theoretical goal, which is to enable students to understand and use the methods of analyzing environmental risks to human health that have become a part of the modern language and institutional structure of U.S. environmental law. A single federal environmental program--EPA's program for regulating pesticides--is selected as a vehicle, but the lessons learned are applicable to any understanding of air and water pollution regulation, toxic waste clean-up, and protection of occupational health. A third major goal is to help students understand the legislative process and the common tools of statutory interpretation. EPA's pesticide program underwent major legislative change in 1996, when Congress passed the Food Quality Protection Act, and study of the agency's struggle to fulfill its new responsibilities offers a window on statutory drafting, congressional oversight, and administrative procedure. The insights and skills gained from this part of our study and discussion should therefore be of broad, general application.
LAW3 711 - (3)
Prerequisite/corequisite: LAW3 653; a background in science is not necessary
Scientific evidence and the use of experts has become increasingly common across an enormous variety of legal contexts, including criminal law, constitutional law, administrative law, family law, and torts. Moreover, the use of experts within a system that combines adversarial processes with lay factfinders raises serious practical and theoretical questions. This course studies the various approaches to assessing scientific evidence for use in the courtroom, as well as both historical and current controversies that relate to the intersection of science, law, and evidence. Topics include standards of admissibility for scientific evidence; Daubert and its effects; multiple conceptions of the expert's role and the nature of expertise; alternatives to the jury system for complex cases; administrative agencies and regulatory science; the rise of forensic science; epidemiological evidence and problems of causation; DNA profiling and statistical evidence; and the relation between the values of the adversarial legal system and the values of science and scientists.
LAW4 600 (3)
Poverty Law and Welfare Law
This lecture and discussion course examines issues of law and policy surrounding federal income security and poverty programs such as Supplemental Security Income, Aid for Families with Dependent Children, Food Stamps, and Social Security. Topics include the sources of poverty, definitions of poverty and determination of the federal poverty line, "the right to welfare," issues of statutory and constitutional interpretation in applying the federal benefits statutes, and the role of courts and agencies in the administration of welfare programs. The course also considers federal welfare policy and a critical examination of various proposals for welfare and entitlement reform across the political spectrum.
LAW4 601- (3)
Focusing on the Federal level, this course examines topics such as legislative drafting, statutory interpretation, and the role of Congress in the separation of powers, federalism, and other constitutional issues. Also explores process issues important to the contemporary reality of legislation, such as reasons for the increased variety of statutes; campaign finance; the role of interest groups; the growing use of Congressional investigative power; and the often-convoluted way that bills become law. Studies these and other issues from a legal standpoint, from the perspective of economic and political theory, and based on practical examples of actual legislation.
LAW4 602 - (3)
Local Government Law
Examines the law regarding provision of public goods and services at the local level. Explores the way in which local government law addresses the issues of what services a local government should provide, which residents should receive those services, who should pay for the services provided, and who should provide the answers to the previous questions. Identifies the social institution that is best equipped to allocate a particular social resource. Explores the relationship among federal, state, and local governments, with particular emphasis on judicial analysis of the constitutional and statutory basis of those relationships.
LAW4 603 - (3)
Mass Media Law
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I
A survey of the constitutional implications of mass media enterprises, including newspapers, radio, and television. Attention to First Amendment issues and some discussion of the regulatory economics of the broadcasting and newspaper industries.
LAW4 604 - (3)
Mental Health Law
Examines the legal regulation of psychiatry, psychiatric treatment, and the mentally ill. Focuses on the substantive and procedural law related to the coercive treatment of the seriously mentally ill, including involuntary commitment, the post-commitment rights of mental patients (the right to refuse treatment and the right to treatment), release decisions, and outpatient civil commitment. Other topics include confidentiality of patients' communications, psychiatrists' civil liability for mental patients' violent acts, informed consent, guardianship, and the sexual misconduct of psychotherapists.
LAW4 606 - (3)
Modern Methods of Proof
Modern litigation increasingly resorts to sophisticated methods of proof, usually involving the use of "experts" from fields such as accountancy, economics, engineering, medicine and statistics. Using practical examples from business, tort, and discrimination cases, this course provides a lawyer's guide to understanding, using, and attacking expert evidence, both at trial and at the discovery stage. It also deals with the ancillary topics, such as the generation and presentation of complex evidence.
LAW4 608 - (3)
National Security Law
Introduction to the national and international law of conflict management and security. Issues include the standards for distinguishing permissible coercion; the institutions and procedures for collective security and community management of conflict; the laws of war for regulating the conduct of hostilities; the rules and structures for the control of armaments; the standards and procedures for fixing criminal responsibility for the commission of crimes against peace, war crimes, or crimes against humanity; laws concerning intelligence and counterintelligence, the structure and constitutional aspects of the U.S. system for authorizing the use of the armed forces abroad; national laws concerning arms transfers and military assistance, security aspects of trade and technology transfer, and strategic and critical material programs. Also examines individual conflicts and explores measures for the control of terrorism.
LAW4 609 - (3)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law strongly recommended
Federal law has always accorded special-- though not always supportive--treatment to native Americans and acknowledged the limited autonomy of native American governmental structures. The U.S. Code is full of provisions that recognize this special status and laws that display a recognition of the national government's responsibilities to native Americans. The U.S. Supreme Court each term usually decides at least one case involving native Americans. This course explores this unusual body of law surrounding, and protecting the status of, native Americans. A composite of Federal Courts, Constitutional Law, environmental regulation (and its limits), and international law.
LAW4 610 - (3)
Oceans Law and Policy
Introduction to oceans law and policy. Consideration is given to the national decision process for the making of U.S. oceans policy and to the full range of major oceans issues. Consideration is also given to strategies for achieving oceans goals in the present international system. Recent Executive Branch and Congressional actions, including the "200-mile economic zone proclamation," the deep seabed minerals act, and the extension of territorial sea to 12 miles, as well as the basic structure of "domestic oceans law," are also examined.
LAW4 612 - (3)
Regulating the Family, Sex, and Gender
Considers how we police the practices of family, sex, and gender and why we regulate them the way we do. Discusses social theory, legal theory, feminist theory, gay and lesbian theory, and others. Issues relating to sex discrimination, reproductive rights, gay and lesbian rights, and traditional family law are covered. Examines to what extent the legal regime views sex, gender, and the family as interdependent social institutions and how it approaches them as a whole.
LAW4 614 - (3)
Separation of Powers
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I
Considers a variety of issues involved in the application of law to the President's functions. Many such issues present questions of constitutional law and fall under the general rubric of separation of powers or checks and balances. Examines the reach of powers vested by the Constitution in other branches of government. Other issues primarily involve questions of statutory construction or public administration. Reviews such processes as law enforcement, program administration, budgeting and accounting, executive branch secrecy, the shaping and implementation of foreign policy, and the war powers. Considers major judicial decisions on the subject, but one objective is to derive an appreciation for how few of these questions have been litigated, and thus governed, by clear judicial guidance.
LAW4 615 - (2)
Examines selected areas of professional responsibility, including the creation and termination of the attorney-client relationship, the scope of attorney authority, fee arrangements, and issues of surrounding conflicting interests, preservation of confidences and secrets, and zealous representation of clients. Addresses the attorney's relationships with the courts, the organized bar, and with individuals unable to afford legal representation.
LAW4 616 - (2)
Modern Real Estate (Property II)
Prerequisite: Four credits of Property; not open to students who have had more than four credits of Property
Introduction to the basic components of real estate transactions (conveyancing), emphasizing contracts of sale, deeds, title assurance, and real estate finance (including mortgages). Focuses on the residential real estate transaction (e.g., the broker's role in the transaction), although certain commercial financial devices (e.g., the ground lease) are discussed.
LAW4 617 - (3)
Real Estate Finance
Prerequisite: Federal Income Tax I; additional courses in Finance and/or Tax are helpful, but not required
Deals with financing techniques used in acquiring and developing long-lived assets, primarily real estate. Focuses on techniques for evaluating investment in assets that generate long-term income flows. The use of financing techniques to create financial and tax leverage are studied. Financial structures used to invest in real estate, principally limited partnerships, are examined. Attention is paid to the tax rules for making beneficial tax allocations through partnerships. Examines problems in debt structures and relationships between creditors and investors; protection of equity investors in troubled projects; defaults and workouts; problems in lender liability; bankruptcy; specific topics, including tax issues involving foreign investors or tax exempt entities; real estate investment trusts; rehabilitation credits; and environmental problems.
LAW4 618 - (3)
Protection of Employment Benefits and
Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Tax I
Examines the regulatory policies and statutory rules that govern employee pensions and welfare benefits, now represented by a comprehensive statute, ERISA, and correlative tax provisions. Substantial attention is paid to the federal tax rules that apply to accumulations in private plans, contributions, and payment of benefits. This is not predominantly a tax course, but emphasizes the labor provisions of ERISA in relation to the growing amount of litigation involving employee benefits. The Social Security system is examined for comparative purposes.
LAW4 619 - (2)
Provides an opportunity to learn the basics of refugee law and to explore selected advanced topics, such as theory and philosophy of refugee protection; comparative refugee law and procedure; other forms of protection for migrants not deemed refugees; the role of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; regional and universal treaties concerning refugees; customary international law; and the principle of nonrefoulement.
LAW4 620 - (3)
Samples legal and equitable actions courts take for litigants who have been wronged or who are about to suffer wrong. Assumes that the defendant's actual (or threatened) conduct is illegal, and asks what a court can do about that conduct. Includes paying for harm, preventing harm, and enforcing judgments. Emphasizes public law cases and highlights issues of contemporary significance. Material often treated in basic courses (e.g., contracts, torts) is avoided. For those interested in civil litigation, this course provides a helpful new perspective that complements many other procedural and substantive offerings.
LAW4 621 - (2)
Concentrates on selected areas in the Roman law of property, contracts, and torts to demonstrate two basic aspects: the characteristics of "classical" Roman legal thought and the continuing influence of Roman law in modern civil law systems. Roman case law is studied with the help of English translations and compared with legal reasoning and solutions in contemporary European law.
LAW4 622 - (3)
Social Science in Law
Deals with the uses of social science by practitioners and courts. Considers the roots of social science in legal realism and introduces the basic components of social science methodology. Both applications in the criminal context (e.g., desegregation, trademarks, custody) are considered. Psychology and sociology are the social sciences emphasized.
LAW4 623 - (3)
Prerequisite: Corporations or Corporate Governance and Finance; some familiarity with Rule 10(b)(5), Supreme Court decisions such as Ernst & Ernst v. Hochfelder, and sections 14 (proxies) and 16 (short-swing profits) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Covers three separate aspects of the regulation of the Securities and Exchange Commission. First, the regulation of the process of issuing securities. Second, the regulation of issuers of securities. And third, the regulation of the securities industry. Prepares students to counsel business enterprises about the procedures required for raising capital other than from banks, and to represent those businesses in such transactions. Covers the fundamental knowledge necessary for beginning practice in the securities area representing underwriters, brokerage houses, brokers or the Securities and Exchange Commission. Familiarizes students with the principal institutions and trading practices of American capital markets. Provides the framework for assessing the history, effects, and likely evolution of this regulation. Develops students' ability to make sense of arcane, obscure, and confused federal statutory and regulatory material.
LAW4 627 - (3)
Examines the legal problems arising in professional and amateur athletics. The dominant legal doctrines are those of labor, antitrust, and contracts.
LAW4 629 - (3)
Prerequisite: Torts I
Explores some tort doctrines not covered in Torts I (for example, vicarious liability). Examines in detail the trial of a personal injury case from pleadings, claim investigation, discovery, trial, and through appeal, examining matters of legal doctrine and litigation strategy. Further examines the practical operation and theory of tort liability generally, along with both relatively limited and more radical proposals for reform, including no-fault and other types.
LAW4 630 - (3)
Trusts and Estates I
Covers intestate succession; the execution, revocation, republication and revival of wills and codicils; probate procedure and grounds for contest of wills; basic material on interrelating testamentary and inter vivos transactions, including contracts to make wills; the effect of change on dispositive descriptions and limitations in wills, including problems pertaining to common law lapse and the anti-lapse statutes. Although trusts are briefly considered, focus in equity is on the use of equitable future interests in estate planning. Relevant estate tax aspects are briefly considered but the course is not a substitute for courses in Estate and Gift Taxation or the Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates.
LAW4 631 - (3)
Intellectual Property II (Copyright and Patent)
Introduction to the copyright and patent statutes and the preemptive effect of those statutes on other doctrines that protect rights in intellectual, artistic, and industrial property. Topics include copyright ability and infringement; fair use of copyrighted works, patentability, and the scope of patent rights; remedies for both copyright and patent infringement; and preemption. Considers the protection of computer programs, the fruits of biotechnology, databases, marketing plans, ideas, sporting events, and living animals, such as the "Harvard Mouse"; the legality of videotaping or photo-copying copyrighted material, including television programs and books, and of using copyrighted words in news stories or scholarly articles.
LAW4 632 - (3)
Organized and presented primarily for students who intend to practice law in Virginia. Since the course deals with the procedure of one jurisdiction, there is considerable practical depth in the study of the workings of litigation in Virginia. The course includes a study of the Virginia judicial system and problems of jurisdiction and venue within that system; pleading and practice both at law and in equity, involving a study of the Rules of Court and the procedural statutes, as well as the applicable case law.
LAW4 633 - (3)
Real Estate Finance: Principles and Practice
Prerequisite: Federal Income Tax
Explores financing techniques used in acquiring and developing long-lived assets, primarily rental real estate, including use of techniques for determining present value of investment in assets that generate long-term income flows. Emphasizes spreadsheet analysis. Analyzes and discusses how the capitalized value of the project is divided among different kinds of interests, including traditional debt, leases, and various interests in preferred returns, tax elements, and residual value. Examines the financial structures or vehicles used to invest in real estate, principally limited partnerships and LLCs. Explores public investment in real estate, real estate investment trusts, and other types of publicly sold investment conduits.
LAW4 634 - (3)
Intellectual Property I (Unfair Competition)
Examines the law of business torts, common law and statutory unfair competition, trade secrecy, and trademark law. Introduces those areas that govern the competitive behavior of firms other than antitrust, public utility regulation, and copyright and patent law. Focuses on the extent to which the law protects firm-specific information and customer relationships from appropriation by competitors.
LAW4 636 - (3)
Examines basic principles in the application of federal income tax to partnerships and their partners. Focuses on the accounting operations required in determining tax effects of partnership-level transactions in general, and of limited partnerships on the partners. Material is technical in nature, but operation of the rules are related to, and explained by, the underlying tax theory. Applies the technical rules and tax theory to tax and business planning. Focuses on the allocation of tax attributes to and among partners. Although the real estate partnership is paradigmatic in the partnership area, discusses problems of partners in other areas.
LAW4 639 - (3)
Principles and Practice
Prerequisite: Administrative Law
Provides students who have completed the basic course in Administrative Law with an opportunity to apply their understanding of the principles learned in that course to actual regulatory disputes. This work consists, at least, of the preparation of a petition to initiate agency action; the drafting of comments on a notice of proposed rulemaking; and the preparation of a complaint and supporting memorandum for a suit challenging an agency decision. It may also include a moot court-style oral argument component. The problems are chosen from the actual recent caseload of federal agencies, including EPA and FDA.
LAW4 640 - (4)
Civil Litigation Principles and Practice: Motions and Appeals
Prerequisite: Completion of both semesters of first-year legal writing. Prior completion of evidence is desirable, but not required
Deals with the substantive law of the major motions in civil litigation practice today, as well as advanced topics in oral and written advocacy arising from the prosecution and defense of such motions. Covers a range of topics in appellate advocacy, emphasizing the structuring of persuasive appellate briefs and practical approaches to the challenges of oral argument in time-limited, crowded courts.
LAW4 652 - (3)
The course is a comprehensive study of how to provide legal representation in the various fields of the entertainment industry. The course gives students a basic legal and business framework to address entertainment-related transactions in areas such as music, film, television, literary publishing, theater, and multimedia. Topics also include copyright basics, ethical considerations, and practice development. Students explore the multi-disciplinary legal demands and the economic models necessary to practice law in the entertainment industry.
LAW4 657 - (2)
Comparative Public Law: American Legal
Influence on Japan
Prerequisite: Constitutional history and some familiarity with Japanese history is helpful, but not required.
Surveys various aspects of American legal influence on Japan, focusing on the occupation period immediately after World War II, during which American lawyers essentially dictated their concept and rule of law to their counterparts in Japan. Examines why some of the fundamental changes in law imposed by these American lawyers did not survive. Also studies a more recent series of impacts on Japanese law by American lawyers in the context of opening up the Japanese market through trade and business negotiations. Topics include the Constitution, civil and criminal procedures, family law, antitrust, administrative procedure, corporations, securities, banking, and employment.
LAW4 661 - (3)
Employment Law Clinic
Prerequisite: Employment Law, Employment Discrimination Law, or instructor permission
This course is designed to give students first-hand experience in the practice of plaintiff-side employment law. Students receive classroom instruction in the substantive and procedural aspects of employment litigation, together with additional instruction and simulated exercises involving client interviewing and counseling. In cooperation with the Charlottesville-Albemarle Legal Aid Society and local attorneys, students participate throughout the semester in litigating employment cases. These cases may include wrongful discharge actions, unemployment compensation claims, employment discrimination charges, or any other claims arising out of the employment relationship. Specific assignments vary according to the inventory of cases available at the time, but students should be able to conduct client interviews, participate in discovery, draft motions, and assist with trial preparation. It may also be possible for students to argue some motions (with appropriate third-year practice certification). Students are expected to arrange a satisfactory schedule with their supervising attorney.
LAW5 601 - (3)
Advanced Topics in National Security Law and Policy Seminar
Prerequisite: National Security Law, International Law, or instructor permission
Focuses in depth on legal and policy issues surrounding the conflict in Indochina (1964-75). Uses the conflict as a microcosm to examine the legal regulation of initiating coercion and the conduct of military operations as well as issues of U.S. constitutional law, such as the role of Congress in the use of military force and the 1973 War Powers Resolution.
LAW5 602 - (3)
American Legal History
Considers aspects of American legal development between 1865 and 1965. Reading and discussion focus on civil rights, labor law, and corporations, with special attention to changing structures of governmental intervention and legal thought. Topics chosen for individual research must be related to the seminar's principal themes (legal theory and the changing structure of legal order) but need not focus on the topics explored as a group.
LAW5 603 - (3)
Antitrust and Intellectual Property
Involves the interplay of fundamental antitrust and intellectual property concepts in light of changing competitive, political, and economic perspectives on these matters. Emphasizes the patent-antitrust interface, with attention given to trade secrets, copyrights, and trademarks. Introduces some of the basic precepts of patent and other intellectual property laws and considers a variety of currently debated issues from the standpoints of litigation, counseling, and policy-making.
LAW5 605 - (3)
A study of antitrust and trade regulation law as encountered by practicing lawyers, both in litigation and in counseling. Covers problems involved in private antitrust lawsuits and in dealing with government antitrust proceedings, including mergers. Emphasizes advising clients on distribution, pricing, and other aspects of their day-to-day decisions. The seminar is team taught to enable a diverse antitrust practice to be explored.
LAW5 608 - (3)
Advanced Criminal Law
Prerequisite: Criminal Law
Explores the interplay between new concepts and traditional doctrines in substantive and procedural criminal law. The last two decades have seen a dramatic change in federal criminal law, with the power of prosecutors growing far beyond the boundaries formerly thought to be imposed by the Constitution, statute, and common law. Uses case law and legislative materials as well as real world scenarios such as pre-trial restraints, indictments, forfeitures, and parallel civil actions, to examine the relationship between new devices and old concepts.
LAW5 609 - (3)
Advanced Business Reorganization
Focuses on current legal issues inherent in cases filed under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. Includes possible dismissal for bad faith filing, enforceability of pre-bankruptcy agreements, economic and non-economic forms of adequate protection, issues of cash collateral and property of the estate including absolute and collateral assignments of rents and profits, relief from the automatic stay, post-petition debtor-in-possession financing, emergency sales of assets, avoidance and recovery of preferences and fraudulent transfers, trading in claims, disclosure statements and the approval process, impairment of creditors' claims, classification of creditors, and confirmation of a plan of reorganization.
LAW5 610 - (3)
Business Reorganization Under Chapter 11
of the Bankruptcy Code
This seminar examines how a business uses Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code through a review of the applicable statutory and case law. Using several hypothetical fact situations, students take a simulated business from the filing through confirmation.
LAW5 611 - (2)
Survey and discussion of selected contemporary problems in civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, censorship, religious liberty, rights to citizenship, the right to travel, rights of privacy, academic freedom, and alcohol and drug abuse, using both case law and contemporary writings as base materials. There is some overlap with Constitutional Law II as to both subject matter and particular cases addressed.
LAW5 613 - (3)
Clean Air Act Regulation of Industrial Facilities
Covers a broad array of related environmental issues focused around the Clear Air Act. Topics include the evolution of industrial air pollution regulation, the development of regulations governing major new facilities and modifications from the 1970s to date, including administrative interpretations, a survey of the requirements aimed at emissions from existing facilities, including technology-forcing controls and emissions trading, operating permit requirements under the Act, some coverage of State Implementation Plans under the Act.
LAW5 615 - (3)
Contemporary Legal Thought: The Rule
Exploring contemporary trends in legal process and jurisprudence, this course looks at the rule of law in all its many elements. Discussion emphasizes "constitutionalism and government failure," which broadly explores the interaction between the rule of law and problems in "government failure." Investigates these problems in democratic and non-democratic systems and develops a strong case for democratic systems, the rule of law, and constraints on government. May also explore a range of constitutional amendments offered in recent years within the U.S. to deal with some of those problems, such as the balanced budget amendment, the line item veto, and term limits.
LAW5 619 - (5)
Criminal Defense Clinic
Prerequisite: Criminal Procedure, Evidence, and Professional Responsibility; third-year students
Designed to provide a controlled setting for a first-hand, experience-based study of the processes, techniques, strategies, and responsibilities of legal representation at the trial level. The casework component of the Clinic engages students in the supervised representation of defendants in actual criminal cases arising in the local courts. The students themselves--not their supervising attorneys--ordinarily perform all of the lawyering functions associated with their cases, including interviewing, investigation, research, negotiation, and courtroom advocacy. Frequent individual supervisory conferences guide the students' casework and provide an opportunity for the integration of theory and practice.
LAW5 622 - (3)
Criminal Procedure Seminar
Prerequisite: Criminal Procedure recommended; Federal Criminal Law also helpful
Primarily a "nuts and bolts" course in litigation of criminal cases. Considers the basic policy issues involved. Develops a working familiarity with, and the practical and tactical application of, the law and procedural rules governing conduct of a criminal case at the trial court level. Pretrial and trial stages are covered. Studies the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and comparable provisions of State jurisdictions and also covers certain provisions of the Federal Rules of Evidence that have particular pertinence to criminal trials.
LAW5 632 - (4)
Family Law Clinic
Prerequisite: Participation requires completion of Professional Responsibility and Evidence prior to the second semester of clinic participation; students complete both semesters to receive credit for the clinic
This is a two-semester program. In the first semester, students complete course work in family law together with instruction and simulated exercises involving client interviewing and counseling, negotiation, and trial advocacy skills. In the second semester, students prepare and present cases in the courts serving Charlottesville and Albemarle County residents.
LAW5 638 - (3)
First Amendment and the Arts
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I
Focuses on the varied and complex interaction between constitutional protection for freedoms of expression and the creative and performing arts. Issues include the nature of, and basis for, First Amendment protection for the arts; obscenity and pornography in the arts; special constitutional questions attending the display of controversial works; federal funding for the arts; protection for artists' work through moral right and other principles; and legal liability for the consequences of artistic expression.
LAW5 641 - (3)
Government Contracts Law
Explores the substantive and practical aspects of federal procurement law. Surveys the primary statutory and regulatory rights and remedies of the federal government and contractors. Focuses on the issues, claims, investigations, and litigations most frequently encountered in the practice of government contract law. Familiarizes the student with the unique blend of administrative law, contract law, and litigation found in the practice of government contract law.
LAW5 642 - (3)
Reviews the framework of federal and state legislation and case law dealing with historic preservation in the U.S. and several other countries. Examines private and public means for protecting historically and architecturally significant sites, including historic district ordinances, landmark designation and preservation easements in the light of contemporary constitutional law.
LAW5 643 - (3)
International Criminal Law
Examines selected issues and current problems in the application of criminal laws in the international arena. Topics include jurisdiction over international criminal activities, including diverse crimes such as war crimes, terrorism, narcotics, money laundering, tax and antitrust violations. Focuses, to some extent, on white collar crimes involving commercial and securities fraud as well as computer crime. Forfeiture of assets is considered.
LAW5 645 - (3)
International Arbitration Seminar
Explores the theoretical and the practical aspects of the resolution by arbitration of international commercial disputes. Emphasizes the practical. Case studies are used extensively and students address questions that arise in the arbitration process from the point of view of counsel for the disputing parties. Considers the framework of international law and national laws within which arbitrations take place. Examines principal arbitral rules that may govern international arbitrations, the tribunals in which arbitrations may be held, and the process through which governments and private parties create such rules and tribunals.
LAW5 647 - (1-3)
International Human Rights Clinic
Prerequisite: International Human Rights Law
This clinic, run in conjunction with the International Human Rights Law Group of Washington, D.C., gives first-hand experience in the practice of international human rights law before international, regional, and U.S. fora.
LAW5 648 - (3)
Emerging Markets: Principles and Practice
Explores the legal and regulatory structures affecting foreign investors seeking to participate in the development of the so-called "emerging markets," and in particular, the restructuring of formerly socialist economies. Includes forms of foreign investment and commercial transactions, local accreditation, taxation, the privatization process, intellectual property protection, import-export regulations, currency controls, project and conventional financing, banking, the development and regulation of capital markets, securities and commodities exchanges, financing, labor law, environmental protection, and antitrust issues. The core of the seminar is based on an actual investment project involving the development of energy resources in Russia.
LAW5 652 - (3)
Appellate Litigation Clinic
Students brief and argue an appeal before a federal appeals court. The rules and procedure applicable in the federal appellate system are examined. Fundamentals of oral and written appellate advocacy are discussed, with a focus on each student's individual project. All students practice oral argument; one student per case argues the appeal before the court.
LAW5 657 - (3)
Law and Higher Education
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I is helpful, but not required
This seminar focuses on areas of the law that apply to the operations of institutions of higher education. Includes institutional governance and policy making; faculty and student rights and responsibilities; constitutional issues involving application of the guarantees of the First, Fourth, and Fourteenth Amendments; civil rights issues, including diversity and affirmative action, the rights of the disabled, and gender-based issues; liability issues in the institutional setting; research-related issues; issues concerning affiliated entities; and the legal implications of increasing technology.
LAW5 662 - (3)
Legislative Drafting and Public Policy
Students draft legislation and supporting documentation on an issue of particular interest to the student. Where possible, students are put in touch with a member of the Office of the Attorney General, General Assembly, or Division of Legislative Services (State legislative drafting office) who is interested in the issue being researched by the student.
LAW5 664 - (3)
Examines the issues of institutional design and structure that confront the modern legal world. Introduces the fundamental features of different legal systems, especially those in Europe and parts of the developing world. The seminar considers the influence of ideology on law, the reform process, the influence of various models, and the realization of institutional change in constitutional, civil, criminal, and administrative law. Also examines the impact of international institutions, such as the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights on domestic law.
LAW5 668 - (3)
Introduces a broad spectrum of concepts in the study of alternatives to the litigation model for dispute resolution. Explores basic approaches to negotiation and mediation through a collection of readings and simulation-based exercises conducted both within the class and outside of it. Looks at barriers to mediation and professional attitudes toward alternative modes of dispute resolution. Students conduct negotiation and mediation simulations and participate orally and by writing their own critiques. Mediation skills training is conducted over a weekend in the middle of the semester.
LAW5 670 - (3)
Psychiatry and Civil Practice
This interdisciplinary clinical seminar addresses a variety of issues relating to the assessment of mental disability in a civil practice. Students participate in psychiatric evaluations of persons referred to the University's Forensic Psychiatry Clinic by their attorneys or by administrative agencies.
LAW5 671 - (3)
Psychiatry and Criminal Law
Focuses on issues of psychiatric and psychological involvement in criminal litigation. The substantive issues examined include the relationship between psychopathology and crime; the insanity defense and other issues of criminal responsibility; competency to stand trial and otherwise participate in the legal process; psychiatric involvement in sentencing proceedings; the constitutional contours of pretrial psychiatric evaluations, and clinicians as expert witnesses in criminal proceedings.
LAW5 677 (3)
Supreme Court Seminar
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I and Federal Courts
Examines recent decisions of the Supreme Court.
LAW5 680 - (5)
The Prosecution Clinical Program
Prerequisite: Evidence, Criminal Procedure (any course), Professional Responsibility, and Trial Advocacy.
Explores a range of practical, interpersonal, and intellectual issues in the discharge of prosecutorial functions and responsibilities, including exercise of discretion in the decision to charge, prosecute, or drop proceedings; relationships between prosecutors and investigative agencies and law enforcement personnel; handling of cooperating witnesses; dealing with complaining parties and victim witnesses; ethical issues involving inter alia, selection of multiple defendants, witness veracity, and misconduct of various sorts by various actors in the criminal justice system (including law enforcement personnel and prosecuting attorneys); and other matters.
LAW5 685 - (3)
Students are prepared for work in the trial court and for the atmosphere of the courtroom. Extensive use is made of simulated trial episodes. Several phases of trial practice are illustrated, and students are given the opportunity to perform one or more of the functions of trial lawyers on their feet, such as direct and cross examination, opening statements, handling of exhibits, objections and closing argument. Provides instruction in the practice and technique of advocacy.
LAW5 686 - (2)
Trial Advocacy Institute
Prerequisite: Basic course in Evidence, and either the basic seminar in Trial Advocacy, Criminal Trial Advocacy, the Criminal Practice Clinic, or the Family Law Clinic
The institute represents the most advanced advocacy training that the Law School offers, and it is regarded as one of the best programs in the country.
LAW5 692 - (3)
Advanced Bankruptcy Law
Drawing from the sophisticated (albeit accessible) literature that has grown up in the field of bankruptcy in recent years, this seminar revisits many of the area's key themes. Topics include the role of debt finance, the bankruptcy decision, preferences, and the balance of power within a reorganization. Emphasis is placed on the role of bankruptcy within the wider system of corporate finance.
LAW5 694 - (3)
Examines the complex ways in which law is used to regulate the level of individual violence in society. Topics include the uses of criminal law (e.g., deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation); public health law (e.g., gun control, drug and alcohol restrictions); mental health law (e.g., involuntary hospitalization); and tort law (e.g., liability for failure to prevent violence). Legal theory and empirical research receive equal emphasis.
LAW5 704 - (5)
Local Government Law Clinic
Prerequisite: Open to second-and third-year students. Local Government, Legislation, or Land Use are recommended
This clinic offers a combination of classroom instruction and supervised clinical placements in one of several local government attorneys' offices in Central Virginia. The clinic provides a pragmatic introduction to the public practice of law by exposing students to a broad range of civil subjects affecting local governments, the uniquely political role played by local government attorneys, and the clinical and interpersonal skills required in such a practice. Substantive topics include local government jurisdiction and powers; legislation; zoning and land use; environment; sovereign immunity; parliamentary procedure; procurement and construction; and freedom of information and privacy protection. Clinical topics and skills include legislative drafting; negotiation; lobbying; ethics; legal writing; and simulated public presentations before public bodies. Class discussion includes guest lecturers and problem-solving of specific cases handled by students. The class meets at the Law School once every other week throughout the year and all students participate in a clinical placement for the entire academic year, in one of several city or county attorney's offices within one hour's driving distance of Charlottesville. Students are expected to work a minimum of 6 hours per week in the supervising attorney's office. Limited trial or administrative work may be available at the discretion of the supervising attorney.
LAW5 706 - (1)
Seminars in Ethical Values
Mutually exclusive with all other Seminars in Ethical Values.
Seminars in Ethical Values are graded on a pass/fail basis. No credit is awarded in the fall semester. One credit is awarded in the spring semester upon successful completion of the seminar.
LAW5 709 - (3)
Public Health Law and Ethics
This seminar explores the legitimacy, design, and implementation of a variety of policies aiming to promote the public health and reduce the social burden of disease and injury. Illustrative topics include mandatory immunization, fluoridation of the water supply, mandatory reporting of certain diseases or disabilities, mandatory drug testing, syringe exchange programs, genetic screening, restrictions on tobacco advertising, and mandatory motorcycle helmet laws.
LAW5 712 - (3)
Patent and Licensing Clinic
Prerequisite: Patent law. Mutually exclusive with all other clinical offerings. A student may only enroll in one clinical offering; exceptions considered only if vacancies exist.
Involves instruction and practical training in patent drafting as well as the negotiation and drafting of patent license agreements. Students participate in class sessions covering these topics and are assigned one or more significant drafting and counseling projects in one or both of these areas. The clinic experience covers evaluation of inventions and computer software for patentability and commercial value; counseling UVa faculty inventors regarding patentability, inventorship, and the patenting processes; preparation, filing and prosecution of provisional U.S. patent applications; dealing with patent examiners; and researching current issues in the fields of intellectual property and technology transfer. Some exposure to international patent applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty and resolution of disputes with licensees and possible infringers.
LAW5 715 - (3)
American Expansion and American Law
This seminar explores the various legal and constitutional issues that have arisen in the course of the territorial expansion of the United States from the eastern seaboard across the continent and into the Pacific and Caribbean. Topics include territorial acquisition (e.g., Louisiana, the Mexican Cession, Alaska, the annexation of Texas), removal of Native American populations, the regulation of slavery in the federal territories, the preservation of law and order in areas without effective civil authority, the legal status of indigenous inhabitants of acquired territories, clashes of legal culture along legal frontiers, and the formation of "creole" legal cultures.
LAW5 717 - (3)
Environmental justice combines two of the most important social movements of the last half century--environmentalism and civil rights. Although the movement has received national attention for more than a decade, the law and policy of environmental justice are still in a developmental stage and are subject to fundamental disputes both within and outside of the movement. In this seminar, students look at questions about the proper scope of environmental justice concerns and the principles on which they should be addressed. What groups or interests should be protected? (People of color, indigenous peoples, poor people, women?) What should be the goals of environmental justice? (Equal distribution of environmental harms, participatory decision-making, self-determination?) Which strategies should be used? (Litigation, legislation, public education?) What law should govern? After considering these doctrinal concerns, students examine five to ten environmental justice cases. These include cases involving Title VI of the Civil Rights Act as applied to environmental permitting of waste facilities and new industrial sites; effects of emissions trading and other market approaches to environmental protection on people of color or poor communities; and the right of indigenous peoples to determine the use of their traditional lands and natural resources. These case studies are used to examine not only implementation issues but also potential contradictions within the movement and conflicts with traditional environmentalism.
LAW5 718 - (3)
Global warming (also known as "climate change") has been the most prominent issue in international environmental policy since Rio de Janiero hosted the "Earth Summit" in June of 1992. More than 150 nations have since signed a pair of treaties that make a start--but only a start--toward answering the thorny questions of science, international law, energy policy, ethics, and efforts to minimize or mitigate climate change. This seminar explores these questions, chiefly (but not exclusively) by reading and then discussing recent articles written by law professors, political scientists, and others.
LAW5 719 - (5)
Housing Law Clinic
Prerequisite: Third-year standing. All requirements for Virginia's Third-Year Practice Certificate (Criminal Law, Professional Responsibility, Evidence, and Civil Procedure) must be satisfied by the end of the first semester of clinic participation.
This year-long clinical course, offered in conjunction with the Charlottesville-Albemarle Legal Aid Society, includes both a classroom seminar and supervised client representation in housing related cases. The classroom component of the seminar meets weekly and focuses on statutes and policies in Virginia and federal housing law, as well as procedural and evidentiary issues likely to be encountered in the litigation of housing cases. Instruction in client interviewing, client counseling, negotiation, and trial preparation is also provided. The caseload of the Charlottesville-Albemarle Legal Aid Society includes a wide range of housing cases and administrative proceedings for indigent clients that present issues under private landlord-tenant contracts, various federally subsidized rental programs, and other statutes, such as the Fair Housing Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Cases that the students handle may include eviction cases, rent escrow cases, grievance hearings, avoidance of illegal or unfair lease provisions, abatement of substandard building conditions, and other enforcement of residents' rights. The students, under the supervision of an attorney, directly perform all of the lawyer functions associated with their cases, including client and witness interviews, factual development, legal research, preparation of pleadings, negotiation and courtroom advocacy. Students meet regularly (weekly) in small groups with their supervising attorneys, as well as individually, in order to receive effective supervision. The supervising attorney accompanies the students to each court appearance and/or administrative proceeding.
LAW7 601 - (3)
First Amendment Clinic
The clinic is run in conjunction with the Thomas Jefferson Center for Protection of Free Expression, located in Charlottesville. Both litigation and non-litigation projects are undertaken in First Amendment subject areas. While the program does not generally undertake projects involving religion, political campaigns, or libel law, a broad range of First Amendment concerns are regularly encountered. Other subjects common in the caseload and publications of the Center include commercial speech and advertising restriction, freedom of expression in educational settings, issues in broadcasting media, and free expression in the electronic frontier of computer communications and the Internet.
LAW7 603 - (3)
Current Issues in Federal Tax Policy
Prerequisite: Federal Income Tax I.
The seminar covers a variety of significant federal tax policy issues currently under consideration in the Congress and in political and academic debates. Among these are current proposals to revise the present federal income tax or replace it, in whole or in part, with various forms of consumption taxes, including the so-called "flat tax," a value added tax used in many foreign countries, or a national retail sales tax. Attention is given to recent "targeted tax credits," such as the recently enacted credits for education expenses, credits for research and development, for purchases of electric autos, etc., and other provisions that increase the complexity of the federal tax laws; to the relative tax burdens of single and married persons; to the respective liabilities of husband and wife filing joint returns; to indexing for inflation the tax basis of common stocks and real estate in determining capital gains; to the recently enacted law to restructure the Internal Revenue Service and expand the jurisdiction of the United States Tax Court; to the pressing need to restructure the social security taxes and benefits; and to the new problems of taxation of income and sales occurring in international and interstate electronic commerce via the Internet and e-mail. It is expected that persons now or formerly in the government service be present for several sessions of the seminar.
LAW7 606 - (3)
Children's Health Care: Legal and
The seminar examines the system through which health care for children is provided and funded, along with proposals for change and expansion. It also focuses on recurring legal problems regarding medical decision making by and for children; child abuse and medical neglect; adoption for children with special needs; health care for children who have long term disabilities and children in foster care or institutional settings; genetic counseling and screening; children with AIDS; children in homeless families; human experimentation that may affect children; and assuring health care coverage for children after the divorce of their parents.
LAW7 608 - (3)
Colloquium in American Legal History
A reading and discussion course in selected topics in the history and historiography of American law. Topics include the Marshall Court, the common law and the market, family law, the emergence of the administrative state, and the Warren Court.
LAW7 617 - (3)
First Amendment Theory
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I and any First Amendment course or instructor permission
A seminar consisting of three stages. First, a few weeks are devoted to acquiring an overview of general writing about the freedom of speech, including both philosophical and historical treatments. Second, each session is devoted to a close critique of one (relatively short, usually recent) law review article on the subject. While one student writes a ten-page critique of the article, identifying any problems with the author's argument, another serves as the author's advocate, defending the article against all challenges. After the introductory weeks devoted to general background, the workload is light in terms of sheer pages but heavy in terms of the command students are expected to have of the specific arguments in each article. The principle objective of the seminar is to sharpen skills of close reading and critical analysis.
LAW7 629 - (3)
Law and Innovation
Examines the effect of various areas of law on technological innovation, including government science and technology law and policy; intellectual property and the economics of the patent system; network effects and path dependence in an information-based society; the effect of tort liability regimes on innovation; the influence of market structure and competition law on the production of innovations; and the impact of innovation on international trade and competitiveness.
LAW7 631 - (3)
Race and the Constitution in American
Mutually Exclusive with Constitutional History II: From Reconstruction to Brown
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I
This seminar examines the constitutional history of race from the Founding to the present. (To be more precise, the seminar examines issues involving African-Americans and the Constitution.) The class begins with the debates over slavery at the constitutional convention and continues through the antebellum period, considering the constitutional issues arising over congressional regulation of slavery in the western territories and rendition of fugitive slaves. After an examination of the debates over the Reconstruction amendments to the Constitution, the remainder of the semester is spent considering their judicial interpretation in the race context. Individual sessions consider the Civil Rights Cases, the Plessy era, the Progressive era, the interwar period, World War II and its aftermath, Brown, the civil rights era, the Burger Court, and the Rehnquist Court.
LAW7 634 - (4)
Child Advocacy Clinic
Mutually Exclusive with all other Clinical Offerings. A student may enroll in only one Clinical Offering; exceptions considered only if vacancies exist.
Prerequisite: Second- or third-year standing. Prerequisite/corequisite: Children in the Legal System recommended
This year-long clinical course is offered in conjunction with the Charlottesville-Albemarle Legal Aid Society. Students enrolled in the Child Advocacy Clinic represent children involved in legal issues in the areas of (1) educational law; (2) foster care and social services law; (3) mental health and developmental disabilities law and SSI benefits; and (4) laws governing services to children who have been found delinquent. Students gather factual information and conduct appropriate legal research to analyze the children's legal situations. Students represent children in negotiations and administrative hearings and participate in court proceedings to the extent permitted by law. Students meet weekly in small groups with their supervising attorneys, as well as individually, in order to receive effective supervision. The supervising attorney accompanies the students to any administrative and/or court hearings that might take place. Instruction concerning client interviewing, client counseling, negotiation and trial preparation is provided. Supervision is provided by attorneys at the Charlottesville-Albemarle Legal Aid Society, located in Charlottesville.
Office of the Dean of the School of Law
Robert E. Scott, B.A., J.D., LL.M., S.J.D., Dean, Arnold H. Leon Professor of Law, Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Professor of Law
Elaine M. Hadden, B.A., Associate Dean for Management and Finance
David H. Ibbeken, A.B., J.D., Director, Law School Foundation
Paul G. Mahoney, B.S., J.D., Brokaw
Professor of Corporate Law, Albert C. BeVier Research Professor, Academic Associate Dean
Glen O. Robinson, A.B., J.D., David A.
Harrison Professor of Law, Horace W. Goldsmith Research Professor, Associate Dean for Research and Information
Albert R. Turnbull, A.B., LL.B., Associate Dean for Admissions and Placement
Gary F. Banks, B.A., M.Ed., Assistant Dean for Information Technology
William Bergen, B.S., M.A., Assistant Dean for Administrative Services
Kimberly Carpenter Emery, B.A., J.D.,
Assistant Dean for Public Service
Beverly P. Harmon, B.A., M.Ed., Assistant Dean for Student Affairs
William S. Hopson IV, B.A., LL.B., Senior Assistant Dean for Career Services
Edith L. Morris, B.A., J.D., Assistant Dean
for Academic Services, Registrar
Jerome W. D. Stokes, B.A., J.D., Senior
Assistant Dean for Admissions, Director of Financial Aid
Cynthia F. Burns, B.A., M.A., M.A., Ed.S., Assistant to the Dean
Karen J. Anderson, B.A., J.D., Special
Assistant to the Dean, Associate Director, Graduate Studies
Lynn P. Bailey, B.A., J.D., Career Counselor
Kenneth S. Abraham, A.B., J.D., Class of 1962 Professor of Law, Albert C. Tate, Jr., Research Professor
Barbara E. Armacost, B.S., M.T.S., J.D., Class of 1941 Research Professor
Richard D. Balnave, B.A., M.A., J.D.,
Director of the Family Law Clinic
Lillian R. BeVier, B.A., J.D, Henry L. and Grace Doherty Professor of Law
Vincent Blasi, B.A., J.D., D. Lurton Massee Professor of Law, Hunton & Williams Research Professor
Curtis A. Bradley, B.A., J.D.
Richard J. Bonnie, B.A., LL.B., John S. Battle Professor of Law, Roy L. and Rosamond Woodruff Morgan Research Professor
O. Whitfield Broome, A.B., M.S., Ph.D., Kaulback Professor of Commerce and
Professor of Law
Jonathan Z. Cannon, B.A., J.D.
George M. Cohen, B.A., J.D.
Anne M. Coughlin, B.A., M.A., J.D.
Barry Cushman, B.A., M.A., J.D., Ph.D., Elizabeth D. and Richard A. Merrill Research Professor
Cora Diamond, B.A., B.Phil.
Michael P. Dooley, B.A., J.D., William S.
Potter Professor of Law
Earl C. Dudley, Jr., B.A., LL.B.
Charles J. Goetz, A.B., Ph.D., Joseph M. Hartfield Professor of Law, Harrison Foundation Research Professor
John C. Harrison, B.A., J.D., Class of 1966 Research Professor
Stanley D. Henderson, A.B., J.D., F.D.G.,
Ribble Professor of Law
A. E. Dick Howard, B.A., LL.B., M.A. (Oxon.), White Burkett Miller Professor of Law and Public Affairs
John C. Jeffries, Jr., B.A., J.D., Emerson G. Spies Professor of Law, William L.
Matheson and Robert M. Morgenthau Distinguished Research Professor
Alex M. Johnson, Jr., B.A., J.D., Mary and Daniel Loughran Professor of Law, Vice Provost for Faculty Recruitment
Edmund W. Kitch, B.A., J.D., Joseph M. Hartfield Professor of Law
Michael J. Klarman, B.A., M.A., J.D., D.Phil., James Monroe Professor of Law
Jody S. Kraus, B.A., Ph.D., J.D.
Douglas L. Leslie, B.A., J.D., Charles O.
Gregory Professor of Law, Thomas F. Bergin Teaching Professor
Graham C. Lilly, B.S., LL.B., Armistead M. Dobie Professor of Law
Peter W. Low, A.B., LL.B., Hardy C. Dillard Professor of Law, Provost of the
Paul G. Mahoney, B.S., J.D., Brokaw
Professor of Corporate Law, Albert C. BeVier Research Professor, Academic Associate Dean
David A. Martin, B.A., J.D., Henry L. and Grace Doherty Professor of Law, F. Palmer Weber Research Professor of Civil Liberties and Human Rights
Richard A. Merrill, A.B., LL.B., M.A. (Oxon.), Daniel Caplin Professor of Law, Sullivan and Cromwell Research Professor
John T. Monahan, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Henry L. and Grace Doherty Professor of Law, Horace W. Goldsmith Research Professor
John Norton Moore, A.B., LL.B., LL.M., Walter L. Brown Professor of Law
Jeffrey O'Connell, B.A., J.D., Samuel H. McCoy II Professor of Law
Robert M. O'Neil, A.B., A.M., LL.M.,
University Professor, Professor of Law
Daniel R. Ortiz, B.A., M.Phil. (Oxon), J.D., John Allan Love Professor of Law, Joseph C. Carter, Jr. Research Professor
Glen O. Robinson, A.B., LL.B., David A.
Harrison Professor of Law, Horace W. Goldsmith Research Professor, Associate Dean for Research and Information Services
Mildred W. Robinson, B.A., LL.M., J.D.
George A. Rutherglen, A.B., J.D.,
O. M. Vicars Professor of Law, Edward F. Howrey Research Professor
Elizabeth S. Scott, A.B., J.D., University
Robert E. Scott, B.A., J.D., LL.M., S.J.D., Arnold H. Leon Professor of Law, Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Professor of Law, Dean
John K. Setear, B.A., J.D., Caddell and
Conwell Research Professor
Kent Sinclair, Jr., A.B., J.D.
Paul B. Stephan III, B.A., M.A., J.D., Percy Brown Professor of Law, E. James Kelly-Class of 1965 Research Professor
Albert R. Turnbull, A.B., LL.B., Associate Dean for Admissions and Placement,
J. Hoult Verkerke, B.A., M.Phil., J.D., Earle K. Shawe Research Professor of
Walter J. Wadlington, A.B., LL.B., James Madison Professor of Law, Professor of Legal Medicine
W. Laurens Walker, A.B., J.D., S.J.D.,
T. Munford Boyd Professor of Law, John V. Ray Research Professor
Steven D. Walt, B.A., M.A., J.D., Ph.D., Nicholas E. Chimicles Research Professor
Amy L. Wax, B.S., M.D., J.D., Class of 1948 Professor of Scholarly Research in Law
Larry B. Wenger, B.A., M.L.S., J.D., Law Librarian
G. Edward White, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., J.D., John Barbee Minor Professor of Law and History, University Professor, Class of 1963 Research Professor
Thomas R. White III, B.A., LL.B., John C. Stennis Professor of Law
George K. Yin, B.A., M.Ed., J.D., Howard W. Smith Professor of Law, Barron F. Black Research Professor
D. Ruth Buck, B.A., M.Ed., J.D., Co-Director of Legal Research and Writing
Kim Forde-Mazrui, A.B., J.D.
Margaret V. W. Foster, A.B., J.D., Co-Director of Legal Research and Writing
Kevin A. Kordana, B.A., J.D.
Daryl J. Levinson, A.B., M.A., J.D.
Clarisa Long, B.S., B.A., J.D.
M. Elizabeth Magill, B.A., J.D.
Julia D. Mahoney, B.A., J.D.
Charles W. McCurdy, B.A., Ph.D., Associate Professor of History and Law
Jennifer C. Mnookin, A.B., J.D.
Caleb Nelson, A.B., J.D.
James E. Ryan, B.A., J.D.
Stephen F. Smith, B.A., J.D.
Kathryn W. Bradley, B.A., J.D.
William J. Carney, B.A., LL.B. (fall)
Herbert Hausmaninger, Dr. Jur., John A. Ewald Jr., Distinguished Visiting Professor (fall)
Charles W. Mooney, Jr., B.A., J.D. (fall)
Donald H. Regan, A.B., LL.B., B.Phil., Ph.D. (spring)
Samuel C. Thompson, Jr., B.S., M.A., J.D., LL.M., John A. Ewald, Jr., Distinguished
Ann Woolhandler, B.A., J.D. (spring)
Benjamin C. Ackerly, B.A., LL.B.
Thomas E. Albro, A.B., J.D.
Michael Allen, B.S., J.D.
Harvey M. Applebaum, B.A., LL.B.
Ronald Aucutt, B.A., J.D.
R. Markham Ball, B.A., LL.B., M.A.
Herbert Beskin, B.A., J.D.
Andrew K. Block, Jr., B.A., J.D.
William A. Bradford, Jr., B.A., J.D.
David W. Carr, Jr., A.B., J.D.
Charles Craver, B.A., J.D.
Judge B. Waugh Crigler, B.A., J.D.
Frank Cummings, B.A., J.D.
Claire E. Curry, B.A., J.D.
John E. Davidson, B.A., J.D.
Richard N. Dean, B.A., M.A., J.D.
Joseph Erdman, B.A., J.D.
Kenneth R. Feinberg, B.A., J.D.
Lawrence R. Fullerton, B.A., M.A., J.D.
Judge Bernard S. Goodwyn, A.B., J.D.
William Gould, B.A., J.D.
D. Brock Greene, B.A., J.D.
Daniel Grove, B.S., J.D., LL.M.
Alex R. Gulotta, B.A., J.D.
Frederick T. Heblich, Jr., B.A., J.D.
Judge Stephan Helvin, B.A., LL.B
Michael J. Henke, B.A., LL.B., LL.M.
James Hingeley, A.B., J.D.
Frederick P. Hitz, B.A., J.D.
Jean B. Hudson, B.A., J.D.
Barbara L. Hulbert, B.A., J.D.
David B. Isbell, B.A., LL.B.
Joseph F. Johnston, Jr., B.A., LL.B., M.A.
Richard C. Kast, B.A., J.D.
Judge Martin Langhorne Keith, B.A., J.D.
H. Lane Kneedler, A.B., LL.B.
James B. Kobak, Jr., A.B., LL.B.
Mark I. Levy, B.A., J.D.
Michael R. Lincoln, B.S., J.D.
Douglas E. Little, B.A., J.D.
Paul A. Lombardo, A.B., M.A., J.D., Ph.D.
Denise Y. Lunsford, A.A., B.S., J.D.
Robert D. Luskin, A.B., J.D.
Robert S. MacWright, B.A., Ph.D., J.D.
David M. Malone, B.A., J.D.
Gail S. Marshall, B.A., LL.B.
Rob C. Masri, B.A., J.D.
Elisa Massimino, B.A., M.A., J.D.
Richard E. Moore, A.B., J.D.
Alexia Morrison, B.A., J.D.
Erik D. Olson, B.A., J.D.
James M. Pates, B.A., J.D.
Judge Paul M. Peatross, B.A., J.D.
Richard E. Redding, B.A., M.S., J.D., Ph.D.
Judge Jane M. Roush, A.B., J.D.
Thomas G. Snow, B.A., M.A., J.D.
Bruce M. Steen, B.A., J.D., M.A.
Robert F. Turner, B.A., J.D.
William R. Waddell, A.B., LL.B.
Neal L. Walters, B.A., M.F.A., J.D.
Robert L. Weinberg, B.A., LL.B.
J. Joshua Wheeler, B.A., M.A., J.D.
Bruce R. Williamson, Jr., B.A., J.D.
R. Craig Wood, B.A., M.Ed., J.D.
Neill H. Alford, Jr., B.A., LL.B., J.S.D.,
Thomas F. Bergin, B.A., LL.B., Professor Emeritus
Mortimer M. Caplin, B.S., LL.B., J.S.D.,
Edwin S. Cohen, B.A., J.D., Professor
John A.C. Hetherington, A.B., LL.B., LL.M., Professor Emeritus
Peter C. Manson, B.A., LL.B., Professor Emeritus
John C. McCoid, B.A., LL.B., Professor Emeritus
Daniel J. Meador, B.S., LL.B., LL.M.,
Calvin Woodard, B.A., LL.B., Ph.D. (Cantab.), Professor Emeritus