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Departments and Programs

African-American and African Studies | American Sign Language | American Studies | Anthropology | Archaeology | Art | Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Culture | Astronomy | Biology | Chemistry | Classics | Cognitive Science | Comparative Literature

Program in African-American and African Studies
P.O. Box 400162
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4162
Phone: (434) 924-3109
Fax: (434) 924-8820

Overview  African-American and African Studies (AAS) is an interdisciplinary program in which students examine various aspects of the black experience. The major consists of two core course requirements and seven area courses in the humanities and social sciences selected from the AAS Course Offering Directory, available in Minor Hall 108 or online at www.virginia.edu/~woodson. The AAS program provides a solid liberal arts education as well as broad exposure to African and African-American history and culture.

Faculty  The African-American and African studies faculty comprises professors in departments Grounds-wide who teach courses directly related to topics in African-American and/or African studies. Departmental offerings vary from year to year, but currently these departments include anthropology, art history, drama, economics, English, French, history, linguistics, music, philosophy, politics, psychology, religious studies, Slavic, and sociology. Each year, the AAS program also supports the teaching of special AAS seminars by visiting scholars.

The current steering committee for the AAS undergraduate program is as follows, with departmental affiliation: Scot French, Director of the AAS Program; Reginald Butler, history; Ellen Contini-Morava, anthropology; Scott DeVeaux, music; Gertrude Fraser, anthropology; Dylan Penningroth, history; Adria LaViolette, anthropology; John Mason, history; Tejumola Olaniyan, English; Cynthia Hoehler-Fatton, religious studies; Benjamin Ray, religious studies; Milton Vickerman, psychology; and Melvin Wilson, psychology. These faculty are available as advisors to AAS majors and minors.

Students  There are approximately 50 undergraduates majoring in African-American and African studies in a given year, quite a number of whom double-major with disciplines in the humanities or social sciences. Although there are distributional requirements within the AAS major, students have a great deal of freedom in shaping the major to reflect their particular area, topical, and disciplinary interests. Students also have ample opportunity for independent study with faculty members. In addition, some students study abroad in Africa or the Caribbean through the University or other programs, and receive credit in the AAS major for such experiences. Students minoring in AAS are usually either majoring in sciences or enrolled in non-College programs (in the Schools of Architecture, Engineering and Applied Science, or  Commerce).

Graduates with a degree in African-American and African studies use their interdisciplinary training and skills as a basis for a wide variety of careers. Recent graduates are pursuing professions in such fields as law, international development, teaching, social work, small and corporate business, banking, and public administration. Every year AAS majors also begin graduate training, including M.A. and Ph.D. programs in the humanities and social sciences, law school, and medical school. Consider an AAS major a springboard from which anything is possible.

Special Resources 

Carter G. Woodson Institute for African-American and African Studies  The Woodson Institute provides a home base and support for the AAS major. The institute is named after Virginia-born historian Carter Godwin Woodson, who played a pioneering role in the institutionalization of the study of the black experience, and founded and was editor of the Journal of Negro History from 1916 until his death in 1950. The Woodson Institute supports advanced research in black studies, every year providing pre- and post-doctoral fellowships to scholars from within and outside the University. The Woodson Fellows conduct research in African-American and/or African studies on the premises of the institute, and undergraduates should consider them a resource. The Woodson Institute also sponsors an annual lecture series on topics related to African-American and African studies, open to the university community and the public.

Requirements for Major  The African-American and African studies interdisciplinary major comprises 9 courses (29 credits) taken within a program approved by any member of the AAS steering committee, who acts as the student's advisor. These courses may include classes taken before declaration of the major. In order to declare a major, a student must have taken AAS 101 and 102, and earned a grade of C or better in each course. Students must have an average of 2.0 in the major for it to be considered complete.

The major requires a distribution of courses in the following areas and levels, all to be selected from the AAS Course Offering Directory:

  1. AAS 101 and 102;
  2. one course concerning race and politics in the U.S.;
  3. one course in the humanities (art history, drama, English, French, music, philosophy, religious studies);
  4. one course in the social sciences or history, in addition to AAS 101, 102 (anthropology, economics, history, linguistics, politics, psychology, Slavic, sociology);
  5. one course about Africa, which may fulfill requirements (3) or (4) above;
  6. four courses above the 300 level, which may fulfill requirements (2-5);
  7. one 400-level seminar requiring a research paper, which may count toward requirement (6) above.

Each semester the Carter G. Woodson Institute publishes a list of courses that satisfy the above requirements. Students should speak with an advisor if they have any questions about how to distribute these courses.

Students frequently find that African-American and African studies works well as a double-major with another discipline in the humanities and social sciences. Up to 11 credits in another departmental major may count toward an AAS major, if the courses are among those listed in the AAS Course Offering Directory. Up to 6 transfer credits from relevant study abroad may be counted toward the major, with the advance written permission of the director of the major. Up to 3 credits of an appropriate language course may be counted toward the major.

Exceptions to any of these requirements is made only upon written petition to the director of the AAS major. No petitions are accepted after a student completes the seventh semester.

Requirements for Minor  A Minor in African-American and African Studies consists of completion of AAS 101 and 102 with a grade of C or better in each course; twelve credits beyond AAS 101 and 102, chosen from the AAS Course Offering Directory; and an average of 2.0 in all courses counted under this requirement.

Independent Study  AAS 401 allows students to work on an individual research project. Students wishing to pursue this should obtain an informational sheet at the Woodson Institute that explains the procedure and requirements. Students must propose a topic to an appropriate faculty member, submit a written proposal for approval, prepare an extensive annotated bibliography on relevant readings comparable to the reading list of a regular upper-level course, and complete a research paper of at least 20 pages.

Distinguished Majors Program in African-American and African Studies  Third-year students with superior academic performance are encourage to apply for the AAS Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) in which they conduct research and write a thesis demonstrating originality and independent study of high quality. Participants are eligible for graduation with distinction. The requirements for admission to the DMP are:

  1. satisfaction of all College requirements as stated in the Undergraduate Record with a GPA of at least 3.4 in all university courses;
  2. permission of an advisor. This person may be any faculty member who teaches courses listed in the AAS Course Offering Directory, willing to supervise the thesis. Permission should be sought no later than the second semester of the third year. The supervisor's written approval of the topic must be secured by the students and filed at the Woodson Institute;
  3. fulfillment of the distribution requirements for the major (see requirements 1-5 for the major above). Like the AAS major, the DMP comprises 29 credits. DMP participants must complete at least six credits of course work above the 400 level, in addition to the six credits specific to preparation of the thesis, outlined below.
Once the advisor has been secured, students should seek two additional faculty members who agree to read the thesis. The students register for three credits of AAS 451 (Directed Research) in the first semester of the fourth year. In this course, the students conduct research for, and write the first draft of their thesis. In the second semester, students register for AAS 452 (Thesis) and revise the draft based on the committee's recommendations, producing a finished thesis of about 8,000 words or 40 pages, which must be approved by the committee and deposited at the Woodson Institute. The thesis committee makes a recommendation to the AAS Steering Committee for final approval of the thesis. Students who would like assistance in initiating this program should see their advisor.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Scot French, Director of the Undergraduate Program in AAS, at the Carter G. Woodson Institute, University of Virginia, 108 Minor Hall, P.O. Box 400162, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4162; (434) 924-3109. www.virginia.edu/~woodson

Course Descriptions

The African-American and African Studies (AAS) courses in any given term comprise those offered by the Woodson Institute with an AAS number, and those offered in other departments that have an AAS-related content.

Core Courses

Students should check the AAS Course Offering Directory, produced every term, for the seminar topics to be offered in the next term.

AAS 101 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to African-American and African Studies I
This introductory course surveys the histories of people of African descent in Africa, the Americas, and the Caribbean from approximately the Middle Ages to the 1880s. Emphases include the Atlantic slave trade and its complex relationship to Africa; the economic systems, cultures, and communities of Africans and African-Americans in the New World, in slavery and in freedom; the rise of anti-slavery movements; and the socio-economic systems that replaced slavery in the late 19th century.

AAS 102 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to African-American and African Studies II
This introductory course builds upon the histories of people of African descent in Africa, the Americas, and the Caribbean surveyed in AAS 101. Drawing on disciplines such as Anthropology, History, Religious Studies, Political Science and Sociology, the course focuses on the period from the late 19th century to the present and is comparative in perspective. It examines the links and disjunctions between communities of African descent in the United States and in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. The course begins with an overview of AAS, its history, assumptions, boundaries, and topics of inquiry, and then proceeds to focus on a number of inter-related themes: patterns of cultural experience; community formation; comparative racial classification; language and society; family and kinship; religion; social and political movements; arts and aesthetics; and archaeology of the African Diaspora.

AAS 205, 206 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in African- American and African Studies
Reading, class discussion, and research on a special topic of African-American and African studies, intended for first- and second-year students. Subjects change from term to term, and vary with instructor.

AAS 401 - (3) (S)
Independent Study
See description under 'Independent Study' above.

AAS 405, 406 - (3) (S)
Advanced Seminar in African-American and African Studies
Reading, class discussion, and research on a special topic of African-American and African studies culminating in the composition of a research paper. Topics change from term to term, and vary with the instructor. Primarily for fourth-year students but open to others.

AAS 451-452 - (6) (Y)
Directed Reading and Research
Similar in format to AAS 401, but meant to be equivalent to twice as much work (6 credits), and taken over a full year. Students in the DMP enroll under these numbers for thesis writing.

Supporting Courses

The AAS program's
Course Offering Directory, produced each term, lists the courses grounds-wide that fulfill the AAS major requirements for the coming term. Below is a listing of those courses which appear most consistently, but students should check the most recent AAS Directory, available at the Woodson Institute, for complete and updated information.

ANTH 227 - (3) (Y)
Race, Gender, and Medical Science

ANTH 225 - (3) (Y)
Racism, Nationalism, and Multiculturalism

ANTH 232 - (3) (IR)
Symbol and Ritual

ANTH 234 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Folklore

ANTH 256 - (3) (Y)
Peoples and Cultures of Africa

ANTH 281 - (3) (Y)
Human Origins

ANTH 329 - (3) (Y)
Culture of Underdevelopment

ANTH 341 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Sociolinguistics

ANTH 357 - (3) (Y)
Peoples and Cultures of the Caribbean

ANTH 358 - (3) (IR)
Creole Narratives

ANTH 388 - (3) (Y)
African Archaeology

ANTH 549 - (3) (IR)
African Language Structure

ARTH 380 - (3) (IR)
African Art

ECON 415 - (3) (Y)
Economics of Labor

ENLT 247 - (3) (Y)
Black Writers in America

ENAM 313 - (3) (Y)
African-American Survey I

ENAM 314 - (3) (Y)
African-American Survey II

ENAM 385 - (3) (IR)
Folklore in America

ENAM 482 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Studies in American Literature II: Harlem Renaissance

ENTC 331 - (3)(IR)
Major African-American Poets

FREN 411 - (3) (Y)
African Film and Literature

FREN 570 - (3) (IR)
Francophone Literature of Africa

PLAP 344 - (3) (Y)
Urban Government and Politics

PLAP 351 - (3) (Y)
Minority Group Politics

PLCP 212 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of Developing Areas

PLCP 581 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa

PLCP 583 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of South Africa

HIAF 202 - (3) (Y)
Africa Since the 1800s

HIAF 203 - (4) (Y)
Africa Diaspora to 1850

HIAF 302 - (3) (Y)
History of Southern Africa

HIAF 401 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in African History

HILA 306 - (3) (Y)
Modern Brazil

HIME 201 - (3) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 570-1500

HIME 202 - (3) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 1500 to 1980

HIST 507 - (3) (IR)
Internship: African-American Interpretation at Monticello

HIUS 201 - (4) (Y)
American History 1607-1865

HIUS 202 - (4) (Y)
American History since 1865

HIUS 323 - (3) (IR)
The American South in the 19th Century

HIUS 324 - (3) (IR)
The American South in the 20th Century

HIUS 346 - (3) (IR)
History of Urban America

HIUS 365 - (3) (IR)
African-American History Through Reconstruction

HIUS 366 - (3) (IR)
African-American History, 1865 to Present

HIUS 367 - (3) (S)
History of the Civil Rights Movement

LNGS 222 - (3) (IR)
Black English

MUSI 208 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary African American Music

MUSI 212 - (3) (Y)
History of Jazz Music

MUSI 260 - (3) (Y)
Jazz Improvisation

MUSI 369 - (3) (Y)
African Drumming and Dance Ensemble

PSYC 311 - (3) (Y)
Psychology of Language

PSYC 465 - (4) (Y)
Oppression and Social Change

PSYC 467 - (3) (Y)
Psychology of the African-American Athlete

PSYC 487 - (3) (Y)
The Minority Family: A Psychological Inquiry

RELA 275 - (3) (IR)
African Religions

RELA 410 - (3) (Y)
Yoruba Religion

SOC 341 - (3) (Y)
Race and Ethnic Relations

SOC 368 (3) (Y)
Problems of Urban Life

SOC 410 - (3) (Y)
African-American Communities

SOC 453 - (3) (Y)
Sociology of Education

SWAH 101 - (3) (S)
Introductory Swahili

SWAH 102 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Swahili, Part II

Program in American Sign Language

ASL 101 - (4) (Y)
Elementary American Sign Language I
Introduces receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills, including basic vocabulary, sentence structure, classifiers, use of space, non-manual type indicators, and fingerspelling. Examines signing deaf people as a linguistic/cultural minority.

ASL 102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary American Sign Language II
Prerequisite: ASL 101, EDHS 515, or successful completion of placement exam.
Introduces receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills, including basic vocabulary, sentence structure, classifiers, use of space, non-manual type indicators, and fingerspelling. Examines signing deaf people as a linguistic/cultural minority.

ASL 201 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate American Sign Language I
Prerequisite: ASL 102 or successful completion of placement exam.
Continues training in American Sign Language, with focus on more complex sentence types, signs, and idioms. Considers ASL literary forms such as poetry, theater, and storytelling, as well as deaf history and other related topics.

ASL 202 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate American Sign Language II
Prerequisite: ASL 201 or successful completion of placement exam.
Continues training in American Sign Language, with focus on more complex sentence types, signs, and idioms. Considers ASL literary forms such as poetry, theater, and storytelling, as well as deaf history and other related topics.

American Studies Interdisciplinary Major

The first goal for the small group of American Studies majors at the University of Virginia will be to realize a sense of intellectual community that enables its members, both students and faculty, to look beyond their personal interests as they pursue studies in common. A second, related goal will be for each student to demonstrate an ability to transcend disciplinary boundaries. Although we affirm the necessity and integrity of individual disciplines, we want our American Studies students to understand the assumptions and methods of several of them. Our third goal is to teach students to think of the United States as a country held together in argumentation about different stories of nationhood, as well as in discussion of ways in which these stories have been told. In working toward this last goal, the American Studies major encourages in its students a self-consciousness about their own theories and practices, a comparative perspective on national narratives as they have emerged over the last five centuries, and an aptitude for describing those narratives in different modes, whether written or electronic, verbal or nonverbal, visual or auditory.

For more information about American Studies, please call the Director at 924-6676 or write americanstudies@virginia.edu.

Requirements for a Major in American Studies

  1. 30 hours
  2. 10 courses
  3. AMST 201 (Major Texts in American Studies) recommended but not required
  4. AMST 301-302 (Introduction to the American Studies Major)
  5. AMST 401 (Fourth-Year Seminar in American Studies)
  6. Seven additional courses from the list of 180 courses available from the Director of American Studies. These courses represent Afro-American Studies, Anthropology, Architectural History, Art, Economics, English, Environmental Sciences, Drama, Government, History, Music, Philosophy, Psychology, Religious Studies, Sociology, Studies in Women and Gender, and Technology, Culture and Communication. Each student will design a program of courses in consultation with the Director.
  7. General guideline for these seven courses: a minimum of at least three (3) courses in a single department and courses in at least three (3) departments. Of these seven additional courses, at least four (4) must be at the 300-level or above.
  8. GPA Info: In order to graduate with an American Studies major, a student must have taken AMST 301 and 302 and earned a grade of C or better in each course. Majors must have at least a 2.0 grade point average in American Studies approved courses to complete the major.
Sample program:

Second year AMST 201
Third year AMST 301-302

Fall

ARTH 258 (American Art)
  ECON 206 (American Economic History)

Spring

ENAM 315 (American Renaissance)
  DRAM 360 (Modern American Theatre and Drama)
Fourth year AMST 401

Fall

GFAP 331 (American Presidency)
  ARTH 280 (Art since 1945)

Spring

HIUS 317 (United States Society and Politics, 1945-1990)
  ARTH 358 (Material Life in Early America)

(This student has taken the required AMST courses; three courses in Art History; and five other courses in five departments, one more than he or she actually needs.)

Course Descriptions

AMST 201 - (3) (IR)
Major Works for American Studies
A small lecture course enrolling between 35 and 60 students, AMST 201 offers students significant texts or works of American culture, texts or works that are printed, graphic, artifactual, material or oral. Although one faculty member will teach the course, guest lecturers from various disciplines may contribute as well. The goal of this course is to show students what kinds of insights and syntheses result from juxtaposing works across disciplinary boundaries and from different methodological perspectives.

AMST 301,302 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to the American Studies Major
A year-long sequence of two small seminars, this course will introduce majors both to the history of American Studies and to various theories and methods for the practice of American Studies. The three goals of these seminars are (1) to make students aware of their own interpretive practices; (2) to equip them with information and conceptual tools they will need for advanced work in American Studies; and (3) to provide them comparative approaches to the study of various aspects of the United States.

AMST 401 - (3) (Y)
Fourth-Year Seminar in American Studies
This seminar is intended to focus study, research, and discussion on a single period, topic, or issue, such as the Great Awakening, the Civil War, the Harlem Renaissance, the Great Depression, or the 1960s.

Department of Anthropology
P.O. Box 400120
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4120
Phone: (434) 982-2631
Fax: (434) 924-1350

Overview  Anthropology is the study of culture and cultural diversity throughout the world. It is a broad field that is classically divided into four areas: socio-cultural anthropology, the study of contemporary societies; archaeology, the study of the material remains of past societies; linguistics, the study of the structure and principles of language; and biological anthropology, the study of human evolution and human biological diversity.

Faculty  There are currently 26 anthropology faculty members. Five of the faculty are archaeologists, who specialize in North American prehistoric and historic archaeology, the ancient Near East, and Africa. Five are linguists, with particular expertise in African, Native American, and Southeast Asia languages and sociolinguistics. One member of the faculty is a folklorist, who focuses on the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. The majority of the faculty consists of socio-cultural anthropologists, whose teaching and research interests span the globe. Particular concentrations include the cultures of South Asia, East Asia, Indonesia, Melanesia, the Caribbean, western and eastern Africa, and North America.

Students  There are currently over 200  students majoring in anthropology. While this number represents a diverse group of students with a wide range of interests, it is small enough to maintain a high rate of faculty-student interaction. Students are encouraged to participate in faculty research, and many have worked with faculty conducting archaeological field and laboratory work.

Upon graduation, some students pursue graduate degrees in specialized areas, preparing themselves for careers in teaching, research, or applied anthropology. Many go on to careers in law and medicine, aided by their knowledge of anthropological concepts, such as cultural diversity and human evolution. In addition, there are more business opportunities open to the anthropologist today, as our current era of global economics demands the appreciation of different cultural perspectives. Still, many enter educational fields and social services: teaching in the U.S. and abroad; joining the Peace Corps; and working in museums and on archaeological excavations.

Requirements for Major  Eleven courses (32 credits) taken within a program approved by a departmental undergraduate advisor are required for a major. These eleven courses may include courses taken before declaration of the major, and up to two from outside the Department of Anthropology. Courses taken outside the anthropology department, including courses transferred from other institutions or study- abroad programs, may count toward the area requirements for the major (subject to approval by a major advisor), but normally they may not count toward the above-300-level requirement for the major. In order to declare a major, a student must have taken at least one anthropology course, or be currently enrolled in one. No course for the major may be taken on a CR/NC basis. Normally at least 18 credits must be taken after declaration of the major. The major requires a distribution of courses in the following areas:

  1. one course in each of these areas within anthropology: principles of socio-cultural analysis; cultural diversities; archaeology; and linguistics;
  2. ANTH 300, a one-credit, CR/NC course, as soon after declaring a major as possible;
  3. ANTH 301 preferably in the second or third year;
  4. ANTH 401 during the fourth year;
  5. at least four courses at or above the 300 level, including 301 and 401 (but not ANTH 300);
  6. at least one course in anthropology that fulfills the College's non-Western perspective requirement.

Each semester the department publishes a list of the current courses that satisfy the above requirements.

Students frequently find that anthropology provides a cognate discipline which can be paired with other studies in the humanities and sciences. Many of these students choose to double-major in anthropology and another discipline. Up to six credits in another department major may be counted toward an anthropology major if they are consistent with a student's overall program. Specific courses, therefore, may be counted toward both majors, but the student must receive approval from a departmental advisor in advance.

Exceptions to any of these requirements are made only upon written petition to the Undergraduate Committee of the Department of Anthropology. No petitions are accepted after the completion of a student's seventh semester.

A number of informal activities are associated with the department. Among these is the Anthropology Association of the University of Virginia. Majors are encouraged to attend meetings of the group and to attend lectures and symposia sponsored by the department.

Requirements for Minor  Students majoring in a diverse array of disciplines choose to minor in anthropology. Courses taken in other disciplines may not count toward a minor. A maximum of one anthropology course taken at another institution may count toward the minor, if approved by a major advisor.

A minor consists of six three-credit courses and ANTH 300. In addition all minors must take one course in three of the following four areas of anthropology: principles of sociocultural analysis; cultural diversities; archaeology; and linguistics, and at least one course in anthropology that fulfills the College's non-Western perspective requirement.

Independent Study in Anthropology  For students who want to work on an individual research project, ANTH 496 allows considerable flexibility. There is no formal limitation on the kind of project as long as a faculty member is willing to direct it, but the project should not duplicate what is already available in a regular course. Applicants should have their projects roughly defined when they apply to the faculty member. The normal requirements for ANTH 496 are a reading list comparable in substance to those in regular courses and a term paper and oral examination at the end of the semester.

Distinguished Majors Program in Anthropology  Students with superior academic performance are encouraged to apply for the departmental Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) in which they write a thesis demonstrating independent study of high quality. The requirements for admission to the DMP are:

  1. satisfaction of all College requirements as stated in this Record with a GPA of at least 3.4 in all university courses;
  2. a GPA of at least 3.4 in all courses taken as part of the anthropology major;
  3. permission of an advisor, who may be any member of the departmental faculty that is willing to take on the responsibility of supervising the thesis and is normally someone to whom the students have already demonstrated their ability in an upper-level course.
After gaining admission to the DMP by selecting a topic approved by an advisor, students register for three credits of ANTH 497 in the first semester of the fourth year. In this course, students conduct their research and produce an outline and the first draft of their thesis. In the second semester, students register for ANTH 498 and, taking into account the criticisms and suggestions of their advisor and other interested faculty members, produce a finished thesis of approximately 10,000 words which must be approved by a committee of two faculty members and deposited in the departmental office. Students wishing help in setting up their program should contact a major advisor.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Adria LaViolette, Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Anthropology, Brooks Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 982-2631; Fax: (434) 924-1350; www.virginia.edu/~anthro; laviolette@virginia.edu.

Course Descriptions

General and Theoretical Anthropology

Courses at the 100 and 200 level have no prerequisites and are open to all students. Courses at the 300 level are advanced undergraduate courses and assume that students have already taken ANTH 101 or other relevant 200-level courses. These are general prerequisites, and individual professors may consider other courses within or outside the department to be sufficient preparation. Courses at the 500 level have third- or fourth-year status and prior course work in anthropology as a general prerequisite. These courses are designed primarily for majors and graduate students, but are open by permission to other qualified, sufficiently motivated undergraduates.

ANTH 101 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Anthropology
This is a broad introductory course covering race, language, and culture, both as intellectual concepts and as political realities. Topics include race and culture as explanations of human affairs, the relationship of language to thought, cultural diversity and cultural relativity, and cultural approaches to current crises.

ANTH 109 - (3) (Y)
Colloquia for First-Year Students
Colloquium designed to give first-year students an opportunity to study an anthropological topic in depth in a small-scale, seminar format. Topics will vary; may be repeated for credit.

ANTH 300 - (1) (Y)
Anthropological Perspectives for Majors
A course for departmental majors and minors designed to introduce a number of topics of concern to current anthropology. Majors and minors are expected to take this course at the first opportunity after joining the program.

ANTH 301 - (4) (Y)
Theory and History of Anthropology
Overview of the major theoretical positions which have structured anthropological thought over the past century.

ANTH 401 - (3) (S)
Senior Seminar in Anthropology
Integrates the major subdivisions of anthropology, emphasizing selected theoretical topics and primary sources. Primarily for majors in their final year.

Principles of Sociocultural Analysis

ANTH 220 - (3) (Y)
Dynamics of Social Organization
Emphasizes the social relations of kinship, marriage, formation of intrasocietal groups, and the cultural construction of the self. Explores an underlying but correlative theme: how anthropologists interpret the various social phenomena of different societies.

ANTH 221 - (3) (Y)
Marriage and the Family
Compares domestic groups in Western and non-Western societies. Considers the kinds of sexual unions legitimized in different cultures, patterns of childrearing, causes and effects of divorce, and the changing relations between the family and society.

ANTH 223 - (3) (Y)
Fantasy and Social Values
Examines imaginary societies, in particular those in science fiction novels, to see how they reflect the problems and tensions of real social life. Focuses on 'alternate cultures' and fictional societal models.

ANTH 225 - (3) (Y)
Nationalism, Racism, Culture, Multiculturalism
Introductory course in which the concepts of culture, multiculturalism, race, racism, and nationalism are critically examined in terms of how they are used and structure social relations in American society and, by comparison, how they are defined in other cultures throughout the world.

ANTH 226 - (3) (S)
Poverty and Meritocracy
Provides an anthropological perspective on American ideas about achievement and failure in relation to individualist ideology. Readings include Locke, Rousseau, and Tocqueville; ethnographies of non-Western alternatives to modern societies; and contemporary readings on poverty, welfare, meritocracy, and social class.

ANTH 227 - (3) (Y)
Race, Gender, and Medical Science
Explores the social and cultural dimensions of biomedical practice and experience in the United States. Focuses on practitioner and patient, asking about the ways in which race, gender, and socio-economic status contour professional identity and socialization, how such factors influence the experience, and course of, illness, and how they have shaped the structures and institutions of biomedicine over time.

ANTH 231 - (3) (IR)
Symbol and Myth
Studies the foundations of symbolism from the perspective of anthropology. Topics include signs and symbols, and the symbolism of categorical orders as expressed in cosmology, totemism, and myth.

ANTH 232 - (3) (Y)
Symbol and Ritual
Explores the ways in which rituals and ceremonies of exotic societies may be understood and used to throw light on the cultures that produce them. Topics include rites of passage, sacrifice, totemism, magic, witchcraft, food symbolism, and animal cults.

ANTH 233 - (3) (IR)
Cults and Prophets: Symbols of Social Change
Examines how ideologies can produce violent social change, beginning with nativistic cults in simple societies, and progressing to revolutionary movements in complex societies. Topics include cargo cults, early Christianity, witch cults, and fascism.

ANTH 234 - (3) (IR)
Anthropology of Birth and Death
Comparative examination of beliefs, rites, and symbolism concerning birth and death in selected civilizations.

ANTH 235 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Folklore
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Introduces the materials and methods of folklore study, emphasizing practical experience in the collection and analysis of folklore.

ANTH 236 - (3) (Y)
Don Juan and Castaneda
Analyzes the conceptual content in Castaneda's writings as an exploration of an exotic world view. Focuses on the concepts of power, transformation, and figure-ground reversal.

ANTH 237 - (3) (Y)
The Culture and History of Still Photography
Covers the nature of still photography as a form of communication from its introduction in 1839 to 1940. Four broad topics are examined: the phenomenology of photography'its distinctive character, which sets it apart from other graphic media; the history of photography from its very beginning; the use of photography in 'viewing' the world; and the development of documentary photography in the first half of the 20th century.  This course counts toward the Humanities, rather than Social Science, distribution requirement in the College.

ANTH 290 - (3) (Y)
The Cultural Politics of American Family Values
This course provides a broad, introductory survey of the range of cultural understandings, economic structures, and political and legal constraints that shape both dominant and alternative forms of kinship and family in the United States.

ANTH 317 - (3) (Y)
Visual Anthropology
The study of visual means of representation in Anthropology.

ANTH 320 - (3) (Y)
Marriage, Gender, Political Economy
Cross-cultural comparison of marriage and domestic groups, analyzed as a point of intersection between cultural conceptions of gender and a larger political economy.

ANTH 321 - (3) (IR)
Kinship and Social Organization
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Cross-cultural analysis and comparison of systems of kinship and marriage from Australian aborigines to the citizens of Yankee city. Covers classic and contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches.

ANTH 322 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Economic Anthropology
Comparative analysis of different forms of production, circulation, and consumption in primitive and modern societies. Exploration of the applicability of modern economic theory developed for modern societies to primitive societies and to those societies being forced into the modern world system.

ANTH 323 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Legal Anthropology
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Comparative survey of the philosophy and practice of law in various societies. Includes a critical analysis of principles of contemporary jurisprudence and their application.

ANTH 325 - (3) (Y)
Anthropological Perspectives on the Third World
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Analyzes Western impact on third world societies during the colonial epoch. Topics include the nature of colonial regimes, the responses of the subject societies, and their legacy in the modern world.

ANTH 326 - (3) (IR)
The Anthropology of Local Development
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Studies the contributions of anthropology to social problems in complex and developing societies. Topics include problems in the applied anthropology of such issues as social change, hunger, and overpopulation.

ANTH 327 - (3) (Y)
Political Anthropology
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Reviews the variety of political systems found outside the Western world. Examines the major approaches and results of anthropological theory in trying to understand how radically different politics work.

ANTH 329 - (3) (Y)
Marriage, Fertility, and Mortality
Explores the ways that culturally formed systems of values and family organization affect population processes in a variety of cultures.

ANTH 330 - (4) (Y)
Tournaments and Athletes
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
A cross-cultural study of sport and competitive games.

ANTH 332 - (3) (Y)
Shamanism, Healing, and Ritual
Prerequisite: At least a 200-level ANTH course, or instructor permission.
Examines the characteristics of these nonmedical practices as they occur in different culture areas, relating them to the consciousness of spirits and powers and to concepts of energy.

ANTH 334 - (3) (Y)
Ecology and Society: An Introduction to the New Ecological Anthropology
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or significant/relevant exposure to courses in EVSC, BIOL, CHEM, or HIST (which tie in to concerns of this course), or instructor permission.
Forges a synthesis between culture theory and historical ecology to provide new insights on how human cultures fashion, and are fashioned by, their environment.

ANTH 335 - (3) (Y)
The Museum in Modern Culture
Topics include the politics of cultural representation in history, anthropology, and fine arts museums; and the museum as a bureaucratic organization, as an educational institution, and as a nonprofit corporation.

ANTH 336 - (3) (O)
Life History and Oral History
Introduces oral history methodology and life history as a sociocultural document. Readings focus on various uses that have been made of oral history and of life histories. Students conduct interviews and write a life history.

ANTH 337 - (3) (Y)
Power and the Body
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or permission of the instructor.
Studying the cultural representations and interpretations of the body in society.

ANTH 360 - (3) (E)
Sex, Gender, and Culture
Examines the manner in which ideas about sexuality and gender are constructed differently cross-culturally, and the ways in which these ideas give shape to specific cultural understandings about the nature of the world and of social relations and practices.

ANTH 361 - (3) (Y)
Native American Women
Explores the lives of Native American women through reading and discussing life histories, autobiographies, ethnographies, and articles addressing specific questions of the roles and status of women in Native American societies before and after contact with Europeans.

ANTH 362 - (3) (IR)
Cinema in India
Prerequisite: At least a 200-level ANTH course, or instructor permission.
An explanation of film culture in India.

ANTH 392 - (3) (Y)
Transnational Kinship
Prerequisite: ANTH 290 or permission of instructor.
This course focuses on the shifting nature of kinship relations in the context of the global economic restructuring, increased labor migration, and the political, religious, racial, and gender hierarchies that are characteristic of the emerging global political economy.

ANTH 493 - (3) (Y)
Kinship and the New Reproductive Technologies
Prerequisite: ANTH 290 or permission of instructor.
The course explores the manner in which cultural understandings  of kinship relations both give shape to and are transformed by the new reproductive technologies-including surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, pre-implantation diagnosis, cloning and amniocentesis.

ANTH 519 - (3) (Y)
Science and Culture
Prerequisite: Previous anthropological course work or consent of instructor.
This course explores the cultural context of science and science as a cultural production. It investigates the cultural history of science as well as its national and transnational manifestations; the relation between scientific authority and social hierarchy; and the relation between cultural and scientific categories and practices.

ANTH 520 - (3) (O)
History of Kinship Studies
Critical assessment of major theoretical approaches to the study of kinship and marriage (from the 19th century to the present), and of the central role of kinship studies in the development of anthropological theory.

ANTH 521 - (3) (E)
Reconfiguring Kinship (Studies)
Prerequisite: ANTH 520 or instructor permission.
Examines the ways in which the forms of kinship have been reconfigured in contemporary societies, and the ways in which traditional kinship studies have been reconfigured by their intersection with culture theory, feminist theory, gender studies, postmodern theory, gay and lesbian studies, and cultural studies of science and medicine.

ANTH 522 - (3) (E)
Economic Anthropology
Considers Western economic theories and their relevance to non-Western societies. Includes a comparative analysis of different forms of production, consumption, and circulation.

ANTH 523 - (3) (IR)
Political Systems
Comparative study of decision-making processes and authority structures in selected small- and larger-scale societies. Focuses on the relationship of political processes to social organization and social change.

ANTH 524 - (3) (IR)
Religious Organization
Analysis and comparison of social organization in selected communities from the perspective of systems of belief, ritual, and ceremonialism.

ANTH 525 - (3) (Y)
The Experience of Illness in American Society
Starting with the basic premise that the experience of illness/disease is at once a biological and cultural condition, the course focuses on narratives of the sick as a lens into the interrelationships between the body and society, medicine and culture. While the point of entry is the individual experience of illness and self in one Western society, the course intends to build a theoretical framework with which we can begin to conceptualize cultural institutional responses to and definitions of disease and ill-health.

ANTH 529 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Social Anthropology
Seminars and classes in topics of specific interest to faculty and advanced students will be announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 530 - (3) (Y)
Foundations of Symbolism
Interdisciplinary course on selected topics in the study of symbolism. Emphasizes symbolic anthropology.

ANTH 531 - (3) (E)
Feminist Theory in Anthropology
Critical overview of the historical development of the issues central to feminist theory in anthropology and their relation both to specific ethnographic problems, and to other theoretical perspectives within and outside anthropology.

ANTH 532 - (3) (E)
Structural Anthropology
Detailed examination of the works of Levi-Strauss and other structuralists. Includes an assessment of critical responses to these works and the relationship of structuralism to other analytic modes. Emphasizes the students' mastery of structural methods and their application to ethnographic data.

ANTH 533 - (3) (E)
Folklore and Ethnohistorical Research Methodology
Prerequisite: Graduate student standing or permission of the instructor.
Introduction to folklore, and to folklore and ethnohistorical research methods and analysis.

ANTH 535 - (3) (E)
Folk and Popular Health Systems
Surveys various medical beliefs and practices, considering the traditional health systems of several American groups, and examining in detail the input into local traditional health systems from various sources.

ANTH 536 - (3) (O)
Topics in Folklore
Seminars and classes in topics of specific interest to faculty and advanced students will be announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 537 - (3) (O)
Psychological Anthropology
Introduces and surveys the epistemology and methodology of personality theory as they relate to the study of other cultures.

ANTH 539 - (3) (SI)
Topics in Symbolic Anthropology
Topics of specific interest to faculty and advanced students are announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 571 - (3) (IR)
The Interpretation of Ritual
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Begins with an overview of anthropology's approach to ritual during a century of diverse speculation on the nature and origins of religions, with discussion of such figures as James Frazer, A.M.Hocart, Claude Levi-Strauss, Max Gluckman, and Victor Turner. Focuses on an issue selected anew each semester to cater to the research interests of instructor and students, relating that issue to the whole tradition of interpretation of ritual in anthropology. Issues pursued in previous sessions include the nature of sacrifice, the expression of hierarchy in ritual, and the compatibility of historical approaches with ritual analysis.

ANTH 572 - (3) (Y)
Ritual Experience and Healing
Studies the ritual of different cultures, using not only anthropological terms of analysis but also examining the viewpoint of the cultures themselves. Examines changing attitudes in the study of ritual, along with the problem of the wide variability of religious expression. Explores new directions in the anthropology of experience in the light of recent work in healing and spirit possession.

ANTH 577 - (3) (IR)
Critiques of Symbolism
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Selected topics in the theories and heuristic bases of cultural meaning or signification, including but not limited to semiotic, psychological, structural or 'formal,' pragmatic, and religious or 'spiritual' approaches.

Linguistic Anthropology

ANTH 240 - (3) (Y)
Language and Culture
Introduces the interrelationships of linguistic, cultural, and social phenomena with emphasis on the importance of these interrelationships in interpreting human behavior. No prior knowledge of linguistics is required.

ANTH 242 - (3) (O)
Language and Gender
Studies how differences in pronunciation, vocabulary choice, non-verbal communication, and/or communicative style serve as social markers of gender identity and differentiation in Western and non-Western cultures. Includes critical analysis of theory and methodology of social science research on gender and language.

ANTH 243 - (3) (IR)
Languages of the World
Prerequisite: One year of a foreign language or permission of instructor.
An introduction to the study of linguistic structure and relationships. Topics covered: (1) basic units of grammatical description, (2) genetic, areal, and tyological relationships among languages, (3) a survey of the world's major language groupings and the notable structures and grammatical categories they exhibit, and (4) the issue of language death.

ANTH 247 - (3) (Y)
Reflections of Exile: Jewish Languages and their Communities
Covers Jewish languages Yiddish, Judeo-Arabic, Ladino, and Hebrew from historical, linguistic, and literary perspectives. Explores the relations between communities and languages, the nature of diaspora, and the death and revival of languages. No prior knowledge of these languages is required. This course is cross-listed with AMEL 247.

ANTH 340 - (3) (IR)
Structure of English
An introduction to the English grammatical system. Covers phonology and morphology, lexical categories, basic sentence types, common phrase and clause patterns, and syntactic transformations.

ANTH 341 - (3) (Y)
Sociolinguistics
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Reviews and findings of sociolinguists and others concerning the way language is used to express identity and relations of social superiority and inferiority.

ANTH 345 - (3) (Y)
Native American Languages
Introduces the native languages of North America and the methods that linguists and anthropologists use to record and analyze them. Examines the use of grammars, texts and dictionaries of individual languages and affords insight into the diversity among the languages.

ANTH 347 - (3) (Y)
Language and Culture in the Middle East
Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, linguistics, Middle East Studies or permission of instructor.
Introduction to peoples, languages, cultures and histories of the Middle East. Focuses on Israel/Palestine as a microcosm of important social processes-such as colonialism, nationalism, religious fundamentalism, and modernization-that affect the region as a whole. This course is cross-listed with AMEL 347.

ANTH 348 - (3) (E)
Language and Prehistory
This course covers the basic principles of diachronic linguistics and discusses the uses of linguistic data in the reconstruction of prehistory.

ANTH 504 - (3) (Y)
Linguistic Field Methods
Investigates the grammatical structure of non-European language on the basis of data collected in class from a native speaker. A different language is the focus of study each year.

ANTH 540 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology
Reviews the many ways in which language is central to the theoretical issues and research of anthropology.

ANTH 542 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century Linguistics
Introduces the basic concepts of linguistics and their 20th-century developments in Europe and the United States. Focuses on American schools (Bloomfieldian and Chomskyan), and their intellectual roots and relationship to the work of de Saussure and the Prague School.

ANTH 543 - (3) (IR)
African Language Structures
Prerequisite: One course in linguistics, or instructor permission.
Introduces the major phonological and grammatical features of the languages of sub-Saharan Africa, with attention to issues in language classification, the use of linguistic evidence for prehistoric reconstruction, and sociolinguistic issues of relevance to Africa.

ANTH 544 - (3) (E)
Morphology
An overview of morphological theory within the generative paradigm. Covers notions of the morpheme, theories of the phonology-syntax interface (e.g., lexical phonology, prosodic morphology, optimality theory), and approaches to issues arising at the morphology-syntax interface (e.g., inflection, agreement, incorporation, compounding).

ANTH 545 - (3) (IR)
African Languages and Folklore
Analyzes the expressive use of language in Africa with emphasis on such traditional genres as folktales, epics, proverbs, riddles, etc.

ANTH 547 - (3) (E)
Language and Identity
Prerequisite: At least one other 200-level linguistics course, 300-level cultural anthropology course, or instructor permission.
Explores the view that language is central in the construction, negotiation, and expression of social identities by juxtaposing and critically appraising social, theoretic, and linguistic treatments of identity.

ANTH 549 - (Credit to be arranged) (IR)
Topics in Theoretical Linguistics and Linguistic Anthropology
Seminars in topics of specific interest to faculty and advanced students will be announced prior to each semester.

Cultural Diversities

ANTH 253 - (3) (Y)
North American Indians
Ethnological treatment of the aboriginal populations of the New World based on the findings of archaeology, ethnography, linguistics, biological anthropology, and social anthropology.

ANTH 256 - (3) (Y)
Peoples and Cultures of Africa
Studies African modernity through a close reading of ethnographies, social histories, novels, and African feature films.

ANTH 260 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Civilization of India
Introduces the society and culture of India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Discussion of traditional social, political, and economic organization; religions, religious festivals, and worship; art and architecture; dance; and song.

ANTH 266 - (3) (IR)
Peoples of Polynesia
The peoples of Polynesia and Indonesia, sharing a cultural and linguistic heritage, have spread from Madagascar to Easter Island. Examines their maritime migrations, the societies and empires that they built, and recent changes affecting their cultural traditions.

ANTH 350 - (3) (Y)
Readings in Ethnography
Studies ethnographies, assessing the resources and devices of ethnographic writing through close readings of six or more examples. The ethnographies, for the most part, are concerned with non-Western cultures.

ANTH 352 - (3) (IR)
Amazonian Peoples
Analyzes ethnographies on the cultures and the societies of the South American rain forest peoples, and evaluates the scholarly ways in which anthropology has produced, engaged, interpreted, and presented its knowledge of the 'Amerindian.'

ANTH 354 - (3) (O)
Indians of the American Southwest
Ethnographic coverage of the Apaches, Pueblos, Pimans, and Shoshoneans of Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Northwestern Mexico. Topics include prehistory, socio-cultural patterns, and historical development.

ANTH 355 - (3) (Y)
Anthropology of Everyday American Life
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Provides an anthropological perspective of modern American society. Traces the development of individualism through American historical and institutional development, using as primary sources of data religious movements, mythology as conveyed in historical writings, novels, and the cinema, and the creation of modern American urban life.

ANTH 357 - (3) (Y)
Peoples, Cultures, and Societies of the Caribbean
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Explores the histories and politics that have shaped the nations and dependencies that are geographically and politically defined as Caribbean, including French, English, and Spanish. Takes a regional and a national perspective on the patterns of family and kinship; community and household structures; political economy, ethnicity and ethnic relations; religious and social institutions; and relations between Caribbeans abroad and at home.

ANTH 358 - (3) (IR)
Native American Mythology
Focuses on the myths of Native Americans north of Mexico and their roles in Native American cultures. Students research and write a paper on the place of mythology in a particular culture, or on the forms and uses of a particular type of myth.

ANTH 363 - (3) (E)
Social Structure of China
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Analyzes various features of traditional Chinese social organization as it existed in the late imperial period. Includes the late imperial state; Chinese family and marriage; lineages; ancestor worship; popular religion; village social structure; regional systems; and rebellion.

ANTH 364 - (3) (E)
Ethnology of Southeast Asia
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or instructor permission.
Explores the ethnology and social anthropology of major cultures and societies of mainland and insular Southeast Asia from prehistoric beginnings to contemporary national adaptations. (Mainland: Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia; Insular: Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, and portions of other nations abutting the area.)

ANTH 365 - (3) (Y)
Asian American Ethnicity
Problems in ethnicity are posed through study of the experiences of the Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, and Vietnamese in the United States. Topics include the history of immigration, early communities in the U.S., race relations, recent changes in immigration and communities, family values, and questions of identity.

ANTH 366 - (3) (Y)
China: Empire and Nationalities
Prerequisite: ANTH 101 or equivalent, a course in Chinese history, or instructor permission.
Explores the distant and recent history of Han and non-Han nationalities in the Chinese empire and nation-state. Examines the reaction of minority nationalities to Chinese predominance and the bases of Chinese rule and cultural hegemony.

ANTH 509 - (3) (Y)
Historical Ethnography
Prerequisite: At least one  300-level archaeology course or instructor permission.
Combines lectures on historical ethnography and archaeology with documentary research in primary sources on specific topics.

ANTH 534 - (3) (E)
Ethnographies of Illness and the Body
Prerequisite: For undergraduates: ANTH 224 and 360, SOC 428; instructor permission for graduate students.
It is often at moments of intense ruptures in the normalcy of the body's functioning that individuals/societies reflect on the taken-for-granted assumptions about self, family, community, social and political institutions, the relation between normal and pathological, the roles of healers and patients, life, and death. Writing about illness and the body is a form of therapeutic action. Examines such claims and writings done by those facing bodily distress.

ANTH 551 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of North America
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 552 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of Latin America
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 553 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of Europe
Seminars in topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 554 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of Africa
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 555 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of the Middle East
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 556 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of South Asia
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 557 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of East Asia
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 558 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of Southeast Asia
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 559 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of Melanesia
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 560 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of Australia
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 561 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology of Oceania
Seminars on topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 565 - (3) (Y)
Creole Narratives
Prerequisite: ANTH 357 strongly recommended.
Studies eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and twentieth-century Caribbean intellectual life, Imperialism, Island nationalism, slavery, colonized values, race, class, and religion.

ANTH 566 - (3) (IR)
Conquest of the Americas
Explores the power and personhood specifically related to the Americas. Topics include cultural frontiers; culture contact; society against the state; shamanism and colonialism; violence;  and resistance.

ANTH 569 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnology
Seminars and classes in topics of specific interest to faculty and advanced students will be announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 575 - (3) (Y)
Buddhism, Politics and Power
Discussion of the political culture of Buddhist societies of South and Southeast Asia.

Archaeology

ANTH 280 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Archaeology
Topics include alternative theories of culture change, dating methods, excavation and survey techniques, and the reconstruction of the economy, social organization, and religion of prehistoric and historic societies.

ANTH 281 - (3) (Y)
Human Origins
Studies the physical and cultural evolution of humans from the initial appearance of hominids to the development of animal and plant domestication in different areas of the world. Topics include the development of biological capabilities such as bipedal walking and speech, the evolution of characteristics of human cultural systems such as economic organization and technology, and explanations for the development of domestication.

ANTH 282 - (3) (Y)
Rise of Civilization
Surveys patterns in the development of prehistoric civilizations in different areas of the world including the Inca of Peru, the Maya, the Aztec of Mexico, and the ancient Near East.

ANTH 285 - (3) (Y)
American Material Culture
Analysis of patterns of change in American material culture from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Consideration of how these changes reflect shifts in perception, cognition, and worldview.

ANTH 382 - (3) (Y)
Field Methods in Historical Archaeology
Introduces the basic field methods used in conducting archaeological investigations of historic sites. Surveying, excavation, mapping, and recording are all treated.

ANTH 383 - (3) (Y)
North American Archaeology
Surveys the prehistoric occupations of several areas of North America emphasizing the eastern United States, the Plains, California, and the Southwest. Topics include the date of human migration into the New World, the economy and organization of early Paleo-Indian populations, and the evolution of organization and exchange systems.

ANTH 386 - (3) (Y)
Archaeology of Flowerdew Hundred
Studies selected collections from the historical sites identified at Flowerdew Hundred, Virginia. Students conduct an analysis of a single collection within the semester and write reports on the materials analyzed.

ANTH 387 - (3) (IR)
Archaeology of Virginia
Reviews the current state of archaeological and ethnohistoric research in Virginia. Emphasizes the history and culture of Native Americans in Virginia from the earliest paleoindian cultures to the period of European colonization.

ANTH 388 - (3) (Y)
African Archaeology
Prerequisite: ANTH 280 or instructor permission.
Surveys transformations in Africa from four million years ago to the present, known chiefly through archaeology, and focusing on Stone and Iron Age societies in the last 150,000 years.

ANTH 389 - (3) (Y)
Southwestern Archaeology
The northern section of the American Southwest offers one of the best contexts for examining the evolution of local and regional organization from the prehistoric to the historic period. Readings and discussion focus on both archaeological and ethnographic studies of the desert (Hohokam), mountain (Mogollon), and plateau (Anasazi/Pueblo) cultures.

ANTH 507 - (3) (Y)
History of Archaeological Thought
Considers how archaeological thinking reflects and is related to more general ethnological theory.

ANTH 508 - (3) (Y)
Method and Theory in Archaeology
Intensive investigation of current research in the principles, methods, findings, and analysis of anthropological archaeology.

ANTH 580 - (Credit to be arranged) (SI)
Archaeology Laboratory
Field and laboratory training in the collection, processing, and analysis of archaeological material. Subject matter varies from semester to semester; course may be repeated.

ANTH 581 - (3) (SI)
Archaeology of the Eastern United States
Studies the prehistory of the eastern woodlands with special emphasis on cultural development and change. Discussion of archaeological field techniques and methods, and examination of sites in the vicinity of the University.

ANTH 582 - (3) (SI)
Archaeology of the Southwestern United States
Studies the prehistory of the American southwest, emphasizing cultural development, field techniques, and particular sites.

ANTH 583 - (3) (SI)
Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
Reviews and analyzes archaeological data used in the reconstruction of ancient Near Eastern societies.

ANTH 584 - (3) (SI)
Archaeology of Complex Societies
Examines archaeological approaches to the study of complex societies using case studies from both the Old and New Worlds.

ANTH 585 - (3) (SI)
Archaeological Approaches to Economy and Exchange
A review of archaeological approaches to systems of production, exchange, and consumption. Discusses data from both the Old and New Worlds.

ANTH 586 - (3) (SI)
Ceramics, Style and Society
Critical review of the theoretical and methodological issues in the archaeological study of ceramics. Includes ceramic production and exchange, and the uses of ceramics in the study of social interactions.

ANTH 587 - (3) (SI)
Archaeozoology
Laboratory training in techniques and methods used in analyzing animal bones recovered from archaeological sites. Include field collection, data analysis, and the use of zooarchaeological materials in reconstructing economic and social systems.

ANTH 588 - (3) (SI)
Analytical Methods in Archaeology
Prerequisite: Introductory statistics.
Examines the quantitative analytical techniques used in archaeology. Includes seriation, regression analysis, measures of diversity, and classification.

ANTH 589 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Archaeology
Seminars in topics announced prior to each semester.

ANTH 590 - (3) (E)
Issues in Archaeological Analysis
Prerequisite: ANTH 588 or a basic statistics course.
Archaeological databases often violate many of the assumptions made in the application of parametric statistics. Reviews the unique characteristics of those databases and explores alternative analytical methods. Emphasizes case studies.

ANTH 591 - (3) (IR)
Gender in Archaeology
Explores the range of case studies and theoretical literature associated with the emergence of gender as a framework for research in archaeology.

ANTH 592 - (3) (SI)
Archaeology of Colonial Expansions
Prerequisite: For undergraduates, ANTH 401 senior seminar or instructor permission.
Exploration of the archaeology of frontiers, expansions and colonization, focusing on European expansion into Africa and the Americas while using other archaeologically-known examples (e.g., Roman, Bantu) as comparative studies.

ANTH 593 - (3) (SI)
Archaeology of Symbolism
Prerequisite: Undergraduates should obtain instructor permission.
Examines the ways in which archaeologists have studied symbolism in ancient societies. Some key topics include the analyses of cultural concepts of space and time, symbolism of material culture and the construction of social identity.

Independent Study and Research

ANTH 496 - (Credit to be arranged) (SI)
Independent Study in Anthropology
Independent study conducted by the student under the supervision of an instructor of his or her choice.

ANTH 497 - (3) (Y)
Distinguished Majors Thesis Research
Prerequisite: Admission to the Distinguished Majors Program in Anthropology.
Independent research, under the supervision of the faculty DMP thesis readers, toward the DMP thesis.

ANTH 498 - (3) (Y)
Distinguished Majors Thesis Writing
Prerequisite: ANTH 497.
Writing of a thesis of approximately 50 pages, under the supervision of the faculty DMP thesis readers.

Program in Archaeology

Overview  The interdisciplinary major in archaeology combines the faculty and resources of several departments to create a program of study in prehistoric, historic, and classical archaeology. The discipline is concerned with the recovery, analysis, and interpretation of the material remains of past cultures and societies. The topics of study pursued within the program can vary widely, ranging from issues of human origins and cultural evolution to the study of Classical Greece and Rome; from the structure of ancient Pueblo societies in the American Southwest to the study of colonial life in Virginia. The program provides majors with a knowledge of archaeological method and theory and a thorough grounding in specific cultural areas.

Faculty  As an interdisciplinary program, the faculty is composed of seven archaeology faculty members from the anthropology and art departments. In addition, other faculty from architecture, history, religious studies, environmental science, and chemistry offer courses which complement the major. Faculty sponsored field research in archaeology is currently being conducted in the Southwestern United States, Virginia, the Near East, Africa, and Italy.

Students  There are approximately twenty students currently majoring in archaeology. Students are required to complete a core program of three courses which include one course in anthropological archaeology (prehistoric), one course in classical archaeology (Greek or Roman), and one in archaeological field methods. Beyond those courses, students may either choose to focus on one area or seek a broad base of study in several time periods and geographical regions.

Upon graduation, many majors pursue a professional career in archaeology which typically requires an advanced degree. The University's archaeology majors are sought by the best graduate programs in the United States, and are often offered significant financial support. Many who wish to pursue field research opportunities following graduation (often prior to entering graduate school) have found professional employment in the area of archaeological resource management, a growing private industry in the environmental impact field. Others have found employment with government agencies and museums. Since archaeology is a liberal arts major that offers a unique merger of both humanistic and scientific thought, many majors draw upon this training in pursuing careers in medicine, law, and a range of other fields.

Requirements for Major  All students enroll in a core curriculum of three courses which provide a broad overview of prehistoric and classical archaeology, and exposure to field methods both in theory and on an actual archaeological site. Five additional courses, selected in consultation with program advisors, explore specific areas and issues of archaeological research in various parts of the world. Other courses from the department of anthropology, history, and art may be substituted in consultation with program advisors. The final two courses are selected from such related areas as classics, religious studies, chemistry, and environmental sciences.

Minor in Archaeology  The minor consists of the core curriculum and an additional nine credits to be chosen in consultation with a program advisor.

Distinguished Majors Program in Archaeology  Students with superior academic performance are encouraged to apply to the Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) in which they write a thesis demonstrating independent study of high quality. The requirements for admission to the DMP are:

  1. satisfaction of all College requirements as stated in the Record with a GPA of at least 3.4 in all University courses;
  2. a GPA of at least 3.4 in all courses taken as part of the archaeology major;
  3. permission of an advisor, who may be any member of the program's faculty that is willing to take on the responsibility of supervising the thesis and is normally someone to whom the students have already demonstrated their ability in a specialized course at the 500 level.
Additional Information  For more information, contact Rachel Most, Department of Anthropology, 101 Brooks Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-7044; rm5f@virginia.edu.

Course Descriptions

Core Courses

ANTH 280 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Archaeology
Topics include alternative theories of prehistoric culture change, dating methods, excavation and survey techniques, and the reconstruction of the economy, social organization, and religion of prehistoric societies.

ARTH 215 - (3) (O)
Introduction to Classical Archaeology
Introduces the history, theory, and field techniques of classical archaeology.

ANTH 381 - (3-6) (SS)
Field Methods in Archaeology
Provides a comprehensive training in archaeological field techniques through participation in research projects currently in progress under the direction of the archaeology faculty. The emphasis is on learning, in an actual field situation, how the collection of archaeological data is carried out in both survey and excavation. Students become familiar with field recording systems, excavation techniques, survey methods, sampling theory in archaeology, and artifact processing and analysis. (Field methods courses outside anthropology or offered at other universities may be substituted for ANTH 381 with the prior approval of the student's advisor.)

Additional Courses

The following list includes additional courses which have been approved for the major program. Other courses can be added, depending on the student's area of concentration, with the approval of an advisor.

ANTH 220 - (3) (Y)
Dynamics of Social Organization

ANTH 253 - (3) (Y)
North American Indians

ANTH 281 - (3) (Y)
Human Origins

ANTH 282 - (3) (Y)
Aztec, Inca, and Maya: Civilization of the New World

ANTH 321 - (3) (O)
Kinship and Social Organization

ANTH 322- (3) (O)
Introduction to Economic Anthropology

ANTH 327 - (3) (Y)
Political Anthropology

ANTH 332 - (3) (O)
Shamanism, Healing, and Ritual

ANTH 333 - (3) (O)
Ethno-Poetics, Primitive Art and Aesthetics

ANTH 354 - (3) (O)
Indians of the American Southwest

ANTH 383 - (3) (Y)
North American Archaeology

ANTH 508 - (3) (Y)
Method and Theory in Archaeology

ANTH 580 - (Credits to be arranged) (SI)
Archaeology Laboratory

ANTH 581 - (3) (SI)
Archaeology of the Eastern United States

ANTH 589 - (3) (Y)
Selected Topics in Archaeology

ARTH 211 - (3) (IR)
Art of the Ancient Near East and Prehistoric Europe

ARTH 213 - (3) (Y)
Greek Art

ARTH 214 - (3) (Y)
Etruscan and Roman Art

ARTH 313 - (3) (IR)
Art and Poetry in Classical Greece

ARTH 315 - (3) (IR)
The Greek City

ARTH 316 - (3) (IR)
Roman Architecture

ARTH 491 - (3) (S)
Undergraduate Seminar in the History of Art
Greek or Roman only.

ARTH 518 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperial Art and Architecture I

ARTH 519 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperial Art and Architecture II

CHEM 191 - (3) (IR)
Archaeological Chemistry

HIEU 203 - (3) (Y)
Ancient Greece

HIEU 204 - (3) (Y)
Roman Republic and Empire

HIEU 501 - (3) (IR)
The Rise of the Greek Polis

HIEU 502 - (3) (IR)
The Developed Greek Polis and the Spread of Hellenism

HIEU 503 - (3) (IR)
History of the Roman Republic

HIEU 504 - (3) (IR)
History of the Roman Empire

REL 214 - (3) (E)
Archaic Cult and Myth

AR H 515P - (3) (Y)
Historical Archaeology

McIntire Department of Art
P.O. Box 400130
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4130
Phone: (434) 924-6123
Fax: (434) 924-3647
History of Art

Overview
  A painting, sculpture, or building is a monument surviving from the past, bearing the imprint of its creator and its time. The discipline of art history seeks to order and interpret these monuments; it seeks to discover their special characteristics and the value of the age in which they were created. For example, the work of Van Gogh would be examined in terms of his place in the Post-Impressionist generation of artists and his life in a period of religious revivals. The discipline defines the cultural currents of a period, and provides a context for understanding, appreciating, and enjoying art.

The department provides its students with the skills and perspectives of the liberal arts; to think clearly, to write well, and to find, analyze, evaluate, and present facts and ideas. It also provides students with a broad, humanistic background, an advantageous resource among the disciplines of law, business, and medicine. Students often combine art history with a major in one of these respective areas.

The major also soundly prepares students for graduate study. Professional careers in art history including teaching (most often at the college level), museum work, and work in the art market, usually require additional study at the graduate level leading to the M.A. and Ph.D.

Faculty  The fourteen full-time faculty members are renowned for their teaching ability and scholarship. Among the many honors presented to the faculty are Guggenheim and National Endowment for the Humanities fellowships, a visiting Senior Fellowship at the Getty Center for the Arts and Humanities, election to the Academy of Arts and Sciences, a Mellon Professorship at the American Academy in Rome, and a Mellon Professorship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts at the National Gallery of Art. Each student is given the opportunity to work closely with one or more of these distinguished professors.

Students  Approximately 100 students major in art history. Some introductory lecture courses are large; however, many courses are taught as seminars, with enrollment limited to fifteen students. The lecture courses are usually survey courses (e.g., Baroque Art in Europe; Buddhist Art from India to Japan; Modernist Art); the seminars usually focus on one or two artists (e.g., Michelangelo, Bosch and Bruegel). The department offers over thirty courses, so there is a wide range of choices available. Independent study options exist, and most majors take several courses in studio art as well. Students are also encouraged to take courses in architectural history offered by the School of Architecture.

Special Resources  The University of Virginia Art Museum encourages participation in its activities by art history majors and students in general. The Fiske Kimball Fine Arts Library is a specialized collection of over 100,000 volumes and provides research and study space as well as research assistance by its trained staff.

Requirements for Major  There are no prerequisites for entry into the department, but most students declare a major in art history after taking one or two or more of the department's introductory survey courses (ARTH 101 and 102). None of these courses, however, is required for majors.

For a degree in art history, students must complete 30 credits above the 100 level. Courses taken at any time during the student's career can be counted, including those earned while studying abroad, in summer session or in architectural history courses. By the time of graduation, a student must have achieved a minimum GPA of 2.0 in major courses. (A student who does not maintain an average of 2.0 or better in departmental courses will be put on probation, and may be dropped from the program.) No course graded below C- may count for major credit.

Distribution Requirements  At least one course at the 200 level or above in each area (Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance, Modern, Non-Western); a minimum of two 400 level seminars (either one ARTH 401 and one ARTH 491, or two ARTH 491); and three electives within the department. At least one of the non-seminar courses must be at the 300 or 500 level. Courses in Architectural History at the 200 level or above may be substituted for any of the course requirements except the ARTH 491 seminars. One course in Studio Art at the 100 level or above may be substituted for one of the electives.

Requirements for the Minor  There are no prerequisites for a minor in art history. A student must complete 15 credits in the department, beyond the 100 level. Courses taken at any time during the student's career may be counted toward the minor. At the time of graduation, a student must have achieved a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the minor courses.

Minors must take at least one course in four of the five areas: Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance, Modern, and Asian. One additional course is required, and this should be selected from advanced lecture courses at the 300- 500 level, or sections of ARTH 491 (Seminar in the History of Art).

Minors are also required to take at least one course outside the department which is related to an area in art history of special interest to them. This course will be chosen in consultation with the undergraduate advisor.

Distinguished Majors Program in Art History  To majors who wish to be considered for a degree of 'distinction,' 'high distinction,' or 'highest distinction' in art history, the department offers a Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) of advanced courses and research culminating in a thesis of approximately fifty pages. Students should ordinarily apply for admission to the program by the first class day in April of their third year. To apply, students must submit a thesis proposal and have the approval of a faculty member to direct their research. A GPA of 3.4 in major courses and a cumulative GPA at or near 3.4 are required for admission. Application should be made to the undergraduate advisors for art history. In their fourth year, students in the program are required to take at least two courses at the 400 or 500 level and to enroll in ARTH 497-498 (Undergraduate Thesis). These are evaluated by a committee chaired by the undergraduate advisors that also considers the student's work in the DMP based on the evaluations of teachers in the students' advanced courses; the students' performance in major courses; and the students' overall GPA. The committee recommends either no distinction, distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction, and passes on its recommendation to the Committee on Special Programs.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the Undergraduate Advisor, McIntire Department of Art, Fayerweather Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924- 6123; Fax: (434) 924-3647; www.virginia.edu/~finearts/ArtWelcome.html.

Course Descriptions

ARTH 101 - (4) (Y)
History of Art I
Studies the history and interpretation of architecture, sculpture and painting. Begins with prehistoric art and follows the main stream of Western civilization to the end of the medieval period.

ARTH 102 - (4) (S)
History of Art II
Studies the history and interpretation of architecture, sculpture and painting from 1400 to the present.

ARTH 103 - (3) (IR)
History of Art III
Studies the history and interpretation of the primary artistic traditions of China and Japan from prehistoric times through the nineteenth century.

ARTH 201 - (3) (IR)
Second Year Seminar in the History of Art
A seminar on art historical problems and methods, intended for students who may be interested in majoring in art history.

ARTH 209 - (3) (IR)
Sacred Sites
Examines the art and architecture of ten religious sites around the world focusing on ritual, culture, and history as well as the artistic characteristics of each site.

ARTH 211 - (3) (IR)
Art of the Ancient Near East and Prehistoric Europe
Studies the art of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Aegean, and prehistoric Europe, from the sixth to the second millennium B.C. Examines the emergence of a special role for the arts in ancient religion.

ARTH 213 - (3) (Y)
Greek Art
Reviews the painting, sculpture and architecture of the Greeks, from the Dark Ages through the Hellenistic period. Studies the works against their social and intellectual backgrounds.

ARTH 214 - (3) (Y)
Etruscan and Roman Art
Studies the painting, sculpture and architecture in Italy and the Roman Empire from the time of the Etruscans to Constantine the Great. Emphasizes the political and social role of art in ancient Rome, the dissolution of classical art, and the formation of medieval art.

ARTH 215 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Classical Archaeology
Introduces the history, theory, and field techniques of classical archaeology. Major sites of the Bronze Age (Troy, Mycenae) as well as Greek and Roman cities and sanctuaries (e.g., Athens, Olympia, Pompeii) illustrate important themes in Greek and Roman culture and the nature of archaeological data.

ARTH 221 - (3) (IR)
Early Christian and Byzantine Art
Studies the art of the early Church in East and West and its subsequent development in the East under the aegis of Byzantium. Includes the influence of theological, liturgical and political factors on the artistic expression of Eastern Christian spirituality.

ARTH 222 - (3) (Y)
Medieval Art in Western Europe
Studies the arts in Western Europe from the Hiberno-Saxon period up to, and including, the age of the great Gothic cathedrals.

ARTH 231 - (3) (Y)
Italian Renaissance Art
Studies painting, architecture, and sculpture in Italy from the close of the Middle Ages through the sixteenth century. Focuses on the work of major artists such as Giotto, Donatello, Botticelli, Leonardo, and Michelangelo. Detailed discussion of the social, political, and cultural background of the arts.

ARTH 232 - (3) (Y)
High Renaissance and Mannerist Art
Studies the painting, architecture, and sculpture or the sixteenth century, emphasizing the works of major artists, such as Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giorgione, and Titian. Detailed discussion of the social, political, and cultural background of the arts.

ARTH 236 - (3) (IR)
Painting and Graphics of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries in Northern Europe
Surveys major developments in painting and graphics in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in the Netherlands and Germany. Includes the rise of Netherlandish naturalism and the origins of woodcut and engraving. Explores the effects of humanist taste on sixteenth-century painting and the iconographic consequences of the Reformation. Emphasizes the work of major artists, such as Van Eyck, Van der Weyden, Dürer, Bosch, and Bruegel.

ARTH 241 - (3) (Y)
Baroque Art in Europe
Studies the painting, sculpture, and architecture of the seventeenth century in Italy, the Low Countries, France, and Spain. Focuses on Caravaggio, Bernini, Velazquez, Rubens, Rembrandt, and Poussin.

ARTH 246 - (3) (Y)
Eighteenth-Century European Art
Surveys European painting and sculpture from the late Baroque period to Neo-Classicism. Emphasizes the artistic careers of major figures and on the larger social, political, and cultural contexts of their work. Artists include Watteau, Boucher, Fragonard, Chardin, Falconet, Pigalle, Greuze, Batoni, Rusconi, Hogarth, Gainsborough, and Reynolds.

ARTH 251 - (3) (Y)
Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Surveys European painting and sculpture from the last decades of the Ancien Regime to the liberal revolutions of 1848. Major artists, such as David, Canova, Ingres, Constable, Turner, Gericault, Delacroix, Friedrich, Goya, Corot, and Thorvaldsen are examined in their political, economic, social, spiritual, and aesthetic contexts.

ARTH 253 - (3) (Y)
Impression and Post Impression
Surveys modernist movements in European art during the second half of the nineteenth century. Major themes include the establishment of modernity as a cultural ideal, the development of the avant-garde, and the genesis of the concept of abstraction.

ARTH 254 - (4) (Y)
Modern Art, 1900-1945
A survey of major artistic movements in Europe and the United States during the first half of the twentieth century: Fauvism and Expressionism, Cubism, Futurism, the School of Paris, Dada and Surrealism, the Russian avant-garde, modernist trends in America. Painting, sculpture, photography, and the functional arts are discussed.

ARTH 258 - (3) (Y)
American Art
Studies the development of American art in its cultural context from the seventeenth century to World War II.

ARTH 261 - (3) (IR)
Buddhist Art From India to Japan
Surveys the Buddhist sculpture, architecture and painting of India, China and Japan. Considers aspects of history and religious doctrine.

ARTH 262 - (3) (IR)
East Asian Art
Introduces the artistic traditions of China, Korea, and Japan, from prehistoric times to the modern era. Surveys major monuments and the fundamental concepts behind their creation, and examines artistic form in relation to society, individuals, technology, and ideas.

ARTH 263 - (3) (IR)
Arts of the Islamic World
The class is an overview of art made in the service of Islam in the Central Islamic Lands, Egypt, North Africa, Spain, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, and South and Southeast Asia.

ARTH 264 - (3) (O)
The Arts of India
The class is an overview of Indian sculpture, architecture, and painting from the Third Millennium BC to the 18th century AD and includes works from Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Islamic traditions.

ARTH 280 - (3) (Y)
Art Since 1945
Surveys art production and theory in the U.S. and Europe since World War II. Relationships between artistic practice and critical theory are stressed in an examination of movements ranging from abstract expressionism to neo-geo.

ARTH 290 - (4) (IR)
The History of Photography
General survey of the photographic medium from 1839 to the present. Emphasizes the technical, aesthetic, and critical issues particular to the medium.

ARTH 313 - (3) (IR)
Art and Poetry in Classical Greece
Study of the major themes in Greek sculpture and painting of the fifth century, including mythological narrative, cult practices, banqueting, and athletics. In order to view these themes in the context of classical Greek culture, the course seeks out shared structures of response and feeling in contemporary poetry; including readings in translation in Anakreon, Pindar, Aischylos, Sophokles, and Euripides.

ARTH 315 - (3) (IR)
The Greek City
Study of the Greek city from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period, with an emphasis on developing concepts of city planning, public buildings and houses, and the inclusion within the city of works of sculpture and painting.

ARTH 316 - (3) (IR)
Roman Architecture
Study of the history of Roman architecture from the Republic to the late empire with special emphasis on the evolution of urban architecture in Rome. Also considered are Roman villas, Roman landscape architecture, the cities of Pompeii and Ostia, major sites of the Roman provinces, and the architectural and archaeological field methods used in dealing with ancient architecture.

ARTH 317 - (3) (IR)
Pompeii
Explores the life, art, architecture, urban development, religion, economy, and daily life of the famous Roman city destroyed in the cataclysmic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in A.D. 79.

ARTH 322 - (3) (Y)
Age of Cathedrals
Examination of art, architecture, religion and ritual at selected medieval abbeys and cathedrals in France, England and Italy from the late 12th to early 14th centuries. Sites include the Abbey of St. Denis, Canterbury Cathedral, Chartres Cathedral, Salisbury Cathedral, the Sainte-Chapelle, Westminster Abbey, the Cathedral of Siena, and the Cathedral of Florence. Students should have experience (preferably at college level) in analyzing historical issues.

ARTH 331- (3) (IR)
Gender and Art in Renaissance Italy
Prerequisite: A previous course in art history or gender studies.
Examines how notions of gender shaped the production, patronage, and fruition of the visual arts in Italy between 1350 and 1600.

ARTH 333 - (3) (IR)
Renaissance Art and Literature
Examines the interrelations between literature and the visual arts in Italy from 1300 to 1600. The writings of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio and their followers are analyzed in relation to the painting, sculpture, and architecture of Giotto, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Raphael, and Michelangelo, among others.

ARTH 337 - (3) (IR)
Michelangelo
Prerequisite: One course in the history of art beyond the level of ARTH 101 and 102 and instructor permission.
The work of Michelangelo in sculpture, painting and architecture, studied in relation to his contemporaries in Italy and the North. Study of preparatory drawings, letters, poems and documents.

ARTH 342 - (3) (IR)
Rembrandt
Study of the life and work of the great Dutch seventeenth-century master. Topics include Rembrandt's interpretation of the Bible and the nature of his religious convictions, his relationship to classical and Renaissance culture, his rivalry with Rubens, and the expressive purposes of his distinctive techniques in painting, drawing, and etching.

ARTH 346 - (3) (IR)
British Art: Tudors through Victoria
At least one post-medieval art history course is recommended. Surveys English (British) painting, sculpture, and printmaking from the reign of Henry VII Tudor (1485) to the death of Queen Victoria (1901). Major artists such as Holbein, Mor, Mytens, Rubens, van Dyck, Lely, Kneller, Hogarth, Rysbrack, Roubilliac, Gainsborough, Reynolds, Rowlandson, Flaxman, Lawrence, Constable, Turner, Landseer, the Pre-Raphaelites and Alma-Taddema are examined in their political, social, economic, spiritual, and aesthetic contexts.

ARTH 358 - (3) (Y)
Material Life in Early America
At least one course in either American art or early American history or literature is recommended. Studies American domestic environments (architecture, landscapes, rural and urban settings) and decorative arts (furniture, silver, ceramics, and glass) in relation to their social, cultural, and historical contexts from European settlement to 1825.

ARTH 362 - (3) (IR)
Japanese Art
Introduces the arts and culture of Japan. Focuses on key monuments and artistic traditions that have played central roles in Japanese art and society. Analyzes how artists, architects, and patrons expressed their ideals in visual terms. Examines sculptures, paintings, and decorative objects and their underlying artistic and cultural values.

ARTH 380 - (3) (IR)
African Art
Studies Africa's chief forms of visual art from prehistoric times to the present.

ARTH 385 - (3) (IR)
Women in American Art
Analyzes the roles played by women both as visual artists and as the subjects of representation in American art from the colonial period to the present. Explores the changing cultural context and institutions that support or inhibit women's artistic activity and help to shape their public presentation. Some background in either art history or women's studies is desirable.


ARTH 401 - (4) (Y)

Art History: Theory and Practice
This class is intended to introduce undergradaute art history majors to the basic tools and methods of art historical research, and to the theoretical and historical questions of art historical interpretation. The course will survey a number of current approaches to the explanation and interpretation of works of art, and breifly address the history of art history. ARTH 401 counts as a semianr credit for art hisotry majors, and satisfies the College's second writing requirement. The class includes a Library Laboratory intended to introduce students to the tools of bibliographics research in art history.

ARTH 491 - (3) (S)
Undergraduate Seminar in the History of Art
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.

Subject varies with the instructor, who may decide to focus attention either on a particular period, artist, or theme, or on the broader question of the aims and methods of art history. Subject is announced prior to each registration period. Representative subjects include  the life and art of Pompeii, Roman painting and mosaics, history and connoisseurship of baroque prints, art and politics in revolutionary Europe, Picasso and painting, and problems in American art and culture.

ARTH 492 - (3) (IR)
Independent Study in the History of Art
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Under the supervision of a faculty member, students undertake a rigorous program of independent study to explore a subject not currently taught or to expand upon regular offerings.

ARTH 497-498 - (6) (S)
Undergraduate Thesis
A thesis of approximately 50 written pages is researched and written during the fall and spring semesters by art history majors in their fourth year who have been accepted into the department's Distinguished Majors Program.

ARTH 501 - (1) (Y)
Library Methodology in the Visual Arts
Review of printed and computerized research tools in fine arts, including architecture and archeology. Required of all incoming art history graduate students.

ARTH 516 - (3) (IR)
Roman Architecture
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Surveys Roman architecture in Italy and the Roman Empire from the Republic to Constantine, emphasizing developments in the city of Rome.

ARTH 518 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperial Art and Architecture I
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies Roman sculpture, painting, architecture and minor arts from Augustus to Trajan.

ARTH 519 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperial Art and Architecture II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies Roman sculpture, mosaics, architecture and minor arts from Trajan to Constantine.

ARTH 522 - (3) (IR)
Byzantine Art
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the art of Byzantium and its cultural dependencies from its roots in the late Antique period to the last flowering under the Palaeologan dynasty.

ARTH 533 - (3) (IR)
Italian Fifteenth Century Painting I
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the major and minor masters of the Quattrocento in Florence, Siena, Central Italy, Venice, and North Italy.

ARTH 536 - (3) (IR)
Italian Sixteenth-Century Painting
Studies the High Renaissance, Mannerism, the Maniera, and related movements in Cinquecento painting.

ARTH 537 - (3) (IR)
Italian Renaissance Sculpture I
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the major developments in Italian sculpture from the late Dugento through the early Quattrocento.

ARTH 547 - (3) (IR)
Dutch Painting in the Golden Age
Surveys the major artists and schools of the United Provinces from about 1580-1680, including Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Vermeer, and Jacob van Ruisdael, seen in the context of Dutch culture and history. Emphasizes the iconographic method of interpreting daily-life genre and landscape, the role of theory in Dutch art, and the character of Dutch realism.

ARTH 558 - (3) (IR)
Approaches to American Art
Introduces historiography and methodology of American art history from earliest discussions to the present, through an analysis of one particular mode (e.g., portraiture, landscape, genre) over time.

ARTH 559 - (3) (IR)
Representations of Race in American Art
Examines the depiction of Asian, Blacks, Indians, and Latinos in American art from colonial times to the present, in order to identify and describe some of the ways in which visual images have functioned in the construction and reinforcement of racial mythologies.

ARTH 567 - (3) (IR)
Text and Image in Chinese Buddhist Art
Examines the relationship between text and image in Chinese Mahayana Buddhist art through the analysis of a number of important Buddhist texts and the visual representations associated with these texts. Explores interpretive theories such as narrative and ritual. Considers the roles of patrons, the clergy, and artists as mediating agents in the process of translating ideas into visual expressions.

ARTH 580 - (3) (IR)
African Art
Surveys Africa's chief forms of visual art from prehistoric times to the present.

ARTH 590 - (3) (Y)
Museum Studies
Prerequisite: 9-12 credits in art history or instructor permission.
A lecture course on the nature of public art collections, how they have been formed, and the role they play in society. Examines the concept of connoisseurship and its role in collecting art for museums.

ARTH 591, 592 - (3) (S)
Advanced Readings in the History of Art

Studio Art

Overview
  Studio Art at the University of Virginia is a rigorous, pre-professional program leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. The department attempts to give students instruction in the basic skills and application in the following areas: drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, electronic media, contemporary media, and techniques. Courses also seek to acquaint the student with the concerns and issues of visual art through practical studio experience.

The art department's studio major is a liberal arts program designed to accommodate students with various interests and abilities, serving those who expect to become professional artists and welcoming those who are mainly interested in art as an avocation or as a means toward aesthetic fulfillment. Students are also encouraged to take courses in the history of art so that they may acquire knowledge of pictorial meaning and the wide range of artistic expression and interpretation found in different cultural periods. Students who wish to do intensive work in a single area may work in project courses which provide both flexibility and faculty feedback.

Faculty  There are nine faculty members in the department. One of the department's strengths is the diversity of interests among the faculty. Each faculty member has had highly successful exhibitions at numerous galleries across the country such as the Tatistcheff Gallery in New York, the Corcoran Gallery in Washington D.C., and the Fine Gallery in Princeton. Among the awards and honors garnered by members of this group is a recent Virginia Commission of the Arts Award for printmaking and sculpture, and an Artist's Fellowship Grant from the National Endowment for the Arts in painting and sculpture. Works by the faculty are in many prestigious museum collections, such as the Metropolitan Museum in New York, the Philadelphia Art Museum, the Hirschhorn Museum in Washington, D.C. and the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis. The faculty make themselves easily accessible to their students, serving as mentors in and out of the classroom.

Students  Each year, approximately sixty students major in studio art. As there is not a graduate program, all courses are taught by faculty. All studio art courses have limited  enrollment, since the courses are taught in atelier style. All majors, in their fourth year, are required to complete a senior exhibition.

Many students in studio art are double majors. Art history is the most obvious choice for a second major, though English and psychology are also common.

Approximately 20 percent of the majors go on to graduate work within the fine arts. Placement has been good, including admission to top national programs. Other students seek graduate work in related fields, including graphic and fashion design, medical illustration, art therapy, illustration, museum work, gallery management, advertising design, and teaching.

Requirements for Major  Majors acquire essential artistic skills as well as experience in the handling of a wide variety of materials and methods. The program puts the student in touch with the problems of creation and with the ideas of artists in the contemporary world.

The major requires 30 credits in ARTS courses including ARTS 161 and 162. Twelve credits must be at the 200 level and 9 credits at the 300 or 400 level. ARTH 280 (Art Since 1945) is required and should be taken in the fall term of the third year. In the fourth year he or she declares a concentration in painting, printmaking, photography, or sculpture which culminates in an exhibition. Majors must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in major courses, or be dropped from the program. A grade of C- or below does not count for major credit.

Requirements for Minor  The minor in studio art requires 18 credits in ARTS courses including ARTS 161 and 162.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the Undergraduate Advisor, Fayerweather Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-6123.

Course Descriptions

ARTS 161 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Drawing I
Introduces the materials and techniques of drawing, provides training in the coordination of hand and eye, and encourages development of visual analysis. Emphasizes understanding form, space, light and composition.

ARTS 162 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Drawing II
Prerequisite: ARTS 161.
Continuation of ARTS 161 with projects emphasizing on drawing skills and analytical thinking. The majority of assignments will be concept-based to encourage students to develop individual visual language.

ARTS 207 - (3) (S)
Dance/Movement Composition as Art
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
This course will involve analysis of aesthetic valuing and choreographic approaches as they relate and intersect with art, gender and feminism. We will closely examine how dances convey race, class, gender and sexuality. The course will investigate staged performances that illuminate women's political issues and male issues through a lens of cultural and historical contexts.

This course will function as an introduction to the fundamentals of movement and dance. It is designed to engage students to inquire about what is art and define how choreography is a statement in a cultural, political, and feminist sense.

We will explore potential sources for movement through improvisation, a dance form developed during the 60's. Assignments will be structured in a solo, duet, group format and it may incorporate elements of martial arts, modern and post-modern dance, social dance, sports and play. Improvisation serves an exploration of the physics of motion. It involves a continuous process of exploring balance, weight, body/mind centering, orienting oneself to space and to others in a group; experiencing peripheral vision and events. It also considers social and cultural roles of passivity/action, leading/following, etc., as well as the cultural definitions of play in the creative process, work and art. Ideal for beginning dancers, those interested in exploring their own movement vocabulary, athletes, actors, musicians or those interested in acquiring a better understanding of movement as source. This course is cross-listed with SWAG 207.

ARTS 222, 223 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Digital Art I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 161, 162.
Project-based introduction to tools and methods of digital media. Serves as a design class   examining how the new tools can contribute to the activity of the artist.

ARTS 251, 252 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Photography I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 161, 162.
Independent and group exercises exploring still photography as a means of communication and expression. Lab sessions cover necessary technical aspects of the medium, lectures introduce the photographic tradition, and discussions focus on student work. Course content varies from semester to semester. May not be taken on a pass/fail basis.

ARTS 263, 264 - (3) (S)
Life Drawing I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 161, 162.
Creations of drawings of a living model in various media. Topics include artistic anatomy, figure and portrait drawing.

ARTS 267, 268 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Printmaking I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 161, 162.
Introduction to basic black and white etching techniques, basic black and white plate lithography, and techniques of stone lithography. Printmaking professors and course content vary from semester to semester.

ARTS 271, 272 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Painting I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 161, 162.
Introduction to basic oil painting techniques and materials emphasizing perception and color. Assignments are designed to assist the student in understanding the creative process and interpreting the environment through a variety of subject matter expressed in painted images. Encourages individual stylistic development.

ARTS 281, 282 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Sculpture I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 161, 162.
Investigates the sculptural process through modeling, carving, fabricating and casting. Examines traditional and contemporary concerns of sculpture by analyzing historical examples and work done in class.

ARTS 322, 323 - (3) (S)
Intermediate Digital Art I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 222, 223.
Project-based course examining three areas of digital media: designing for paper, three-dimensional modeling, and robotic sculpture.

ARTS 351, 352 - (3) (S)
Intermediate Photography I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 251, 252.
Requirements: Basic black and white lab techniques. Creative camera work with 35mm and larger-format cameras.

ARTS 367, 368 - (3) (S)
Intermediate Printmaking I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 267, 268.
Includes relief printing, advanced lithography techniques, including color lithography, color etching, monotypes, and further development of black and white imagery. Printmaking professors and course content vary from semester to semester.

ARTS 371, 372 - (3) (S)
Intermediate Painting I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 271, 272.
Exploration of contemporary painting materials, techniques, and concepts, as well as a continuation of basic oil painting processes. Assignments are designed to assist the student in developing their perceptions and imagination and translating them into painted images. Direction is given to the formation of personal original painting styles.

ARTS 381, 382 - (3) (S)
Sculpture
Prerequisite: ARTS 281, 282.
Continuation of ARTS 281, 282 with greater emphasis on the special problems of the sculptural discipline.

ARTS 407 - (1-4) (Y)
Advanced Project in Art
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Investigation and development of a consistent idea or theme in painting, sculpture, or the graphic arts. May be taken more than once under the same course number(s) by students who are sufficiently advanced in studio work. This course is not intended to be used for major credit.

ARTS 422, 423 - (3) (S)
Advanced Digital Art I, II
Creation of individual and group projects using digital tools. Projects are intended to enhance traditional disciplines or extend the study of new technology for the artist. This course does not fulfill major/minor requirements

ARTS 451, 452 - (3) (Y)
Distinguished Major Project
Prerequisite: Admission to the Distinguished Major Program.
Intensive independent work using either sculpture, photography, printmaking, or painting as the primary medium, culminating in a coherent body of work under direction of a faculty member.

ARTS 453, 454 - (3) (S)
Advanced Photography I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 351 or 352.
Study of the advanced problems of making a structured body of photographic work. Emphasizes new solutions to new problems in this mode.

ARTS 467, 468 - (3) (S)
Advanced Problems in Printmaking
Prerequisite: ARTS 367 or 368.
Designed for students who have completed two or more semesters of study of a specific printmaking technique (woodcut, etching, or lithography) and wish to continue their exploration of that technique.

ARTS 471, 472 - (3) (S)
Advanced Painting I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 371 or 372.
The capstone of a three year study in painting. Continues the investigation of oil painting as an expressive medium and stresses the development of students' ability to conceive and execute a series of thematically related paintings over the course of the semester. Painting professors and course content vary from semester to semester.

ARTS 481, 482 - (3) (S)
Advanced Sculpture I, II
Prerequisite: ARTS 381 or 382.
Continuation of the sculpture sequence with greater emphasis on developing a student's individual voice. Advanced projects in moldmaking, metal casting, and non-traditional sculpture materials are assigned. The creation of a sculptural installation is also assigned. Sculpture professors and course content vary from semester to semester.

Division of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures (AMELC)
P.O. Box 400781
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4781
Phone: (434) 982-2304
Fax: (434) 924-6977

Overview  Almost two-thirds of the world's population live in Asia and the Middle East, and a greater percentage than that, from the Maghrib in the west to Japan in the east, speak major Asian and Middle Eastern languages. In the twenty-first century knowledge and understanding of that part of the world will become increasingly important for people in any profession or field of endeavor. To address that crucial need the Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures (AMELC) offers a comprehensive curriculum in some of the major languages, literatures and cultures of East Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia.

The languages currently taught in AMELC are Arabic (classical and modern), Chinese (classical and modern), Hebrew (modern, with Biblical taught in Religious Studies), Hindi, Japanese (modern and pre-modern), Persian, Sanskrit, Tamil, and Urdu. The Division reserves the right to place any student in the course most appropriate to his or her skill level. Such placement will be the responsibility of the coordinator for each language program, and should be made by the fifth class meeting.

Literature courses in AMELC are offered in all these languages. Most literature courses are offered in the language and many are offered in English, with readings in translation. In addition to courses in language and in literature, courses offered in many other departments and programs - Anthropology, Art History, Government and Foreign Affairs, History, and Religious Studies - are required for AMELC's majors, giving AMELC students a unique multidisciplinary perspective.

The AMELC curriculum is designed to give students a high level of language competency and a deep understanding of East Asia, the Middle East, or South Asia. The department offers a Studies Major, a Studies Minor, a Languages Major, and a Distinguished Major for exceptional students in either the Studies or the Languages Major. Some graduates find employment in their geographical region of study, while others go on to graduate or professional schools for further study. Whichever the case, study in AMELC is an intense, intimate and rewarding experience, and AMELC students are well prepared for the future.

The Major in Asian and Middle Eastern Studies  The Asian and Middle Eastern Studies Major replaces the Asian Studies Major in the Program in Asian Studies and the Middle East Studies Major in the Middle East Studies Program. The Asian and Middle Eastern Studies major is an interdisciplinary major featuring a core of language work and additional coursework in one of three regional concentrations: East Asia, the Middle East, or South Asia.  Not all concentration courses must be from within AMELC. For instance, a course on Islam in Religious Studies would count towards a concentration in the Middle East or South Asia regions. Current lists of approved concentration courses are posted in the Department and on the AMELC website. Students are also encouraged to take AMELC and related courses outside their geographical region of concentration.

Requirements for the Major in Asian and Middle Eastern Studies
Prerequisite: a C or better in AMEL 101.

Requirements:

• Proficiency at the 202/206 level or above in Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Persian, Sanskrit, Tamil, or Urdu.
• 30 credits in AMELC and related courses, including courses in selected regional concentration, with the following distribution:

• 9 credits at 300 level or higher of AMELC and related courses:

• students whose regional concentration is East Asia must take EAST 492

• students whose regional concentration is the Middle East must take MEST 496

• students whose regional concentration is South Asia must take AMEL 493 or 494

• 21 credits in one of three regional concentrations: East Asia, Middle East, or South Asia; see the AMELC website for current listings;

• 9 of those 21 credits must be in regional concentration courses from 3 of the following 6 departments: AMELC (at the 300 level or higher), Anthropology, Art History, Government and Foreign Affairs, History, Religious Studies. (It is strongly recommended that History be one of the three.)

• double majoring is encouraged, but students are reminded that 18 credits in each major must come from courses unique to that major;
• students are reminded that USEM credits do not count toward major requirements;
• a maximum of 12 study abroad and domestic transfer credits are allowed, at the discretion of the Undergraduate Committee.

Students in this major must maintain a satisfactory grade point in major and related courses each semester. Satisfactory is defined as an average of C (i.e., 2.0). Students not maintaining this grade point are subject to discontinuation from the major.

Advisors for this major are Gilbert Roy (East Asia), Farzaneh Milani (Middle East), and Robert A. Hueckstedt (South Asia).

Requirements for the Minor in Asian and Middle Eastern Studies

• 102/106-level in an AMELC language. A grade of C or higher must be earned each semester in 101-102, or the grade in 106 must be C or higher.
• at least 18 credits in one of the three regional concentrations (East Asia, Middle East, or South Asia). Language courses beyond the 102/106-level may be counted for this. Of those 18 credits:

• a minimum of 9 credits must be from concentration courses in AMELC or any other department;

• at least 3 credits must come from a non-language course in AMELC; and

• no more than 9 credits may be from any one department outside AMELC.


The advisor for this Minor is Stefania Burk. Students wishing to declare this for their minor course of study must see her.

The Major in Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures  The Department offers a major in Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures for students wanting to achieve proficiency in an AMELC language and a deeper understanding of its literature and culture. The core of this major is a high level of competency in the language and a more focused set of concentration courses.

Requirements for the Major in Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures

Prerequisites:


• 202/206 level of an AMELC language. A grade of C or higher must be earned in each semester of 201-202 or 106-206.
• 2 three-credit non-language courses in AMELC or one such course in AMELC and one course in History or in Religious Studies. One of the AMELC courses must be AMEL 101. The course in History must have the mnemonic HIEA, HIME, or HISA, and the course in Religious Studies must be RELG 104, or it must have the mnemonic RELB, RELH, or RELI. Each of these two courses must be passed with a grade of C or better.

Requirements:

• 30 credits in AMELC and related courses, of which

• 18 credits must be in one AMELC language, or, at the discretion of the student's advisor, 12 in one and at least 6 in a second  language in the same region;

• Tibetan may be used as a second language in the East Asian or South Asian region.  Biblical Hebrew may be used as a second language in the Middle East region. The 12 credits for the first language must be beyond the 202/206 level. The 6 credits for the second language may come from 100-level courses.

• 12 credits of the 30 must be in AMELC and related courses, of which

• 6 credits must be in regional concentration courses from 2 of the following 6 areas: AMELC (at the 300 level or higher), Anthropology, Art History, Government and Foreign Affairs, History, and Religious Studies (see the AMELC website for current listings); and

• 6 credits are to be determined in consultation with the student's advisor. These courses may be further AMELC language study or non-language, regional concentration courses in AMELC.

• a maximum of 15 study abroad credits and domestic transfer credits are allowed at the discretion of the Undergraduate Committee.


It is crucial that language training begin early in the student's career. Summer study and study abroad are also encouraged. (See the Study Abroad Programs section below.)

Students in this major must maintain a satisfactory grade point in major and related courses each semester. Satisfactory is defined as an average of C (i.e., 2.0). Students not maintaining this grade point are subject to discontinuation from the major.

Students should check with their advisors concerning the current availability of this major in the language or languages of their interest. Those advisors are:

Chinese Anne Kinney
Japanese Michiko Wilson
Arabic Mohammed Sawaie
Hebrew Daniel Lefkowitz
Persian Zjaleh Hajibashi
Hindi Griffith Chaussée
Sanskrit Robert A. Hueckstedt
Tamil Alvappillai Veluppillai
Urdu Griffith Chaussée

The Distinguished Majors Program  AMELC offers a Distinguished Majors Program for qualified majors in order to provide the opportunity to pursue in-depth analysis of issues and topics related to the major.

To qualify, students must meet the general requirements of their AMELC major with the following modifications. They must take 12 hours of concentration courses at the 400 level or above, including AMST 497, a six-hour sequence of tutorial work on a senior thesis to be completed over the fall and spring semesters of the fourth year. Students are responsible for obtaining the agreement of a faculty member to serve as thesis advisor and a second faculty member from a different department to serve as second reader. Students are encouraged to use primary language sources in researching their theses.

Admission into the DMP occurs in the spring semester of the third year. Applicants must be in either the Asian and Middle Eastern Studies Major or the Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures Major, with major and general GPAs of at least 3.4. Applications must be submitted by the end of January of the student's third year, and should include the following: 1) a statement of interest explaining the student's desire to enter the program and his or her general area of research interest; 2) a letter of recommendation from a faculty member in the student's concentration, either sent directly to the AMELC Chair or sealed and submitted by the student with other materials; and 3) a copy of the student's most recent transcript. Decisions concerning admission to the DMP are made in February.

Commencement honors of Distinction, High Distinction and Highest Distinction require a minimum GPA of 3.4 as well as timely completion of the senior thesis. Honors are awarded by the Departmental Council on the basis of overall academic performance as well as at the recommendation of the first and second readers of the thesis.

Faculty  The AMELC faculty consists of approximately twenty full and part-time scholars and teachers with national and international reputations ' in cultural studies, linguistics, literary criticism, philology, and translation ' who are fully committed to effective language teaching and to the literatures and cultures of Asia and the Middle East. While other language programs usually use graduate students to teach beginning and intermediate level language classes, AMELC uses for that purpose specially hired and trained lecturers, who are often native speakers or have near-native fluency. Class size is restricted, and faculty make a special effort to be available to students outside of class.

Students  Every semester 600 to 700 students study in AMELC's courses, which usually number between 40 and 50. The majority of AMELC's courses involve language study, so the enrollment is purposely kept low. Other courses taught in English usually satisfy the Non-Western Perspectives Requirement and the Humanities Requirement. Some of those courses also satisfy the Second Writing Requirement and are therefore restricted to thirty students or less. Approximately 1400 students study in Asian and Middle Eastern courses in other departments.

Students of Asia and the Middle East go on to graduate or professional schools, to work in governmental agencies, journalism, art, international banking and business, communications, or the Peace Corps, or they teach in Asia or the Middle East. The possibilities are almost infinite.

Study Abroad Programs

University of Virginia-Yarmouk University Summer Arabic
  AMELC administers a summer Arabic program at Yarmouk University in Irbid, Jordan, which provides an opportunity to study Arabic intensively at the intermediate and advanced levels.  The program occasionally receives grants from which it can offer fellowships.

University of Virginia-Emory University Semester-in-India  The Center for South Asian Studies, in collaboration with Emory University, sponsors a Semester-in-India Program that is open to third- and fourth-year undergraduates. Through a generous invitation on the part of His Highness the Maharaja of Jodhpur, the program is housed in the magnificent Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The program, which runs from late August until mid-December, focuses on the study of language and civilization. Students take Hindi language classes and a course in Indian and Rajasthani culture as well as complete individual research projects.

In addition to study abroad programs administered by UVA, students are encouraged to develop their language skills at the many other study-abroad programs that are available throughout Asia and the Middle East. Faculty are happy to advise students concerning appropriate programs, and program descriptions and advice are also available from the International Studies Office in Minor Hall. Students are particularly encouraged to participate in such programs so that they can experience first hand the languages in their surrounding cultures.

At the discretion of the Departmental Council, a maximum of 12 study abroad and domestic transfer credits is allowed for the Studies Major and a maximum of 15 for the Languages and Literatures Major. No study abroad or domestic transfer credits are allowed for the Studies Minor.

Scholarships

East Asia Center Scholarship
  A generous endowment from the Weedon family allows the East Asia Center to award travel grants to undergraduates enrolled in language programs in East Asia as well as research travel grants to graduate students and faculty.

MASTERCARD Asian Studies Scholarship This scholarship is awarded annually to a rising fourth year major in Asian Studies. To be competitive, students applying for this scholarship should be in the Distinguished Majors Program. This scholarship is in the amount of $4000 for tuition.

Centers and Programs

Arts and Sciences Center for Instructional Technology (ASCIT)
  A resource containing many audio-visual materials which are used to help bring the culture surrounding our different languages alive for students. It is conveniently located in Cabell Hall along with most AMELC classrooms and offices. The language laboratory is used extensively to help students practice and reinforce their speaking and listening skills.

East Asia Center  For more than twenty years the East Asia Center has promoted activities and events that enhance the study of East Asia and Southeast Asia at the University of Virginia. The Center sponsors ten to fifteen lectures and other events each year. It also manages graduate programs granting an MA in Asian Studies as well as an MA/MBA in Asian Studies in conjunction with the Darden Business School.

Center for South Asian Studies  The Center for South Asian Studies is one of nine federally-funded National Resource Centers for the study of South Asia-Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Tibet. It sponsors a regular weekly seminar program as well as other activities.  

Middle East Studies Program  Like the East Asia and South Asia Centers, the Middle East Studies Program is an association of faculty who share a regional interest. The Middle East Program sponsors lectures and other activities, and until recently it administered the undergraduate degree program in Middle East Studies.

Center for Jewish Studies  Jewish Studies is an interdisciplinary program that introduces students to the history, languages, and literature of the Jewish people; to the beliefs and practices of Judaism; and to the contributions of Jewish wisdom to human civilization.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Robert A. Hueckstedt, AMELC Chair, B27 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 982-2304; amelc@virginia.edu; http://www.virginia.edu/~amelc/.

Course Descriptions

AMEL 100 - (3) (Y)
From Genghis Khan to Stalin: Invasions and Empires of Central Asia
Survey of Central Asian civilizations from the first to the twenty-first centuries, with particular emphasis on nomadism, invasions, conquests, and major religious-cultural developments.

AMEL 101 - (3) (Y)
Literatures of Asia and the Middle East
An introductory course in non-Western literatures that emphasizes genres with no clear Western equivalents. The reading list varies from year to year, but the texts, read in translation, usually come from Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Persian, Sanskrit, Tamil and Urdu.

AMEL 247 - (3) (Y)
Reflections of Exile: Jewish Languages and their Communities
Covers Jewish languages Yiddish, Judeo-Arabic, Ladino, and Hebrew from historical, linguistic, and literary perspectives. Explores the relations between communities and languages, the nature of diaspora, and the death and revival of languages. No prior knowledge of these languages is required. This course is cross-listed with ANTH 247.

AMEL 301 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Asian America
Topics in Asian American culture, including historical, socio-economic, racial, gender, and other aspects. Students will employ critical skills in analyzing and questioning ideas about race, class, gender, family.

AMEL 302 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Asian America
An examination of social phenomena that have framed the lives of Asian Americans. Students will employ critical skills in analyzing and questioning ideas about race, class, gender, family, among other issues. Topics will include comparative analyses of Asian American communities, contemporary Asian American experience, and the specific concerns and histories of individual Asian groups in America.

AMEL 347 - (3) (Y)
Language and Culture in the Middle East
Prerequisite: Prior coursework in anthropology, or middle east studies, or linguistics, or permission of the instructor.
Introduction to peoples, languages, cultures and histories of the Middle East. Focuses on Israel/Palestine as a microcosm of important social processes-such as colonialism, nationalism, religious fundamentalism, and modernization-that affect the region as a whole. This course is cross-listed with ANTH 347.

AMEL 493, 494 - (1-3) (SI)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Independent study in special field under the direction of a faculty member in Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures.

Note  
AMTR courses are taught in English

AMTR 301 - (3) (SI)
Men and Women of Asia and the Middle East
Focuses on literature of Asia and the Middle East (Chinese, Japanese, Persian) which depicts the world as seen through the eyes of men and women; includes poetry and prose from Ancient to Modern.

AMTR 311/511 - (3) (IR)
Women and Middle-Eastern Literatures
Explores some of the basic issues of women's identity in Middle Eastern literature. In a variety of readings (poetry, short-story, novel, and autobiography) by men and women, it explores both the image and presence of women in a rich and too-often neglected literature.

Arabic

ARAB 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary Arabic
Prerequisite for ARAB 102: ARAB 101 or equivalent.
Introduction to the sound and writing systems of Arabic, including basic sentence structure and morphological patterns. A combination of the direct, audio-lingual, proficiency-based, and translation methods is used. The format consists of classroom discussions of a certain grammatical point followed by intensive practice.

ARAB 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Intermediate Arabic
Prerequisite for ARAB 201: ARAB 102, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Prerequisite for ARAB 202: ARAB 201, or equivalent, or instructor permission.Continues training in modern standard Arabic, with emphasis on speaking, comprehension, writing, and reading. The method of teaching primarily follows the proficiency-based approach to language learning.

ARAB 225 - (3) (Y)
Conversational Arabic
Prerequisite: ARAB 202 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Introduces students to spoken Arabic, with oral production highly emphasized.

ARAB 226 - (3) (IR)
Conversational Arabic
Prerequisite: ARAB 225 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Practice of conversation based on everyday situations. Enables communication with native speakers.

ARAB 227 - (3) (Y)
Culture and Society of the Contemporary Arab Middle East (in English)
Introduces the cultural traits and patterns of contemporary Arab society based on scholarly research, recent field work, and personal experiences and observations in the Arab world. No knowledge of Arabic is required.

ARAB 301/501, 302/502 - (3) (Y)
Readings in Literary Arabic
Prerequisite: ARAB 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Emphasizes reading of modern texts for oral-aural practice, as well as writing.

ARAB 323/523 - (3) (Y)
Arabic Conversation and Composition (in Arabic)
Prerequisite: ARAB 302 or instructor permission.
Emphasizes development of writing and speaking skills, with special attention to grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and the organization and style of different genres.

ARAB 324/524 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition (in Arabic)
Prerequisite: ARAB 323 or equivalent or instructor permission.
Develops oral and written proficiency to an advanced level of fluency, with emphasis on speaking and writing.

ARAB 333/533 - (3) (Y)
Arabic of the Quran and Hadith I
Prerequisite: ARAB 202 or higher or permission of instructor.
Studies the language of the Quran and its exegesis, and the Hadith

ARAB 334/534 - (3) (Y)
Arabic of the Quran and Hadith II
Prerequisite: ARAB 235 or permission of instructor.
Studies the language of the Quran, its exegesis, and the Hadith.

ARAB 493, 494 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Arabic

ARAB 528 - (3) (SI)
The History of the Arabic Language (in English)
Prerequisite: At least one year of Arabic or Hebrew, and/or historical linguistics.
Traces history of Arabic and its development up to present day. Studies the relation of Arabic to other languages that come in contact with it either through genetic relationship, such as Hebrew and Aramaic; or through conquest, such as Persian, Coptic, Berber, and others. Examines the external and internal factors of linguistic change.

ARAB 583 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Arabic Prose
Prerequisite: ARAB 302/502, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Emphasis on reading modern Arabic prose, and writing descriptive and narrative short essays.

ARAB 584 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Arabic Prose
Prerequisite: ARAB 583, or instructor permission.
Exposure to selected reading material in modern Arabic prose, and writing of short essays, summaries, and descriptive pieces in Arabic.

ARAB 585 - (3) (Y)
Media Arabic
Prerequisite: ARAB 583 and 584 or ARAB 301/501 and 302/502 or instructor permission.
Examination of electronic (television and radio) and print (newspapers, magazines, periodic publications) Arabic.

ARAB 586 - (3) (Y)
Nineteenth Century Arabic Prose
Prerequisite: ARAB 583 and 584 or instructor permission.
Examination of Arabic writing in the 19th century, a period of renaissance in the Arabic language.

ARTR 329/529 - (3) (Y)
Modern Arabic Literature in Translation
Introduction to the development and themes of modern Arabic literature (poetry, short stories, novels and plays). Taught in English.

ARTR 339 - (3) (Y)
Love, Alienation, and Politics in Contemporary Arabic Novel
Introduction to the Arabic Novel with emphasis on a medium for expounding political issues of the Arab World.

Chinese

CHIN 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary Chinese
Prerequisite for CHIN 102: CHIN 101.
Students are introduced to the basic grammar and vocabulary generally recognized as useful in everyday communication. Using integrated pedagogical and authentic materials, the course adopts a multi-faceted approach to help students gain training in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in standard Mandarin Chinese. The goal is the ability to communicate in everyday situations.

CHIN 106 - (4) (Y)
Accelerated Elementary Chinese
This course is accelerated elementary Chinese will focus on listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This is a one-semester course, but will cover study materials normally covered in two semesters. To pass this course students must meet the following standards: cumulative knowledge of 500 Chinese characters; ability to carry on a 10-minute conversation on various topics; ability to comprehend various complex sentence patterns; ability to write a paragraph (80-100 Chinese characters) with dictionary help.

CHIN 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Intermediate Chinese
Prerequisite: CHIN 102, or equivalent.
An intermediate Chinese language class which focuses on training in the four basic language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Aspects of Chinese culture and society are incorporated into the course.

CHIN 206 - (4) (Y)
Accelerated Intermediate Chinese
Prerequisite: Grade of B- or above in CHIN 106, or equivalent.
A one semester course covering study materials normally covered in two semesters with the focus on speaking, reading, and writing. Students must meet the following criteria to pass this course: possess cumulative knowledge of 1000 Chinese characters; ability to give a fluent five-minute oral presentation on a topic in daily life; to read short essays of 600 to 800 characters on non-academic topics; and to write non-academic essays of 300 to 400 characters with only occasional dictionary help.

CHIN 301/501, 302/502 - (3) (Y)
Readings in Modern Chinese Literature
Prerequisite: CHIN 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Study of modern Chinese at the advanced level: reading and discussion in Chinese of various aspects of Chinese culture, society, and literature, using radio broadcasts and selections from newspapers, recent essays, short stories, etc.

CHIN 305 - (3) (Y)
Accelerated Advanced Chinese Readings I
Prerequisite: CHIN 206 or permission of instructor.
Part of the series of courses designed for students who already speak Chinese, but cannot read or write the Chinese language, CHIN 305 focuses on reading and writing skills at the advanced level, with substantial cultural content.

CHIN 306 - (3) (Y)
Accelerated Advanced Chinese Readings II
Prerequisite: CHIN 305 or permission of instructor.
Paralleling CHIN 302, CHIN 306 is a continuation of the series of courses designed for speakers of Chinese who cannot read or write. This course is the continuation of CHIN 305. The goal of this course is continued training of reading and writing skills at the advanced level, while continuing the enhancement of oral proficiency and providing substantial cultural content. By the end of the course the students should be able to describe events and express their own views verbally in various topics in a clear and organized fashion; be able to read non-academic authentic materials with dictionary help; and be able to write short essays of approximately 250 words in length on assigned topics. Student will be ready for the transition to reading media materials.

CHIN 323/523 - (3) (Y)
Chinese Conversation and Composition (in Chinese)
Prerequisite: CHIN 302 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Focuses on developing writing and speaking skills at a higher level than CHIN 302.

CHIN 324/524 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Chinese Conversation and Composition (in Chinese)
Prerequisite: CHIN 323/523 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Further develops writing and speaking skills to an advanced level.

CHIN 493, 494 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Chinese

CHIN 528 - (3) (Y)
History of the Chinese Language (in Chinese)
Prerequisite: CHIN 323/523 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Examination of the evolution of the spoken and written language, diachronically and synchronically, from syntactic, phonological, lexical, and graphic perspectives.

CHIN 581, 582 - (3) (Y)
Media Chinese
Prerequisite: CHIN 302/502 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Introduces the electronic and print media in Chinese with special emphasis on current events as reported in the Chinese speaking world, to further develop oral and written proficiency.

CHIN 583, 584 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Classical Chinese
Prerequisite for CHIN 584: CHIN 583 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Introduction to the grammar and structure of classical Chinese.

CHIN 585, 586 - (3) (SI)
Classical Chinese Literature
Prerequisite: CHIN 583-584 or equivalent.
Advanced readings in classical Chinese.

CHTR 280 - (1-3) (SI)
Chinese Calligraphy
Introduction to the history, masters, styles and techniques of Chinese brush calligraphy. Enhances familiarity with use of brush and ink; active and passive differentiation of styles and techniques; and appreciation of Chinese Calligraphy as an art form.

CHTR 301 - (3) (Y)
Legendary Women in Early China
Examines the biographies of female heroines and villains as found in the early Chinese text Tradition of Exemplary Women (ca. 18 B.C.). Students gain a familiarity with 1) the history of women in early China, 2) the evolving codes of behavior that shaped women's' culture for two millennia, and 3) the way in which the Chinese understand gender. Enhances an understanding of the function of role models in both ancient China and their own lives. Fulfills the non-Western perspectives requirement.

CHTR 321, 322 - (3) (Y)
Chinese Literature in Translation
Study of the literary heritage of China. Examines the major genres through selected readings of representative authors. Taught in English. Fulfills the non-Western perspectives requirement.

Hebrew

HEBR 101, 102 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Modern Hebrew
Prerequisite for HEBR 102: HEBR 101.
An introduction to the pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and writing system of modern Israeli Hebrew. By the end of this sequence students have mastered the core grammatical principles of Hebrew, along with a basic vocabulary of 1000 words, and they are able to read and understand simple texts and carry out simple conversation. Includes material on Israeli culture, history, and politics.

HEBR 201, 202 - (4) (S)
Intermediate Modern Hebrew
Prerequisite: HEBR 102 with grade of C or above or instructor permission.
Continuation of the study of the fundamentals of grammar, with special attention to verb conjugation, noun declension, and syntactic structure, and their occurrence in texts which deal with modern Israeli culture and values. These texts, which include excerpts from newspapers and fiction, introduce 600 new words and expose the learner to political and other issues of modern Israel.

HEBR 301, 302 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Modern Hebrew
Prerequisite: HEBR 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
This course focuses on the conjugation of weak, or hollow verbs, and the passive of all conjugations. It also continues the study of subordinate clauses with special attention to adverbial clauses and their use. Texts for the course, which form the basis for class discussion in Hebrew and exercises in Hebrew composition, are drawn from various genres.

Hindi

HIND 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary Hindi-Urdu
Prerequisite for HIND 102: HIND 101.
Introductory training in speaking, understanding, reading, and writing Hindi.

HIND 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Intermediate Hindi
Prerequisite for HIND 201: HIND 102, or equivalent .
Prerequisite for HIND 202: HIND 201, or equivalent.
Introduction to various types of written and spoken Hindi; vocabulary building, idioms and problems of syntax; and conversation in Hindi.

HIND 301/501, 302/502 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Hindi
Prerequisite: HIND 202, or equivalent or instructor permission.
Readings are drawn from areas of particular interest to the students involved, and include readings from various disciplines.

HIND 323, 324 - (3) (IR)
Readings in Hindi
Prerequisite: HIND 302/502 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Advanced readings in modern standard Hindi and possibly in medieval Hindi, depending on the interests of the students.

HIND 493, 494 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Hindi

Japanese

JAPN 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
First-Year Japanese
Prerequisite for JAPN 102: JAPN 101, or equivalent.
Introduces the basic speech patterns and grammatical units, including casual, daily spoken style, and the polite speech used in formal occasions. Emphasizes speaking, listening, and reading. Writing hiragana, katakana, and 200 kanji are also introduced.

JAPN 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Second-Year Japanese
Prerequisite: JAPN 102 or equivalent.
Continuation of Elementary Japanese introducing more complex sentence patterns, idioms, and vocabulary to prepare students for an intermediate-level communication. Reinforces spoken Japanese skills with writing and reading exercises, and 250 kanji are introduced.

JAPN 301/501, 302/502 - (3) (Y)
Third-Year Japanese I
Prerequisite: JAPN 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Emphasizes comprehension and active reproduction of modern Japanese beyond the basic patterns of speech and writing. Various topics on current Japanese culture and society are introduced.

JAPN 481 - (3) (Y)
Modern Literary Texts
Prerequisite: JAPN 302 or equivalent.
Reading and discussion in Japanese. Develops comprehension and verbal expression skills at the Fourth-Year level. Reading selections include works by modern and contemporary novelists, short story writers and poets.

JAPN 482 - (3) (Y)
Mysteries, Detective Fiction and Business Novels
Prerequisite: JAPN 302 or equivalent.
Reading and discussion in Japanese. Develops comprehension and verbal expression skills at the Fourth-Year level. Reading selections include some on Japan's bestselling and award-winning writers, Seicho Matsumoto, Miyuki Miyabe, and Ikke Shimizu.

JAPN 483 - (3) (IR)
Media Japanese
Prerequisite: JAPN 302 or equivalent.
Reading and discussion in Japanese. Develops comprehension and verbal expression skills at the Fourth-Year level. Reading selections include articles from Aera, Japan's counterpart of Newsweek; manga, artistic comic magazines; and film criticism.

JAPN 484 - (3) (Y)
Reading Classical Japanese
Prerequisite: JAPN 302 or equivalent.
An introduction to classical Japanese; selections from classical narratives and poetry.

JAPN 493, 494 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Japanese

JAPN 583, 584 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Reading and Conversation in Japanese II
Prerequisite: JAPN 302/502 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Advanced reading and free conversation course designed to expose students to selected modern Japanese literary works, newspapers, and television dramas, including articles on Japanese society, culture, and politics.

JAPN 592 - (3) (Y)
Conflicting Postwar Images in Modern Japan
Prerequisite: JAPN 583, 584 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
This course challenges the stereotypic image of Japan and looks at postwar Japan as it is embroiled in conflict, oppression, and doubt. Emphasizes close reading of texts along with gaining an understanding of how the Japanese confront the unsettling issues of dissent and conflict.

JAPN 593, 594 - (3) (Y)
Language Seminar I and II
Prerequisite: JAPN 583, 584 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
These seminars are the highest level of instruction in modern Japanese language. Literary texts, including poetry and critical essays, are read, interpreted and discussed in Japanese.

Note  
JPTR courses are taught in English.

JPTR 321 - (3) (Y)
The Tale of Genji, The World's First Psychological Novel: Court Romance
Introduction to the elegant world of classical Japanese literary tradition represented by one of the world's masterpieces, The Tale of Genji (1010 A.D.) written by Lady Murasaki. Examines the courtship ritual, the marriage institution, the gendering of sexuality and desire, and the aesthetics of mono no aware.

JPTR 322/522 - (3) (Y)
The Modern Japanese Canon
Introduction to the modern Japanese canon (1890's to the present). Writers studied include Natsume Sôseki, the first modern writer to delve into the human psyche; Mori Ôgai, the surgeon-turned writer; Rynôsuke Akutagawa, the consummate writer of short stories; Shiga Naoya, the "god" of "I-Novel" Japanese fiction; Yukio Mishima, whose seppuku suicide caused a sensation world-wide; Endô Shôsaku, the Christian writer; two Nobel laureates, Yasunari Kawabata, the pure aesthetician, and Kenzaburo Ôe, the political gadfly.

JPTR 331 - (3) (Y)
A Cultural Understanding of U.S.-Japan Relations
Prerequisite: At least one course in Japan-related courses, or instructor permission.
Studies the roles of culture and communication that often contribute to the perpetuation of the myths and misperceptions of Japan and the U.S. about each other; explores what the Japanese have to say about themselves and Americans, and vice versa, and implications of cultural differences in interpersonal relations, basic behavioral patterns, and motivations.

JPTR 381/581 - (3) (Y)
Classical Japanese Women Writers and Autobiography
An introduction to the celebrated female literary tradition of the Heian court (797-1190) that produced the flowering of vernacular literature, nikki bungaku (a mixture of prose and poetry called poetic diary).

JPTR 382/582 - (3) (Y)
Modern Japanese Women Writers
Introduction to the resurgence of the female literary tradition from 1904 to the present. Focuses on Japanese women writers as cultural critics, how each individual female artist challenges and is shaped by Japanese culture and society.

Persian

PERS 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary Persian
Prerequisite for PERS 102: PERS 101, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Introductory language sequence focusing on reading, writing, comprehending, and speaking modern Persian through audio- lingual methods. Persian grammar is introduced through sentence patterns in the form of dialogues and monologues.

PERS 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Intermediate Persian
Prerequisite: PERS 102, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Each course focuses on the development of reading, writing, and speaking skills. Special attention is paid to reading comprehension using selections from classical and modern Persian prose and poetry, preparing students for advanced studies in Indo-Persian language and literature.

PERS 301/501 - (3) (IR)
Readings in Modern Persian Poetry
Prerequisite: PERS 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Study of works by major and some minor poets of the twentieth century. The form and content of 'New Poetry' is discussed as distinguishing features of twentieth-century Persian poetry in contrast with those of classical Persian poetry. Emphasizes the themes of modern poetry as reflections of Iranian society.

PERS 323 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Classical Persian Literature
Prerequisite: PERS 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
A comprehensive, historical introduction to Persian poetry and prose from the 10th to the 18th centuries. Emphasizing the history and development of Persian poetry and prose, this advanced-level language course introduces various formal elements of Persian literary tradition. It analyzes literary texts and explores the linguistic structure, fine grammatical points, and syntactic intricacies of classical Persian.

PERS 324 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to ModernPersian Literature
Prerequisite: PERS 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
This course addresses the development of modern(ist) trends in Persian literature, emphasizing historical and socio-political factors. Exemplar modern poems, stories, and essays are read in the original, then explained and critically evaluated. Defines and discusses significant ideas, ideologies, movements, trends, milieus, social backgrounds, etc., out of which modern Persian literature emerged.

PERS 302/502 - (3) (IR)
Readings in Modern Persian Prose Fiction
Prerequisite: PERS 202, or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Selected readings from the works of major writers of the century. Discusses the development of modern Persian fiction as it reflects a changing society. Improves reading ability in Persian and familiarizes students with Iran, its people, and its culture.

PERS 493, 494 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Persian

PETR 321/521 - (3) (IR)
Persian Literature in Translation
Reading from the works of major figures in classical Persian literature, especially Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Khayyam, Attar, Mowlavi, Sa'adi, and Hafez, as well as the most important minor writers of each period. Emphasizes the role of the Ma'shuq (the beloved), Mamduh (the praised one), and Ma'bud (the worshiped one) in classical verse, as well as the use of allegory and similar devices in both prose and verse. Taught in English.

PETR 322/522 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century Persian Literature in Translation
Introduces modern Persian literature in the context of Iranian society and civilization. Lectures and discussions follow the development of modern Persian poetry and prose, and trace the influence of Western and other literature, as well as Iranian literary and cultural heritage, on the works of contemporary Iranian writers. Facilitates understanding of contemporary Iran, especially its people, both individually and collectively, with their particular problems and aspirations in the twentieth-century world. Taught in English.

Sanskrit

SANS 101/501 - (3) (Y)
Elementary Sanskrit I
Prerequisite: SANS 101 - none, SANS 501 - graduate standing.
Studies Sanskrit sounds, the Devanagari script, and basic grammar.

SANS 102/502 - (3) (Y)
Elementary Sanskrit II
Prerequisite: For SANS 102 - SANS101, for SANS502 - SANS 501 and graduate standing.
A continuation of SANS101/501.

The following six courses are all intermediate level Sanskrit courses. They are offered two-by-two in a three year rotation. The courses offered in the academic year 2001-2002 are SANS 201A/503 and SANS 202A/504.

SANS 201A/503 - (3) (IR)
Selections from the Mahabharata
Prerequisite: For SANS 201A -SANS 102; for SANS 503 - SANS 502 and graduate standing.
This second-year course focuses on developing reading fluency in Sanskrit. Selections are chosen to reinforce students' knowledge of grammar from SANS 102/502, to expand vocabulary and to introduce the Mahabharata, one of ancient India's major epics.

SANS 202A/504 - (3) (IR)
The Bhagavadgita
Prerequisite: For SANS 202A - SANS 102; for SANS 504 - SANS 502 and graduate standing.
This second-year course focuses on developing reading fluency in Sanskrit. Selections are chosen to reinforce students' knowledge of grammar from SANS 102/502, to expand vocabulary and to introduce the Bhagavadgita, a major religious text of ancient India.

SANS 201B/505 - (3) (IR)
Selections from the Ramayana  of Valmiki
Prerequisite: For SANS 201B -SANS 102; for SANS 505 - SANS 502 and graduate standing.
A second-year course focusing on developing reading fluency in Sanskrit. Selections are chosen to reinforce student's knowledge of grammar from SANS 102/502, to expand vocabulary, and to introduce the Ramayana of Valmiki, one of two major epics of ancient India, and the 'first poem' in Sanskrit.

SANS 202B/506 - (3) (Y)
Selections from the Upanisads
Prerequisite: For SANS 202B - SANS 102; for SANS 506 - SANS 502 and graduate standing.
A second-year course focusing on developing reading fluency in Sanskrit. Selections are chosen to reinforce student's knowledge of grammar from SANS 102/502, to expand vocabulary, and to introduce the Upanisads, a major spiritual text of ancient India.

SANS 201C/507 - (3) (IR)
Selections from the Kathasaritsagara of Somadeva
Prerequisite: For SANS 201C - SANS 102; for SANS 507 - SANS 502 and graduate standing.
A second-year course focusing on developing reading fluency in Sanskrit. Selections are chosen to reinforce student's knowledge of grammar from SANS 502, to expand vocabulary, and to introduce the Kathasaritsagara of Somadeva, the most important collection of story literature in Sanskrit.

SANS 202C/508 - (3) (IR)
Selections from the Puranas
Prerequisite: For SANS 202C - SANS 102; for SANS 508 - SANS 502 and graduate standing.
A second-year course focusing on developing reading fluency in Sanskrit. Selections are chosen to reinforce student's knowledge of grammar from SANS 502, to expand vocabulary, and to introduce the huge corpus of Puranic texts.

SAST 110 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to South Asia
Introduces South Asian economy and environment, caste and society, gender issues, history and political science, secularism-law-religion, philosophy, languages and literatures, theater-music-dance, and visual arts. Emphasizes the colonial and post colonial periods.

SATR 200 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to South Asian Literature
Surveys classical to contemporary South Asian languages (e.g., Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindi, Urdu) and literature translated into, or written in, English.

SATR 300 - (3) (IR)
South Asian Literature Across Borders
Prerequisite: Fulfillment of First Writing Requirement.
An upper-level undergraduate seminar on South Asian literature translated into or written in English that focuses on a particular historical period or thematic concern crucial to understanding South Asian literature as a whole, and specifically the issues associated with writing South Asian literature in English.

SATR 301 - (3) (Y)
Gender Issues in South Asian Literature
Prerequisite: Fulfillment of First Writing Requirement.
An upper-level undergraduate seminar on South Asian literature translated into or written in English that focuses on gender issues crucial for understanding South Asian literature as a whole.

Urdu

URDU 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Intermediate Urdu
Prerequisite for URDU 201: HIND 102 or equivalent; for URDU 202: URDU 201 or equivalent.
Introduces various types of written and spoken Urdu; vocabulary building, idioms and problems of syntax; and conversation.

URDU 493, 494 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in Urdu

 

List of possible courses to be taken for credit in the Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures degree programs. See Course Offering Directory for current course offerings. Note: Prior approval from an advisor should be received before a course may count towards a degree program.

Language House Conversation

ARAB 301-302H - (1) (Y)
Language House Conversation

Prerequisite: by instructor permission only For students residing in the Arabic group in the Monroe Lane Language House.

CHIN 301-302H - (1) (Y)
Language House Conversation

Prerequisite: by instructor permission only For students residing in the Chinese group in the Monroe Lane Language House.

HIND 301-302H - (1) (Y)
Language House Conversation

Prerequisite: by instructor permission only For students residing in the Hindu group in the Monroe Lane Language House.

PERS 301-302H - (1) (Y)
Language House Conversation

Prerequisite: by instructor permission only For students residing in the Persian group in the Monroe Lane Language House.

JAPN 301-302H - (1) (Y)
Language House Conversation

Prerequisite: by instructor permission only For students residing in the Japanese group in the Monroe Lane Language House.

East Asia

EAST 131 - (2) (SS)
Conversational Chinese

Prerequisite: admission to China Gateway Program. Vocabulary and grammar for simple interactions (shopping, travel, restaurants, greeting friends, etc.) for participants in a UVa summer study program in Shanghai.

EAST 132 - (4) (SS)
Chinese Culture and Society

Prerequisite: admission to China Gateway Program. Introduction to the culture, history and social structure of China, as part of an eight-week summer study program in Shanghai and Tibet.

ANTH 225 - (3) (Y) Nationalism, Racism, Culture, Multiculturalism

ANTH 225 - (3) (Y) Nationalism, Racism, Culture, Multiculturalism

ANTH 232 - (3) (Y) Symbol and Ritual

ANTH 234 - (3) (IR) Anthropology of Birth and Death

ANTH 266 - (3) (Y) Peoples of Polynesia

ANTH 325 - (3) (Y) Anthropological Perspectives on the Third World

ANTH 332 - (3) (Y) Shamanism, Healing, and Ritual

ANTH 363 - (3) (E) Social Structure of China

ANTH 364 - (3) (E) Ethnology of Southeast Asia

ANTH 365 - (3) (IR) Asian American Ethnicity

ANTH 366 - (3) (Y) China: Empire and Nationalities

ANTH 523 - (3) (IR) Political Systems

ANTH 524 - (3) (IR) Religious Organizations

ANTH 557 - (3) (IR) Topics In Ethnology of East Asia

ANTH 558 - (3) (IR) Topics in Ethnology of Southeast Asia

ARTH 103 - (3) (IR) History of Art III

ARTH 261 - (3) (IR) Buddhist Art From India to Japan

ARTH 262 - (3) (IR) East Asian Art

ARTH 362 - (3) (IR) Japanese Art

ARTH 567 - (3) (IR) Text and Image in Chinese Buddhist Art

ECON 355 - (3) (Y) Economics of China

ENTC 355 - (3) (Y) Asian American Fiction

HIEA 100 - (3) (IR) Introductory Seminar in East Asian History

HIEA 201 - (3) (IR) Chinese Culture and Institutions

HIEA 203 - (3) (Y) Modern China: The Road to Revolution

HIEA 205 - (3) (IR) Korean Culture and Institutions

HIEA 206 - (3) (IR) Korean Culture and Institutions: 14th-20th Centuries

HIEA 207 - (3) (IR) Japan, From Susanno to Sony

HIEA 311 - (3) (Y) The Traditional Chinese Order, Antiquity-Sixth Century A.D.

HIEA 312 - (3) (IR) The Traditional Chinese Order, Seventh Century-Seventeenth Century

HIEA 314 - (3) (IR) Political and Social Thought in Modern China

HIEA 315 - (3) (Y) East Asian-American Relations in the 20th Century

HIEA 321 - (3) (IR) Japan's Economic Miracle

HIEA 322 - (3) (IR) Japan's Political History

HIEA 331 - (3) (Y) Peasants, Students, and Women: Social Movements in Twentieth-Century China

HIEA 401 - (4) (Y) Seminar in East Asian History

HIEA 402 - (4) (IR) Colloquium in East Asia

HIEA 403 - (4) (IR) Topics In East Asian History

HIEA 404 - (1-3) (IR) Independent Study in East Asia

HIEA 515 - (3) (IR) Mao and the Chinese Revolution

MUSI 307 - (3) (Y) Worlds of Music

PLCP 351 - (3) (Y) Chinese Politics

PLCP 551 - (3) (Y) Politics of China

PLCP 553 - (3) (Y) Politics of Japan

PLCP 563 - (3) (E) Politics of Vietnam

PLIR 360 - (3) (Y) Political Economy of Asia

PLIR 571 - (3) (Y) China in World Affairs

PLIR 572 - (3) (Y) Japan in World Affairs

RELG 104 - (3) (S) Introductions to Eastern Religious Traditions

RELG 375 - (3) (Y) Taoism and Confucianism

RELG 503 - (3) (SI) Readings in Chinese Religion

RELB 210 - (3) (Y) Buddhism

RELB 212 - (3) (Y) Buddhist Literature

RELB 213 - (3) (O) Taoism and Confucianism

RELB 245 - (3) (Y) Zen

RELB 254 - (3) (IR) Tibetan Buddhist Culture

RELB 300 - (3) (Y) Buddhist Mysticism and Modernity

RELB 315 (3) (Y) Seminar in Buddhist Studies

RELB 316 - (3) (Y) The Religions of Japan

RELB 317 - (3) (Y) Buddhist Meditation

RELB 319 (3) (Y) Buddhist Nirvana

RELB 500,501 - (4) (E) Literary and Spoken Tibetan I, II

RELB 502 - (3) (O) Tibetan Perspectives on Tantra

RELB 525 - (3) (E) Seminar in Japanese Buddhism

RELB 527 - (3) (O) Seminar in Chinese Buddhism

RELB 526 - (3) (O) Seminar in Tibetan Buddhism II

RELB 535,536 - (4) (E) Literary and Spoken Tibetan III, IV

RELB 539 - (3) (IR) Tibetan Buddhist Tantra-Dzokchen

RELB 547,548 - (4) (O) Literary and Spoken Tibetan V, VI

RELB 549 - (3) (Y) Religious History of Tibet

RELB 555 - (3) (E) Buddhist Philosophy

RELB 591 - (3) (E) Seminar in Chinese Buddhism

Middle East

ANTH 225 - (3) (Y) Nationalism, Racism, Culture, Multiculturalism

ANTH 232 - (3) (Y) Symbol and Ritual

ANTH 234 - (3) (IR) Anthropology of Birth and Death

ANTH 247 - (3) (Y) Reflections of Exile: Jewish Languages and Communities

ANTH 325 - (3) (Y) Anthropological Perspectives on the Third World

ANTH 332 - (3) (Y) Shamanism, Healing, and Ritual

ANTH 347 - (3) (Y) Language and Culture in the Middle East

ANTH 583 - (3) (SI) Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

ANTH 555 - (3) (IR) Topics in Ethnology of the Middle East

ARTH 211 - (3) (IR) Art of the Ancient Near East and Prehistoric Europe

ARTH 221 - (3) (IR) Early Christian and Byzantine Art

ARTH 263 - (3) (IR) Arts of the Islamic World

ARTH 522 - (3) (IR) Byzantine Art

ECON 451 - (3) (Y) Economic Development

HIEU 317 - (3) (IR) Eastern Christianity HIME 100 - (3) (IR) Introductory Seminar in Middle East History

HIME 201 - (4) (Y) History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 570-ca. 1500

HIME 202 - (4) (Y) History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 1500-Present

HIME 319 - (3) (IR) Christianity and Islam

HIME 401 - (4) (Y) Seminar in Middle East and North Africa History

HIME 402 - (4) (Y) Colloquium in Middle East History

HIME 403 - (4) (Y) Topics in Middle Eastern History

HIME 404 - (1-3) (Y) Independent Study in Middle Eastern History

HIME 502 - (3) (IR) Revolution, Islam, and Gender in the Middle East

HIME 503 - (3) (Y) Multiculturalism in the Ottoman Empire

PLCP 341 (3) (Y) Politics of the Middle East and North Africa

PLCP 541 - (3) (Y) Islam and Democracy in the Middle East

PLIR 365 - (3) (Y) International Relations in the Middle East

RELA 390 - (3) (O) Islam in Africa

RELG 104 - (3) (S) Introduction to Eastern Religious Traditions

RELG 517 - (3) (Y) Seminar in History of Religions

RELI 207 - (3) (Y) Classical Islam

RELI 208 - (3) (Y) Islam in the Modern Age

RELI 311 - (3) (E) Muhammad and the Qur'an

RELI 312 - (3) (O) Sufism

RELI 367 - (3) (E) Religion and Politics in Islam

RELI 390 - (3) (O) Islam in Africa

RELI 540 - (3) (Y) Seminar in Islamic Theology

RELI 541 - (3) (IR) Islamic Theology: The Shi'ite Creed

RELI 542 - (3) (IR) War and Peace in Islam: A Comparative Ethics Approach

RELJ 203 - (3) (Y) The Judaic Tradition

RELJ 309 - (3) (E) Israelite Prophecy

RELJ 322 - (3) (Y) Judaism and Zionism

RELJ 330 - (3) (Y) The Jewish Mystical Tradition

RELJ 331 - (3) (Y) Jewish Law

RELJ 335 - (3) (Y) Jewish Social Ethics

RELJ 336 - (3) (Y) Judaism and Christianity

RELJ 337 - (3) (Y) Modern Movements in Judaism

RELJ 523 - (3) (O) Modern Jewish Thought: From Phenomenology to Scripture

SWAG 312 - (3) (Y) Women and Islam

South Asia

ANTH 109 - (3) (Y) Colloquia for First-Year Students

ANTH 234 - (3) (IR) Anthropology of Birth and Death

ANTH 243 - (3) (IR) Languages of the World

ANTH 260 - (3) (Y) Introduction to Civilization of India

ANTH 325 - (3) (E) Anthropological Perspectives on the Third World

ANTH 329 - (3) (Y) Marriage, Fertility, and Mortality

ANTH 362 - (3) (IR) Cinema in India

ANTH 364 - (3) (E) Ethnology of Southeast Asia

ANTH 522 - (3) (E) Economic Anthropology

ANTH 529 - (3) (Y) Selected Topics in Social Anthropology

ANTH 539 - (3) (SI) Selected Topics in Symbolic Anthropology

ANTH 556 - (3) (IR) Topics in Ethnology of South Asia

ANTH 558 - (3) (IR) Topics in Ethnology of Southeast Asia

ANTH 575 - (3) (Y) Buddhism, Politics and Power Architectural History

ARH 381-581 - (3) (Y) East-West Architecture

ARH 585 - (3) (O) World Buddhist Architecture

ARTH 261 - (3) (IR) Buddhist Art From India to Japan

ARTH 264 - (3) (O) The Arts of India

ARTH 491 - (3) (S) Seminar in Asian Art

HISA 100 - (3) (IR) Introductory Seminar in South Asia

HISA 201 - (3) (IR) History and Civilization of Classical India

HISA 202 - (3) (IR) History and Civilization of Medieval India

HISA 203 - (3) (IR) History of Modern India

HISA 301 - (3) (IR) History of Muslim India

HISA 302 - (3) (IR) India From Akbar to Victoria

HISA 303 - (3) (IR) Twentieth Century India

HISA 311 - (3) (IR) Social and Political Movements in Twentieth Century India

HISA 312 - (3) (IR) History of Women in South Asia

HISA 401 - (4) (IR) Seminar in South Asia

HISA 402 - (4) (Y) Colloquium in South Asia

HISA 403 - (4) (Y) Topics in South Asian History

HISA 404 - (1-3) (Y) Independent Study in South Asia

HISA 502 - (3) (IR) Historiography of Early Modern South Asia

HISA 510 - (3) (E) Economic History of India

HIST 100 - (3) (Y) Introductory Seminar in History Music

MUSI 226 - (3) (IR) Music as Culture: India

MUSI 307 - (3) (IR) Worlds of Music

PLCP 101 - (3) (Y) Introduction to Comparative Politics

PLCP 212 - (3) (Y) The Politics of Developing Areas

PLCP 313 - (3) (Y) Political Economy of Development

PLCP 363 - (3) (Y) Politics in India and Pakistan

PLCP 401 - (3) (IR) Theories of Comparative Politics

PLCP 424 - (3) (S) Seminar: Topics in Comparative Politics

PLCP 525 - (3) (Y) Politics of Economic Reform

PLCP 567 - (3) (IR) Comparative Science and Technology Policy

PLIR 360 - (3) (Y) Political Economy of Asia

PLIR 375 - (3) (IR) South Asia in World Affairs

PLIR 595 - (3) (S) Selected Problems in International Relations

RELB 210 - (3) (Y) Buddhism

RELB 212 - (3) (Y) Buddhist Literature

RELB 245 - (3) (Y) Zen

RELB 315 - (3) (Y) Seminar in Buddhist Studies

RELB 317 - (3) (Y) Buddhist Meditation

RELB 500, 501 - (4) (E) Literary and Spoken Tibetan I & II

RELB 502 - (3) (O) Tibetan Perspectives on Tantra

RELB 526 - (3) (E) Seminar in Tibetan Buddhism II

RELB 535, 536 - (4) (E) Literary and Spoken Tibetan III & IV

RELB 543, 544 - (3) (SI) Sanskrit Religious Texts

RELB 546 - (3) (O) Seminar in Mahayana Buddhism

RELB 547, 548 - (4) (O) Literary and Spoken Tibetan V & VI

RELB 555 - (3) (E) Buddhist Philosophy

RELB 560 - (3) (SI) Elementary Pali

RELB 561 - (1-3) (IR) Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

RELB 566 - (3) (SI) Approaches to Buddhist Studies

RELB 599 - (3) (SS) South Asian and Inner Asian Buddhist Bibliography

RELG 104 - (3) (S) Introduction to Eastern Religious Traditions

RELG 575 - (3) (SI) Myth and Ritual

RELH 209 - (3) (Y) Hinduism

RELH 211 - (3) (E) Popular Hinduism

RELH 314 - (3) (O) The Jain Tradition

RELH 371 - (3) (O) Hindu Traditions of Devotion

RELH 374 - (3) (E) Hinduism Through Its Narrative Literatures

RELH 553 - (3) (E) Hindu Philosophical Systems

RELH 554 - (3) (O) Hindu Ethics

RELH 589 - (3) (IR) Vedic Hinduism

RELI 207 - (3) (Y) Classical Islam

RELI 208 - (3) (Y) Islam in the Modern Age

RELI 312 - (3) (O) Sufism

SOC 338 - (3) (O) India and South Asia

Department of Astronomy
P.O. Box 3818
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818
Phone: (434) 924-7494
Fax: (434) 924-3104

Overview  Although the study of astronomy has ancient roots, it is now one of the most rapidly developing and exciting subjects in modern science. Astronomy studies the universe and its contents: planets, stars, black holes, galaxies, and quasars. Each of these is a fascinating topic in its own right; but perhaps the greatest achievement of modern astronomy has been to gather them all into a rich and coherent picture, one which depicts the origin and evolution of all things, from the Big Bang to the development of living organisms. The excitement and accessibility of astronomy is clear from the frequent press coverage of major new revelations, including the discovery of planets orbiting other stars, the comet crash onto Jupiter, very young galaxies in the distant universe, and primeval ripples in the cosmic background radiation. Astronomy draws from, and contributes to, physics, as well as geology, atmospheric and environmental science, biology, and even philosophy.

The astronomy department offers students the opportunity to explore these frontier discoveries, whether or not they are science majors. For non-science majors, courses are offered on both general astronomy and more specialized topics of current interest (e.g. cosmology). For students with more serious interests in the field, the department provides intensive coverage of the subject, fostering the development of fundamental analytical and quantitative skills that are useful in many different post-graduate careers. A total of 25 astronomy courses are open to undergraduates, and the department sponsors two majors programs. The astronomy major offers a concentration on science in the context of a liberal arts degree for students who do not intend to pursue graduate training in physical science. The astronomy-physics major provides more rigorous preparation for graduate work in astronomy, physics, computer science, or related fields.

Faculty  The University has the largest astronomy department in the Southeastern United States. Its fourteen faculty members are committed to strong undergraduate teaching as well as research. As one of the top fifteen research departments in the country, there is considerable faculty expertise spanning a wide range of subjects, from the evolution of stars, to simulations of massive black holes with supercomputers, to observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and other satellites, to studies of the evolution of the universe. Active faculty research programs keep classroom teaching up-to-date, and are particularly important in tutorial and senior thesis projects. Faculty research is well supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Students  There are typically 15 to 25 students majoring in astronomy or astronomy-physics, which allows students to get to know each other well and promotes team work. Close contact with the faculty is an integral part of the learning environment. Many students work one-on-one with faculty in tutorials or senior theses, and this work can be published in major research journals. Students also work at the University's observatory or in summer research projects supported by grants. Advanced students may, with instructor permission, enroll in graduate courses.

Most students who complete the astronomy-physics degree pursue graduate programs in astronomy or physics, frequently at the best schools in the country. Students who complete the astronomy degree are well-prepared for a wide range of careers. The department's graduates have obtained employment with universities, NASA, federal observatories and laboratories, planetariums, and aerospace and computer corporations. Many have also gone into medicine, law, the military, business, science writing, and science education.

Special Resources  The department is very well equipped to support its students. There are excellent general and research collections in our library. A wide variety of telescopes are available on Grounds: 6-, 8-, and 10-inch aperture instruments, some equipped with digital CCD cameras. The historic 26-inch Clark refractor resides at McCormick Observatory, which is located on Grounds at Mount Jefferson. In addition to its regular use in research programs to measure the distances and motion of stars, it is also the main instrument used in the ASTR 313 laboratory class. Thirty- and forty-inch reflecting telescopes with CCD cameras and spectrographs are available to more advanced students at Fan Mountain Observatory, located 15 miles south of Charlottesville on an isolated peak at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains.

The department offers outstanding computing and image-processing facilities based on a network of Sun Microsystems UNIX workstations. The headquarters of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is on Grounds, and this provides the opportunity for majors to work with radio astronomers, making use of telescopes located in New Mexico or West Virginia. Finally, many of our faculty obtain astronomical data from major national telescopes, both ground-based and space-based (e.g. the Hubble Space Telescope, the Astro space shuttle missions, and X-ray satellites). Frequently, students work with this data as part of their own thesis projects. As soon as students declare an astronomy major, they are assigned a computer account with the department and have 24-hour access to its library and other facilities.

Requirements for the Astronomy Major  The Bachelor of Arts degree in Astronomy, not intended as preparation for graduate study in science, provides a firm grounding in basic astronomy, mathematics, physics, and computer science. Students take ASTR 121, 124 (or 211, 212), 313, 498 (Senior Thesis), and twelve additional credits of 300-500 level astronomy courses. Students are also required to take MATH 121, 122 (or 131, 132); PHYS 231, 232 (or 151, 152, 251, 252); and PHYS 254 or CS 101. This program offers considerable opportunities for students to pursue interests in other subjects, and is well suited for inclusion in a double major.

Requirements for the Astronomy-Physics Major  The Bachelor of Arts degree in Astronomy-Physics is offered jointly by the astronomy and physics departments. This program prepares students for graduate study in astronomy, physics, computer science, and related fields. Students take MATH 131, 132, 231, 325, 521, 522; PHYS 254 or CS 101; PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252, 221, 222, 321, 331, 342, 343, 355; and ASTR 211, 212, 313, 395, 498 (Senior Thesis), and six additional credits of 300-500 level astronomy courses.

Prospective astronomy-physics majors are strongly urged to consult with the astronomy undergraduate advisor during registration week of their first semester at the University.

Distinguished Majors Program in Astronomy-Physics  Students must maintain a GPA of 3.4 or better. For the Distinguished Major Program (DMP), students must meet the requirements of the astronomy-physics major described above and must also take PHYS 356 and a two-semester Senior Thesis (ASTR 498). The six credits of elective astronomy courses must consist of ASTR 451 and a 500-level course. This program leads to the award of degrees with distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction.

Requirements for the Minor in Astronomy  The Minor Program in Astronomy is intended mainly for students with a strong interest in the subject who do not have the time to commit to the mathematics and physics courses required for the major. Requirements for the minor can be completed in either of two ways. Students can take either ASTR 121, 124, 130, and six additional credits of 300-400 level astronomy courses, or ASTR 211, 212, and nine additional credits of 300-400 level astronomy courses.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the Undergraduate Advisor, Department of Astronomy, 530 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818; (434) 924-7494; Fax: (434) 924-3104; ugradadv@astsun.astro.virginia.edu; www.astro.virginia.edu.

Course Descriptions

ASTR 121 - (3) (S)
Introduction to the Sky and Solar System
A study of the night sky primarily for non-science majors. Provides a brief history of astronomy through Newton. Topics include the properties of the sun, earth, moon, planets, asteroids, meteors and comets; origin and evolution of the solar system; life in the universe; and recent results from space missions and ground-based telescopes.

ASTR 124 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe
A study of stars, star formation, and evolution primarily for non-science majors. Topics include light, atoms, and modern observing technologies; origin of the chemical elements; supernovae, pulsars, neutron stars, and black holes; structure and evolution of our galaxy; nature of other galaxies; active galaxies and quasars; expanding universe, cosmology, the big bang, and the early universe.

ASTR 130 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Astronomical Observation
Prerequisite/corequisite: ASTR 121 or 124, or instructor permission.  
Primarily for non-science majors. An independent laboratory class, generally meeting at night, in which students work individually or in small groups on observational projects that focus on the study of constellations, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Binoculars, 6- through 10-inch telescopes, and photographic equipment is used extensively at the department's student observatory. Some projects use computers to simulate observations taken with much larger telescopes.

Note  All astronomy courses may be used to satisfy the College natural sciences area requirements. Both ASTR 121 and 124 cover complementary subject matter at an introductory level. Each is complete in itself, and students may take only one, or both concurrently.

ASTR 170, 171 - (1) (SI)
Seminar
Primarily for first and second year students, taught on a voluntary basis by a faculty member. Topics vary.

ASTR 211, 212 - (3) (Y)
General Astronomy
Prerequisite/corequisite: MATH 121 or 131, PHYS 151 or 231, or instructor permission; ASTR 211 and 212 form a sequence and should be taken in that order.
Primarily for science majors. A thorough discussion of the basic concepts and methods of solar system, stellar, galactic, and extragalactic astronomy with an emphasis on physical principles. Topics include recent research developments, such as black holes, pulsars, quasars, and new solar system observations from the space program.

ASTR 313 - (3) (Y)
Observational Astronomy
Prerequisite: ASTR 211, 212, or instructor permission.  
Primarily for science majors. A laboratory course, generally meeting at night, that deals with basic observational techniques in astronomy. Students use observational facilities at the McCormick and Fan Mountain Observatories.

ASTR 314 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Observational Radio Astronomy
Prerequisites: ASTR 211, 212.
An introduction to the tools, techniques, and science of radio astronomy.  Discussion includes fundamentals of measuring radio signals, radiometers, antennas, and interferometers, supplemented by illustrative labs; radio emission mechanisms and simple radiative transfer; radio emission from the Sun and planets, stars, galactic and extragalactic sources, and the cosmic microwave background.

ASTR 341 - (3) (Y)
Archaeo-Astronomy
Prerequisite/corequisite: A 100- or 200-level ASTR course, or instructor permission.  
Open to non-science students. Discussion of prescientific astronomy, including Mayan, Babylonian, and ancient Chinese astronomy, and the significance of relics such as Stonehenge. Discusses the usefulness of ancient records in the study of current astrophysical problems such as supernova outbursts. Uses current literature from several disciplines, including astronomy, archaeology, and anthropology.

ASTR 342 - (3) (Y)
Life Beyond the Earth
Prerequisite/corequisite: A 100- or 200-level ASTR course or instructor permission.  
Open to non-science students. Studies the possibility of intelligent extraterrestrial life; methods and desirability of interstellar communication; prospects for humanity's colonization of space; interaction of space colonies; and the search for other civilizations.

ASTR 346 - (3) (SI)
Development of Modern Astronomy
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
A reading course dealing with the history of astronomy.

ASTR 347 - (3) (Y)
Science and Controversy in Astronomy
Prerequisite/corequisite: ASTR 121 or 124 or instructor permission.  
Open to non-science students. Investigates controversial topics in science and pseudo-science from the astronomer's perspective. Analyzes methods of science and the nature of scientific evidence, and their implications for unresolved astrophysical problems. Topics include extraterrestrial life, UFO's, Velikovsky, von Daniken, and astrology.

ASTR 348 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Cosmology
Open to first-year students; primarily for non-science students. A descriptive introduction to the study of the ultimate structure and evolution of the universe. Covers the history of the universe, cosmological speculation, and the nature of the galaxies. Provides a qualitative introduction to relativity theory and the nature of space-time, black holes, models of the universe (big bang, steady-state, etc.) and methods of testing them.

ASTR 351 - (3) (SI)
Planetary Astronomy
Primarily for science majors. Prerequisite: Calculus or permission of instructor.  
The goal of this course is to understand the origins and evolution of bodies in the solar system. The observations of atmospheres and surfaces of planetary bodies by ground-based and orbiting telescopes and by spacecraft will be described. The principle topics will be the interpretation of remote sensing data for atmospheres and surfaces of planetary bodies, the chemistry and dynamics of planetary atmospheres, the interactions of these atmospheres with the surfaces and with the local plasma, and the role of meteorite and comet impacts on surfaces of planetary bodies.  

ASTR 395 - (3) (S)
Tutorial
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Studies a topic of special interest to the student under individual supervision by a faculty member. May be repeated once for credit.

ASTR 444 - (3) (SI)
The Nature of Discovery in Astronomy
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Studies selected topics concerning the people, ideas, and principles that motivate the advance of twentieth-century astronomy.

ASTR 451 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Astrophysics
Prerequisite: ASTR 211, 212; PHYS 252 or instructor permission.  
Basic concepts in mechanics, statistical physics, atomic and nuclear structure, and radiative transfer are developed and applied to selected fundamental problems in the areas of stellar structure, stellar atmospheres, the interstellar medium, and extragalactic astrophysics.

ASTR 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
May be repeated once for credit.

ASTR 511 - (3) (O)
Astronomical Techniques
Prerequisite: ASTR 211-212; PHYS 342, 343 or instructor permission.  
Surveys modern techniques of radiation measurement, data analysis, and image processing, and their application to astrophysical problems, especially the physical properties of stars and galaxies. Relevant laboratory experiments and observations with the department's telescopes are included. Students are expected to develop a familiarity with FORTRAN programming and other basic computer skills if they do not already possess them.

ASTR 534 - (3) (E)
Introductory Radio Astronomy
Prerequisite: MATH 225, PHYS 210.
Studies the fundamentals of measuring power and power spectra, antennas, interferometers, and radiometers. Topics include thermal radiation, synchrotron radiation, and line frequency radiation; and radio emission from the planets, sun, flare stars, pulsars, supernovae, interstellar gas, galaxies, and quasi-stellar sources.

ASTR 535 - (3) (O)
Radio Astronomy Instrumentation
Prerequisite: ASTR 534 or instructor permission.
An introduction to the instrumentation of radio astronomy. Discussion includes fundamentals of measuring radio signals, noise theory, basic radiometry, antennas, low noise electronics, coherent receivers, signal processing for continuum and spectral line studies, and arrays. Lecture material is supplemented by illustrative labs.  

ASTR 539, 540 - (3) (IR)
Topical Seminar
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Detailed study of a current topic. Topic to be covered appears in the Course Offering Directory for the semester in which it is given.

ASTR 542 - (3) (E)
The Interstellar Medium
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Topics include the physics of interstellar gas and grains, the distribution and dynamics of the gas, and cosmic radiation and interstellar magnetic fields.

ASTR 543, 544 - (3) (O)
Stellar Astrophysics
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Observation of the properties and physics of stars. Study of radiative transfer; stellar thermodynamics; convection; formation of spectra in atmospheres; equations of stellar structure; nuclear reactions; stellar evolution, and nucleosynthesis. Analysis of applicable numerical techniques.

ASTR 545 - (3) (E)
High Energy Astrophysics
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Introduces the physics of basic radiation mechanisms and particle acceleration processes which are important in high energy phenomena and space science. Applications to pulsars, active galactic nuclei, radio galaxies, quasars, and supernovae are discussed.

ASTR 546 - (3) (SI)
Binary Stars
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Topics include the determination of orbital elements, the mass-luminosity-radius relation, formation of binary systems, the Roche model, mass loss, mass transfer, circumstellar material, accretion disks, evolution of close interacting binaries, and some special classes of binaries such as cataclysmic variables, RS CVn binaries, Algol-type binaries, and X-ray binaries.

ASTR 548 - (3) (O)
Evolution of the Universe
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
Studies the origin and evolution of structure in the universe. Topics include the formation and evolution of galaxies, and tests of the theory based on observations of large-scale structure and the properties of galaxies as a function of look-back time.

ASTR 551 - (3) (O)
Galactic Structure and Stellar Populations
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.  
This course explores the structure and evolution of star clusters and galaxies, with particular emphasis on objects in the local universe.  Topics explored include the evolution of individual stars and their kinematics, chemistry, and spectral energy distributions, the effects of such evolution on populations of stars with both simple and complex star formation histories, and galaxies as collections of stellar populations. The course introduces fundamental tools of galactic astronomy, with topics including methods for assessing the size, shape, age, and dynamics of the Milky Way and other stellar systems, galaxy formation, interstellar gas and dust, dark matter, and the distance scale.  

ASTR 553 - (3) (O)
Extragalactic Astronomy
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.  
The class is intended as a complementary course to ASTR 551 and is aimed at graduate and senior undergraduate astronomy students. We will survey the field of extragalactic astronomy, considering such topics as: morphological, photometric and dynamical properties of galaxies; their gaseous and chemical content; dwarf, starburst and active galaxies; nuclear black holes; luminosity functions and the distance scale; galaxy interactions; galaxy groups and clusters; dark matter; galaxy formation and evolution; the intergalactic medium. Topics which will not be discussed in detail (since they are covered in other courses) include the Milky Way and local group galaxies; stellar populations; large scale structure; cosmology.  

ASTR 571, 572 - (3) (S)
Fundamental Concepts in Astronomy
Prerequisite: Curry School students; instructor permission.  
Subject matter is the same as ASTR 121, 124, with special reading assignments and consultation on topics in astronomical education. Offered concurrently with undergraduate section.

ASTR 573 - (3) (S)
Laboratory Concepts in Astronomy
Prerequisite: Curry School students; instructor permission.  
Subject matter is the same as ASTR 130, with special reading assignments and consultation on topics in astronomical education. Offered concurrently with undergraduate section.

ASTR 575, 576, 577, 578 - (3) (S)
General Topics in Astronomy
Prerequisite: Curry School students; instructor permission.
The subject matter of these courses is the same as ASTR 341, 342, 347, 348, respectively. Students are offered special reading assignments and consultation on topics in astronomical education. Offered concurrently with undergraduate section.

Department of Biology
P.O. Box 400328
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4328
Phone: (434) 982-5553
Fax: (434) 982-5626

Overview  The Department of Biology offers a diversified program that serves students with a breadth of interests and provides an education that ultimately enables them to pursue careers in many areas of the biological sciences, including teaching, medicine, and research. Biology is the study of life itself, at its many levels of organization: ecosystem, population, organism, cell, and molecule. Our universal fascination with life drives our exploration of this discipline, for in it there are questions and answers about us and all living systems. How does the fertilized egg develop into a multicellular organism? Why do some cells age while others continue to divide? How do cells communicate with one another? How does the monarch butterfly know when and where to make its astonishing migration? Questions such as these define the frontiers of biology. We approach these scientific problems with exciting new technologies and creative approaches undreamed of even a decade ago. During this 'golden period' of biological research, we have been brought close to a complete understanding of many fundamental biological processes. Our dissections probe not only into cells, but to the very molecular fabric of living things. As we do so, we learn about our past and how we have evolved. We also gain an ever-increasing appreciation for living things and the delicate balance of the ecosystem that we share.

Faculty  The 35 members of the faculty include professors who are nationally and internationally recognized in their fields. The research activities within the department are currently supported by over forty investigator-initiated research grants totaling more than $7 million awarded annually from the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and other government agencies or private foundations. Our commitment to excellence in research complements and enhances our dedication to outstanding teaching, and provides the resources to promote creative and original research by our students. The department participates in University-wide programs in biological timing, biophysics, cell and molecular biology, developmental biology, and neuroscience.

Students  There are currently about 400 students majoring in biology. Upon graduation, many biology majors have spent the better part of two years assisting in nationally funded research projects and carrying out their own experiments. Students collaborate with some of the best biologists in the country, conducting research using the most advanced equipment available. The department has expanded and modernized its research laboratories, making it easier for students to take advanced classes early in their academic careers. Students graduating with a degreein biology gain admission to the most outstanding graduate schools in the country, and the acceptance rate of our biology graduates to medical schools is exceptionally high.

Special Resources  The department, in offering modern research facilities equipped with the most advanced instrumentation available for biochemical, biophysical, cellular, molecular, and behavioral research, creates an intellectual environment that fosters scientific creativity. The facilities include a world-class light microscopy facility, a high-performance liquid chromatography laboratory, and a range of instruments for molecular studies. A high-speed ethernet interconnects mainframe and micro-computers and provides access to the Internet. These resources in turn give ready access to scientific software, such as DNA and protein sequence analysis programs and sequence databases.

The Center for Biological Timing (www.cbt.virginia.edu) Graduate and undergraduate summer fellowships at the center are available on a competitive basis.

Mountain Lake Biological Station (www.mlbs.org) Information about undergraduate and graduate level summer courses may be obtained from the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Department of Biology, 238 Gilmer Hall, PO Box 400327, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4327.

Requirements for Major 

Bachelor of Arts in Biology
  Students selecting the B.A. major must complete the introductory courses, BIOL 201 and 202 before taking upper level courses. Introductory lab courses, BIOL 203 and 204, are also offered as they, or equivalent experiences, are a prerequisite for the required upper-level laboratory courses. Requirements for the B.A. in Biology include the core courses BIOL 300 and 301 (which must be taken by the end of the third year) and 16 additional hours in biology, including at least three hours of laboratory work, at or above the 300 level. The required laboratory course may be satisfied by a three-credit departmental course in field biology or by two consecutive semesters of independent research (BIOL 491, 492) completed in one laboratory. (Summer research applies if the student has enrolled in BIOL 491, 492.) No more than 6 semester hours of credit toward the B.A. in Biology may be awarded for any combination of independent study and research courses, including BIOL 385, 386 and BIOL 491-498. A maximum of 6 credits from the Department of Environmental Sciences chosen from a list of approved biology-related courses may be included in the upper-level hours for the major. Biology major courses taken elsewhere must be approved and only one-half of the hours, up to a maximum of 6, transferred to the University may be used toward the biology major. While transfer and Environmental Sciences courses may be combined, the total applied towards the major may not exceed 6 credits since a minimum of 16 of the 22 credits of upper-level courses (which include BIOL 300 and 301) must be chosen from courses offered by the Biology Department at the University of Virginia.

Related courses that are required include two semesters of general chemistry with lab or the equivalent (CHEM 141, 142, plus 141L, 142L, or CHEM 181, 182, plus 181L, 182L or credit for AP chemistry that meets this requirement) and one course in either calculus or statistics.

The overall grade point average for courses at the 300 level and above presented in the major must be 2.0 (C) or better. Students anticipating a career in the biological sciences are strongly advised to take two semesters of organic chemistry with lab (CHEM 241, 242, 241L, 242L), two semesters of physics with lab (PHYS 201, 202, 201L, 202L), and at least one additional math course.

Bachelor of Science in Biology  Students selecting the B.S. major must fulfill all of the requirements for the B.A., as noted above and including the same restrictions, plus an additional 11 credit hours of upper-level biology courses (300 and above). These additional 11 credits must include BIOL 302 and a second 3-hour laboratory course. In addition, at least 4 of the upper-level courses, including one of the two required lab courses, must be at the 400 or 500-level.

Additional related courses, beyond those required for the B.A., include two semesters of organic chemistry (CHEM 241, 242 or the equivalent), one semester of introductory physics (PHYS 201 or its equivalent), and a second course in math beyond introductory calculus or a statistics course. It is recommended that students interested in a career in the biological sciences take PHYS 202, as well as labs in organic chemistry and labs in physics.

Requirements for Minor  Students selecting biology as their minor subject are required to complete the lower-level introductory courses, BIOL 201, 202, 203 and 204, unless exempted by examination or placement, and three upper-level biology courses (300 and above) of 3 or 4 credits each. The following courses, either singly or in combination, may be used to fulfill no more than one of the three required upper-level courses: BIOL 385, 386 (Selected Topics in Biology), BIOL 395 (Recent Advances in Biology), or BIOL 491-498. Exemption from BIOL 201 and 202 does not imply exemption from BIOL 203 and 204. These laboratory courses, or equivalent experiences, are required. The grade point average for all courses presented for the minor must be 2.0 (C) or better.

Academic Information  Hourly credit for independent research courses may be applied toward theupper-level credits required for the major. Three credits are granted for two semesters of independent research (BIOL 491/492/ 493/494) and six credits are granted for four semesters of independent research. Maximum research credit for either the B.A. or B.S. major is six hours.

Students who score a 4 or a 5 on the AP biology examination will receive six credits for BIOL 201 and 202.

Students may petition to have upper-level transfer credits count toward the biology major. One-half credit will be granted for each credit up to a maximum of six credits. Unique courses that broaden the undergraduate experience (e.g., field courses, marine biology, studies abroad, research opportunities) can receive full transfer credit. Transfer credit will generally not be approved for the required core (BIOL 300, 301, and 302) or laboratory courses. In all cases, prior approval should be arranged with the Biology Department Director of Undergraduate Studies.

Six credits from a list of approved environmental sciences courses may be applied towards the biology major. These currently include: EVSC 320, 320L, 421, 423, 426, 431, 431L; EVEC 521, 522, 523, 523L. Students who complete both CHEM 441 and 442 (Biochemistry) may apply four credits toward the biology major.

Students are urged to broaden their biology training by taking courses from several biology subdisciplines, including development, evolution, physiology, behavior and conservation.

Students with special academic requirements or experience may seek relief from these regulations by petitioning the Biology Department Director of Undergraduate Studies.

Distinguished Majors Program in Biology

Eligibility
 Students with a cumulative grade point average of 3.4 or higher after five semesters may apply to enter the Distinguished Majors Program (DMP). Application for the DMP must be made prior to the beginning of the seventh semester. Provisional admission to students with cumulative grade point averages below 3.4 but above 3.2 will be granted in exceptional cases. Administration of the DMP is the responsibility of the undergraduate committee.

Course Requirements

  1. Completion of 27 credits in upper-level courses approved for the biology major, beyond BIOL 201, 202. An AP biology score of 4 or 5 may be submitted in lieu of BIOL 201, 202. (Requirements 2 and 3 are counted toward this requirement.)
  2. Two semesters of BIOL 481, 482 (Seminar in Biological Research).
  3. A full year's study in BIOL 491-498 (Independent Research for Distinguished Majors).
  4. A minimum GPA of 3.4 in all biology courses and overall in the University.
Research Requirements  The research work done under BIOL 491-498 must be described in written form. The faculty research supervisor, the director of the distinguished majors program, and the undergraduate committee judge the work and the report. This research project is intended to foster independent thought and develop the student's critical ability to formulate and conduct scientific research. The written report must be submitted to the director of the distinguished majors program during the student's last semester in residence.

In addition to a written report, the student is required to give an oral presentation of the research project at the Richard D. Katz Biology Undergraduate Research Symposium held by the Department of Biology and the Undergraduate Biology Association in late April of each year.

Certification  The undergraduate committee assumes the responsibility for evaluation of both the written report of the research project and the oral presentation. On the basis of their evaluation, the undergraduate committee recommends to the chair and faculty of the biology department that the degree be awarded:

a. with no distinction

b. with distinction

c. with high distinction

d. with highest distinction


The decision of the biology faculty regarding each candidate will be forwarded to the Committee on Special Programs and the university registrar at least ten days before commencement.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the Department of Biology, P. O. Box 400328, Rm 229, Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4328; (434) 982-5553; web site: www.virginia.edu/~biology.

Course Descriptions

Biology courses numbered from 100 to 199 are intended to satisfy the College Area Requirements for non-science majors. These courses have no prerequisites.

BIOL 106 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Nutrition
Topics include the chemical composition of the body; the molecular structure and function of different kinds of nutrients required by humans; the metabolic processes that transform food into energy and the chemical blocks for the creation and renewal of cellular structures; and the basic scientific principle of energy balance that determines weight gain or loss as governed by diet and exercise.

BIOL 115 - (3) (Y)
Natural History for Teachers
This course is a hands-on and experiment-based introduction to the ecology and evolution of the organisms of Central Virginia. It is designed for students planning to be elementary school teachers, but is open to all non-majors. The class meets for about 5 hours a week, with two 1-hour lectures and a one 3-hour lab.

BIOL 121 - (3) (Y)
Human Biology and Disease
Introduces basic biological principles as illustrated in the human organism. Emphasizes the disruption of normal functions by disease either inherited or acquired.

BIOL 149 - (3) (Y)
Survival Biology for the New Millennium
Biological/Biomedical research has advanced to the extent that everyone's lives are likely to be deeply affected. Bio 149 will introduce a select set of new technologies and concepts such as genetically modified organisms, cloning animals including humans, stem cells and the human genome. No science background required.

Biology courses number from 201 - 204 are intended for premed students and for Biology Majors who have not earned AP credit in previous biology courses. The lecture courses, BIOL 201 and 202 are required for the Biology Major, but do not count towards upper-level course requirements. The laboratory courses, BIOL 203 and 204 are not specifically required for the major, but they, or their high school equivalents, are prerequisites for some upper level courses. These courses and BIOL 206, 206L, 207, and 207L have no prerequisites.

BIOL 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Biology
Intensive introduction to modern biology designed for natural science majors. Biological structure and function at various levels of organization, cell biology, genetics, development and evolution are covered. These courses are required for all biology majors and are prerequisites for most upper-level biology courses. Lectures and recitation/review.

BIOL 203, 204 - (2) (Y)
Introduction to Biology Laboratory
Corequisite: May be taken independently, or in conjunction with BIOL 201, 202
BIOL 203: Laboratory exercises in introductory biology to illustrate experimental techniques and strategies used to elucidate biological concepts.
BIOL 204: Studies life forms, from simple to complex organization, demonstrating the unique properties of living organisms.

BIOL 206 - (3) (Y)
Human Physiology and Anatomy I
Includes basic information regarding the chemistry and organization of living matter needed to understand cellular, tissue, and organ function. The morphology and physiological functions of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and neurosensory organ systems will also be covered. Designed as a basic course for students in the allied health sciences.

BIOL 206L - (1) (Y)
Human Physiology and Anatomy I Laboratory
Optional laboratory class to accompany BIOL 206. Includes simple anatomical, physiological and chemical exercises, clinical exercises, dissections, and microscopic examination of tissues that demonstrate and supplement topics covered in the lecture.

BIOL 207 - (3) (Y)
Human Physiology and Anatomy II
Covers the morphology and physiology for the cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, endocrine, digestive, respiratory, excretory and reproductive organ systems. Designed as a basic course for students in the allied health sciences.

BIOL 207L - (1) (Y)
Human Physiology and Anatomy II Laboratory
Optional laboratory class to accompany BIOL 207. Includes simple anatomical, physiological, and chemical exercises, clinical exercises, dissections, and microscopic examination of tissues that demonstrate and supplement topics covered in the lecture.

Introduction to Biology (BIOL 201/202) or equivalent AP credit is required for all courses at the 300 and above levels. Additional perquisites are listed with each course; the instructor may waive these if a student demonstrates an adequate level of preparedness.

BIOL 300 - (3) (S)
Cell and Molecular Biology
Prerequisite: CHEM 141, 142.
Examines the cellular and molecular basis of life, with an emphasis on basic principles needed to understand what cells are and how they work. Major topics include the molecular nature of genes and gene function, as well as the consideration of protein localization, structure, assembly and function of the plasma membrane and organelles, signal transduction pathways, cell-cell interactions, and the perturbations of these processes in disease such as cancer. Required for all Biology majors.

BIOL 301 - (3) (S)
Genetics and Evolution
Prerequisite: BIOL 300; CHEM 141, 142.
Examines the inheritance of genes, the genetic basis of traits, and mechanisms of evolutionary change, with an emphasis on the genetic and evolutionary principles needed to understand the diversification of life on earth. Major topics include the Mendelian inheritance, mutation, linkage and recombination, as well as the genetics of natural populations, adaptation in various forms, molecular evolution and macroevolution. Required for all Biology majors.

BIOL 302 - (3) (S)
Integrative Biology
Prerequisite: BIOL 300; BIOL 301; CHEM 141, 142.
Students explore patterns and underlying processes of integrated biological systems, from cell-signaling pathways to organisms to communities. Major topics vary among years, but will focus on areas such as functional genomics, proteomics, cell metabolims, physiology, biomechanics, functional morphology, neuroendocrinology, development, neurobiology, animal behavior, phylogenetics, human disease, ecology, and conservation biology. This course is required for the BS in Biology.

BIOL 308 - (3) (Y)
Virology
Prerequisite: CHEM 141-142. f irst semester organic chemistry suggested, but not required, or instructor permission.
Presents an in-depth look at the molecular biology, pathogenesis and control of animal viruses. Small pox, influenza and HIV are used as model viruses for the analysis of viral replication mechanisms, viral genetics and the evolutionary relationship between the virus and its host. Epidemiology, transmission mechanisms, patterns of disease, and the societal impact of viruses are all discussed in terms of host/virus evolution.

BIOL 309 - (4) (Y)
Biology of Infectious Disease
Prerequisite: BIOL 201, 202 or BIOL 203, 204.
Emphasis is on the principles that govern disease biology, using examples from humans, plants and animals. Topics include: diversity and types of pathogens; mechanisms of transmission, pathogenicity, and resistance; epidemiology, population regulation, and extinction; disease origins; intracellular pathogens; disease and the evolution of genetic systems; and disease in biological control and conservation.

BIOL 312 - (3) (Y)
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Prerequisite: CHEM 141/142 or instructor permission.
Explores molecular and evolutionary aspects of the structure and function of microbes. Equal emphasis is given to environmental and medical microbiology. Topics include microbial structure, diversity, metabolism, genetics, biogeochemical cycling, microbial ecology, epidemiology, medically important organisms and evolutionary adaptation. Important current event topics such as biofilms, genetically engineered microbes and ethics are also presented.

BIOL 314 - (3) (E)
Biology of Aging
This interdisciplinary course will explore our current knowledge of the biology of aging in populations of plants and animals, including humans. Topics include demographic trends across species; analysis of why organisms age in the context of evolutionary theories; analysis of how organisms age in the context of cellular and physiological theories; and the genetic basis of longevity.

BIOL 315 - (3) (Y)
Microbiology Laboratory
Prerequisite: Introductory Biology 201/202.
An introduction to microorganisms and to basic microbiological principles through laboratory experimentation. Emphasis is on the structure, physiology and genetics of bacteria and bacterial viruses.

BIOL 317 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Neurobiology
Analyzes the concepts of general neurobiology, including basic electrophysiology and electrochemistry, origin of bioelectric potentials, sensory, motor, integrative and developmental neurobiology, and conceptual models of simple learning.

BIOL 318 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Botany
Examines basic principles of plant structure, development, classification, and physiology. Laboratory exercises demonstrate these concepts, emphasizing cells and cellular function, structure and organization of higher plants, and a survey of plant and related organisms.

BIOL 320, 321 - (3) (S)
Basic Laboratory Investigations
Prerequisite: BIOL 203 or comparable laboratory training; CHEM 141, 142.
Students complete three of six 4-week laboratory modules offered; cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, development, behavior and evolution. Two of the six modules are offered concurrently in the first four weeks of the semester, two in the second four weeks, and two in the third; students complete one module in each four-week session. The learning objectives of each module are 1) to teach students the basic principles of problem solving through scientific investigation, and the written and oral skills needed to communicate results, and 2) to provide students with basic training in laboratory methodologies, techniques and protocols, and the use of laboratory instrumentation.

BIOL 323 - (3) (Y)
Animal Physiology
Focuses on selected vertebrate organ systems; considers other systems where relevant.

BIOL 324 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Immunology
Prerequisite: BIOL 201.
Studies the genetics and cell biology of the vertebrate immune system, with a focus on adaptive immunity. Classic and current experimental systems are emphasized.

BIOL 325 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Animal Behavior
Studies the comparative aspects of animal behavior from a neuro-ethological approach; and the mechanisms employed in generating and guiding behavior.

BIOL 328 - (3) (Y)
Ornithology
This course is an introduction to avian biology. Major topics include evolutionary history, genetics, anatomy and physiology, behavior and communication, reproduction and development, and ecology and conservation. Through the study of birds, the most diverse lineage of terrestrial vertebrates, students learn broadly applicable concepts of organismal biology and gain insight to the scientific investigation of integrated biological systems.

BIOL 340 - (4) (Y)
Vertebrate Zoology
Studies vertebrate groups, their structure, function, origins, relationships, special adaptations and representative organisms. Includes selected topics in vertebrate biology: flight, molecular evolution, size, thermoregulation, colors, tails, and rumination. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 345 - (3) (Y)
Biodiversity and Conservation
Introduction to the fundamental principles of conservation biology (e.g., global species numbers, value of biodiversity, causes of extinction, genetic diversity, island biogeography, priority setting) and current topics of debate (including zoo versus field conservation, effects of global change on species extinction). Conservation case studies will allow students to judge the relevance of biological theory to practical problems in conservation.

BIOL 350 - (1-3) (SS)
Field Biology
Prerequisite: BIOL 204 or similar lab; instructor permission.
Application of field techniques for biological studies.

BIOL 385, 386 - (1-3) (SI)
Selected Topics in Biology
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Tutorial or seminar course that allows intensive study of the literature in a particular area of biology under the guidance of a Biology faculty member.

BIOL 395 - (3) (S)
Recent Advances in Biology
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Consists of weekly lecture/discussion sessions on recent advances in biology as reported through articles in the current literature and in research seminars presented within the University. Required for DMP students.

All lecture courses at the 400 level and above, have the prerequisite of at least one of the three core courses (300-302). All laboratory courses have a prerequisite of some 300-level lab; unless a specific prerequisite lab is specified, any 300-level lab will satisfy this prerequisite.

BIOL 400 - (3) (Y)
Laboratory in Molecular Biology
Prerequisite: BIOL 320 or 321; CHEM 141, 142.
Laboratory introduction to fundamental molecular techniques used in many biological research laboratories. Includes basic aseptic technique, isolation and manipulation of genetic material, electrophoresis, cloning, gene library construction/screening, Southern blot analysis, and PCR techniques. Lecture and open laboratory.

BIOL 401 - (3) (Y)
Macroevolution
Prerequisite: BIOL 301 Core II.
Survey of new problems and approaches to large-scale (above the species level) ecological and evolutionary patterns. The course will emphasize modern conceptual issues and methodological advances. Laboratory work will involve computer applications in systematics and statistics.

BIOL 402 - (3) (E)
Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics
Prerequisite: BIOL 301.
Examines the mechanisms of evolution within populations, molecular evolution, and the process of speciation. Topics include genetics of adaptation and speciation, natural selection, and the processes influencing the evolution of genes and genomes at the molecular level.

BIOL 403 - (3) (O)
Evolutionary Biology Laboratory
Prerequisite: MATH 131 or instructor permission.
Analyzes important concepts in evolution, and experimental techniques used in evolutionary ecology and population genetics'field research, experimental populations, molecular markers, phylogenetic reconstruction'including aspects of experimental design and statistical analysis of data. Includes a weekend field trip to Mountain Lake Biological Station.

BIOL 404 - (3) (Y)
Laboratory in Cell Biology
Prerequisite: BIOL 320 or 321, CHEM 141, 142.
Introduces the theory and practice of important laboratory techniques used in cell biology research. Studies techniques such as microscopy, electrophoresis, and cell culture. One laboratory lecture and one afternoon laboratory per week.

BIOL 405 - (3) (Y)
Developmental Biology
Prerequisite: BIOL 301.
Explores the processes of embryonic development in plants and animals, emphasizing the experimental basis of contemporary knowledge in embryo-genesis, morphogenesis and in cell and tissue differentiation. Lecture and occasional evening discussions.

BIOL 407 - (3) (Y)
Developmental Biology Laboratory
This course offers laboratory experience illustrating a number of principles and processes in the early development of both plants and animals. Laboratory work includes the use of basic microscopy and imaging techniques to study embryonic processes such as fertilization, oogenesis, gastrulation, and tissue interactions. Students will learn basic molecular techniques used to study gene expression and patterning in the embryo. Students will also develop skills in observation, experimental design, and data presentation.

BIOL 408 - (3) (Y)
Neuronal Organization of Behavior
Prerequisite: BIOL 317 or equivalent.
Lectures and discussions addressing behavior and sensory processing from the perspective of the neural elements involved. Topics include neuronal substrates (anatomical and physiological) of startle reflexes, locomotory behaviors, visual and auditory processing, echolocation mechanisms, calling song recognition, and the neuronal organization underlying some types of functional plasticity.

BIOL 411 - (3) (Y)
Genetics Laboratory
A research experience in developmental genetics that uses Drosophila melanogaster as a model system.

BIOL 413 - (3) (O)
Population Ecology and Conservation Biology
Prerequisite: Calculus; evolution/genetics core (BIOL 301) or ecology (EVSC 320).
The natural history and mathematical theory of population dynamics, species interactions and life history evolution. Lectures emphasize theory and experimental tests; class discussions focuses on applications to conservation of plant and animal populations.

BIOL 417 - (3) (Y)
Cellular Neurobiology
Prerequisite: BIOL 317 or equivalent; BIOL 300.
Explores a cellular approach to the study of the nervous system. Topics include the structure and function of ionic channels in cell membranes; the electrochemical basis of the cell resting potential; the generation and conduction of nerve impulses; and synaptic transmissions. Three lecture and demonstration/discussion hours. Class meetings include lectures, discussion, student presentations, and computer simulations of neurophysiology with NeuroDynamix.  

BIOL 419 - (3) (O)
Biological Clocks
Prerequisite: BIOL 300 and 301.
Introduces biological timekeeping as used by organisms for controlling diverse processes, including sleep-wakefulness cycles, photoperiodic induction and regression, locomotor rhythmicity, eclosion rhythmicity, and the use of the biological clock in orientation and navigation.

BIOL 425 - (3) (Y)
Human Genetics
Prerequisite: BIOL 301.
Focuses on the fundamental knowledge about organization, expression, and inheritance of the human genome. Reviews classical Mendelian genetics and human genetic (pedigree) analysis. Emphasizes understanding human genetics in molecular terms. Includes gene mapping procedures, methodologies for identifying genes responsible for inherited diseases, the molecular basis of several mutant (diseased) states, the human genome project, and discussions about genetic screening and gene therapy.

BIOL 426 - (3) (Y)
Cellular Mechanisms
Prerequisite: BIOL 301.
Includes basic information about important issues in cell biology coupled with critical analysis of pertinent scientific literature. Integrates basic scientific findings with clinical situations, emphasizing the importance of basic research in understanding and combating disease.

BIOL 427 - (3) (Y)
Animal Behavior Laboratory
Prerequisite: BIOL 325 recommended.
Provides direct experience in approaches used to study animal behavior. Each lab concentrates on a particular aspect of behavior. Student experiments relate to central nervous systems; sensory perception; sign stimuli, feeding behavior; social behavior; reproductive behavior; biological timing; and animal observation in the laboratory and field.

BIOL 448 - (3) (Y)
Structure and Function of Complex Macromolecules
Prerequisite: BIOL 300 Core I, Biochemistry or two semesters of organic chemistry.
Exploration, in depth, of principles underlying protein and nucleic acid structures and the techniques used to determine those structures.

BIOL 481, 482 - (1) (S)
Seminar in Biological Research
Prerequisite: Fourth-year DMP in Biology.
One-hour, weekly discussions on recent advances in biology, as well as more practical matters, such as how to write grant applications, make seminar presentations, apply to graduate programs, and other skills essential to professional success in biology.

BIOL 491, 492 - (3) (S)
Independent Research
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Independent research for qualified undergraduates under the direction of a faculty member. Nine laboratory hours.

BIOL 493, 494 - (3) (S)
Independent Research
Prerequisite: BIOL 491 and BIOL 492.
Independent research under the guidance of a departmental faculty member. Students who have completed BIOL 491, 492 may enroll in BIOL 493, 494 as a 'second year' of independent research. Nine laboratory hours.

BIOL 495, 496 - (3) (S)
Independent Research for Distinguished Majors
Prerequisite: DMP students and instructor permission.
Independent research for qualified undergraduates under the direction of a faculty member. Nine laboratory hours.

BIOL 497, 498 - (3) (S)
Independent Research for Distinguished Majors
Prerequisite: BIOL 495, 496; DMP students.
Independent research under the guidance of a departmental faculty member. Students who have completed BIOL 495, 496 may enroll for BIOL 497, 498 as a 'second year' of independent research. Nine laboratory hours.

BIOL 501 - (4) (Y)
Biochemistry
Prerequisite: BIOL 300; organic chemistry or instructor permission.
Structure and function of the major constituents of cells'proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates'and the relationship to cellular metabolism and self-replication. Lectures and discussion.

BIOL 508 - (4) (Y)
Developmental Mechanisms
Prerequisite: BIOL 301.
Analyzes the cellular and molecular basis of developmental phenomena, reviewing both classical foundations and recent discoveries. Lectures focus on the major developmental systems used for analysis of embryogenesis (e.g., mouse, frog, and fly) and concentrate on several themes that pervade modern research in this area (e.g., signal transduction mechanisms). Readings are from the primary research literature, supplemented by textbook assignments. Lectures and discussion.

BIOL 509 - (2) (SI)
Current Topics in Plant Molecular Biology
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Discussion of current literature and selected topics on the biochemical and molecular genetic basis for plant cellular growth and differentiation. Weekly readings and student presentations.

BIOL 512 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Biochemistry
Prerequisite: Organic chemistry; BIOL 501; instructor permission.
Examines the biochemical adaptations that have arisen in organisms in response to physiological demands. Topics are drawn from recent advances made in elucidating molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation.

BIOL 541 - (4) (IR)
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Prerequisite: BIOL 301.
Examines the structure and regulation of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and viral genes at the molecular level. Emphasizes experimental approaches to mechanisms of replication, transcription, RNA processing and translation, and current advances in genetic research.

Department of Chemistry
P.O. Box 400319
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4319
Phone: (434) 924-3344
Fax: (434) 924-3710

Overview  The Department of Chemistry offers outstanding physical facilities and a close-knit community of scholars'an environment which demonstrates that chemistry is far more than the study of matter and its interactions. Chemists contribute to such diverse fields as medicine, agriculture, oceanography, and archaeology. The University offers several chemistry programs, giving students the opportunity to define their individual educational and career goals.

Chemistry is divided into five areas of study: organic, inorganic, biological, physical, and analytical. The first-year courses include elements of all these areas. While organic chemistry is studied most intensely in the second year, inorganic and physical chemistry are the center of concentration in the third and fourth years. Advisors steer students toward specialized courses that correspond with their individual interests and aid them in choosing a specific program.

Faculty  The twenty-seven members of the faculty include professors who are nationally and internationally recognized in their fields. The list of recent honors received by faculty members includes the American Chemical Society's Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Organic Chemistry; a 1993 and 1998 Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award for excellence in both teaching and research; a 1992 and 1996 Virginia Scientist of the Year award; a 1994 Sloan Foundation Award; a 1997 Cavalier Distinguished Chair; a 1997 and 1999 Alexander von Humboldt Research Prize; an Analytical Chemistry Award in Chemical Instrumentation; a 1999 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers; and a 1999 Coblentz Award; Frank H. Field and Joe L. Franklin Award; American Chemical Society Thomson Metal, International Mass Spectrometry Society, Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award, 1999, 2000 Distinguished Service Award, Virginia Section American Chemical Society, 2001 John D. and Catherine T. McArthur Foundation Fellow Award, and a Lilly Analytical Chemistry Academic Contact Grant Award.

Teaching and research have been strengthened in recent years by a number of grants from government and private sources. These funds have permitted the acquisition of excellent instrumental facilities, and the establishment of an outstanding program in molecular research. The department has also made a major commitment to research in biological and biophysical chemistry. These programs, along with ongoing research in analytical methods, spectroscopy, and synthetic inorganic and organic chemistry, provide the student with a choice of strong research areas over a broad range of the chemical sciences. The faculty attracts approximately $8.5 million yearly in outside funding to support these programs, an indicator of the vigor of the research being carried out in the department.

Students  Each year approximately 95 students graduate with a degree in chemistry, which makes the program one of the largest in the nation. Students have significant opportunities to conduct research and independent study projects with professors. Advanced students may receive money from research grants or enroll in graduate courses. The class size of chemistry courses varies widely. The introductory chemistry courses are quite large, but upper level courses are usually small, with no more than thirty students per class. All lab sections are small, in order to provide an intimate atmosphere.

Students who have graduated with a B.S. in Chemistry have been admitted to the best graduate schools in the country, while some have accepted positions in industrial or government labs. The number of graduates accepted to top medical schools (especially those who specialize in biological chemistry) has been extremely high, while some graduates' areas of expertise have prepared them for jobs in government agencies, laboratories, and chemical firms.

Special Resources  Modern research is dependent on advanced instrumentation, and the department is exceedingly well endowed in this area. Eight mass spectrometers are currently housed in the Department. These include a general purpose gas chromatography/quadrupole instrument equipped for both electron impact and chemical ionization, two ion trap mass spectrometers, a tandem quadrupole Fourier transform instrument equipped for ionization by fast atom bombardment, a time-of-flight instrument for surface analysis, a matrix assisted, laser desorption/ time-of-flight instrument for determining the molecular mass of proteins and oligonucleotides, and two triple quadrupole instruments employed for protein sequence analysis at the low picomole level.

The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) facility includes two 7 T spectrometers, one 8.4 T spectrometer, and two 11.7 T spectrometers, which operate at 300, 360, and 500 MHz for proton resonances, respectively.

The Molecular Structure Laboratory has a Brucker SMART APEX CCD diffractometer with low temperature capacities currently available for structure determination. The molecular modeling facility of the laboratory hosts three SGI computers: Octane, Origin 2200 and Personal Iris 4D35, used for computational and quantum chemistry calculations for a variety of systems, including proteins and nucleic acids. The modeling software includes the Insight/Discover, Mccromodel, Spartan and Gaussian98 packages.  The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Base is also available. Undergraduates are offered training on these facilities. In addition, the laboratory is very actively involved in undergraduate research.

Research in molecular spectroscopy is a major focus of a number of research groups and is supported by a variety instrumentation. Routine apparatus for ultraviolet (UV), visible, and infrared (IR) studies are available, as is CW laser Raman equipment. The departmental has six FTIR spectrometers, several having far IR and high resolution <0.25 cm-1) capabilities and two spectrofluorimeters. Specialized research in the area of molecular spectroscopy has resulted in the acquisition and in-house construction of instrumentation for circular dichroism (CD), magnetically induced CD (MCD), and circularly polarized luminescence spectroscopy. The department has two electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometers with variable temperature capabilities.

The Center for Atomic Molecular and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) Laser Facility within the department houses ultrafast Ti:sapphire, Nd:YAG, excimer, and ion lasers, as well as tunable dye lasers, optical parametric oscillators/amplifiers, and a color center laser. In addition, a unique laser laboratory is accessible at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va. which is home to the world's most powerful free electron laser (FEL) - a 10 kWIR FEL. Lasers are employed to interrograte and to control matter of all kinds and are often used as initiators and probes of molecular kinetics and dynamics.

Requirements for Major  

Bachelor of Arts in Chemistry  
The normal program for a conventional B.A. in Chemistry includes: CHEM 141, 142, 141L, 142L (or CHEM 181, 182, 181L, 182L); CHEM 241, 242, 241L, 242L (or CHEM 281, 282, 281L, 282L); 341, 342; 371, 372, and one other three-credit chemistry elective at the 400-level or higher. A year of physics with laboratory and MATH 122 or 132 are required for the B.A. in Chemistry.

Bachelor of Science in Chemistry  The chemistry department offers five programs leading to a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry. There is the Bachelor of Science in Chemistry, and the Bachelor of Science in Chemistry with specialization in Biochemistry (highly recommended for students preparing to study medicine) that areprofessional degrees accredited by the American Chemical Society (ACS) and designed to prepare the student for a career in chemistry. In addition, the department offers the Chemical Physics, Environmental Chemistry, and Materials.

Candidates for degrees must complete, with a grade point average of at least 2.0, a minimum of 120 credits composed of required courses and approved electives.

Recommended ACS Certified B.S. in Chemistry
(1)
First Year
CHEM 181 Chemical Structure
3
CHEM 181L Chem. Structure Lab
3
CHEM 182 Chemical Reactions I
3
CHEM 182L Chem. Reactions I Lab
3
ENWR 110 Composition
3
MATH 131 Calculus I
4
MATH 132 Calculus II
4
Language(2)
8
Approved electives(3)
0-3
31-34
Second Year
CHEM 281 Chemical Reactions II
3
CHEM 281L Chemical Reactions II Lab
4
CHEM 282 Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics
3
CHEM 282L Chem. Thermodynam. Lab
3
PHYS 231 Classical & Modern Phys. I
4
PHYS 232 Classical & Modern Phys. II
4
PHYS 201L Basic Physics Lab I(6)
PHYS 202L Basic Physics Lab II(6)
MATH 221 Calculus III or
MATH 225 or 325 Ordinary  Differential Equations.
4
Language(2)
3
Approved electives(3)
3
34
Third Year
CHEM 341 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 342 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 371 Intermediate Chemical Experimentation
3
CHEM 372 Intermediate Chem. Exp.
3
CHEM 432 Inorganic Chemistry
3
CHEM 551 Instrumental Methods of Analysis
3
CHEM 391 Research Seminar
1
CHEM 392 Research Seminar
1
Approved electives(3)
10-13
30-33
Fourth Year(4)
CHEM ___ Elective (above 400)
3
CHEM 495 Research in Chemistry
3
CHEM 496 Research in Chemistry
3
Approved electives(3)
21
30
 
Specialization in Biochemistry  The department offers an opportunity for students to obtain the Bachelor of Science in Chemistry with a Specialization in Biochemistry. Candidates for the degree must complete, with a grade point average of at least 2.0, a minimum of 120 credits composed of required courses and approved electives.

Recommended ACS Certified B.S. in Chemistry with Specialization in Biochemistry
(1)

First Year
CHEM 181 Chemical Structure
3
CHEM181L Chemical Structure Lab
3
CHEM 182 Chemical Reactions I
3
CHEM 182L Chemical Reactions I Lab
3
ENWR 110 Composition
3
MATH 121, 122 Applied Calculus I&II or
MATH 131, 132 Calculus I&II
8
Language(5)
8
Approved electives(3)
0-3
31-34
Second Year
CHEM 281 Chemical Reactions II
3
CHEM 281L Chemical Reactions II Lab
4
CHEM 282 Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics
3
CHEM 282L Chem. Thermodynam. Lab
3
Language(5)
6
BIOL 201 Introduction to Biology
3
BIOL 202 Introduction to Biology
3
Approved electives(3)
5
30
Third Year
CHEM 441 Biological Chemistry I
3
CHEM 442 Biological Chemistry II
3
PHYS 201, 202 Principles of Phys. I & II or
PHYS 231, 232 Classical & Modern Phys.
8
PHYS 201L, 202L Basic Phys. Lab I & II(6)
3
Approved electives(3)
13
30
Fourth Year
CHEM 341 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 342 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 432 Inorganic Chemistry
3
CHEM 451 Biological Chemistry Lab I
3
CHEM 452 Biological Chemistry Lab II
3
Approved electives(3)
15
30
 
Specialization in Chemical Physics  The department offers an opportunity for a student to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry with a Specialization in Chemical Physics. Candidates for the degree must complete, with a grade point average of at least 2.0, a minimum of 120 credits of required courses and approved electives.

B.S. in Chemistry with Specialization in Chemical Physics
(7)

First Year
CHEM 181 Chemical Structure
3
CHEM181L Chemical Structure Lab
3
CHEM 182 Chemical Reactions I
3
CHEM 182L Chemical Reactions I Lab
3
ENWR 110 Composition
3
MATH 131 Calculus I
4
MATH 132 Calculus II
4
Language(5)
8
Approved electives(3)
0-3
31-34
Second Year
CHEM 281 Chemical Reactions II
3
CHEM 281L Chemical Reactions II Lab
3
CHEM 282 Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics
3
CHEM 282L Chem. Thermodynamics Lab
3
PHYS 231 Classical & Modern Phys. I
4
PHYS 232 Classical & Modern Phys. II
4
MATH 221 Calculus III or
MATH 225 or 325 Ordinary Differential Equations.
4
Language(5)
6
30
Third Year
CHEM 341 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 342 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 371 Intermediate Techniques in Chemical Experimentation
3
CHEM 372 Intermediate Chem. Exper.
3
PHYS 201L Basic Physics Lab I
PHYS 202L Basic Physics Lab II(6)
PHYS___ Two approved PHYS elect.
6
Approved electives(3)
9
30
Fourth Year
CHEM 521 Advanced Physical Chem. I
3
CHEM 522 Advanced Physical Chem. II
3
Approved electives(3)
24
30
 
Specialization in Chemical Education The Specialization in Chemical Education is for students who intend to teach chemistry/science K-12; it is taken in conjunction with the Curry School's five-year Master of Teaching program, to which students must seek admission. This option is available only to students in the five-year Teachers Education Degree Program, and students must complete all requirements and comply with all regulations of the Curry School of Education as applicable to its Teachers Education Degree Program.

B.S. in Chemistry with Specialization in Chemical Education
(1) 

First Year
CHEM 181 Principles of Chemical Structure
3
CHEM 181L Principles of Chemical Structure Laboratory
3
CHEM 182 Principles of Chemical Reactions I
3
CHEM 182L Principles of Chemical Reactions I Laboratory
3
ENWR 110 Composition
3
MATH 121,122 Applied Calculus I, II or
MATH 131,132 Calculus I, II
8
Language(5)
8
Approved elective(3)
0-3
31-34
Second Year
CHEM 281 Principles of Chemical Reactions II
3
CHEM 281L Principles of Chemical Reactions II Laboratory
4
CHEM 282 Principles of Chemical Thermo and Kinetics
3
CHEM 282L Principles of Chemical Thermo and Kinetics Lab
3
Two of the following courses:

BIOL 201,BIOL 202,EVSC 280,EVSC 320,EVSC 340,EVSC 350

6
Language(5)
6
Approved electives(3)
5
30
Third Year
Two of the following courses:

CHEM 441, CHEM 442, CHEM 432, CHEM 551

6
CHEM 371, 372 Intermediate Techniques in Chemical Experimentation or
CHEM 451,452 Biological Chemistry Lab.
6
PHYS 201,202 Principles of Physics I&II or
PHYS 231,232 Classical and Modern Physics
8
PHYS 201L, 202L Basic Physics Lab I & II
3
Approved electives
13
30
Fourth Year
CHEM 341, 342 Physical Chemistry
6
CHEM 371, 372 Intermediate Techniques Chem. Expt
6
Science
6
Approved electives
12
30

Specialization in Environmental Chemistry  The department offers an opportunity for a student to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry with a Specialization in Environmental Chemistry. Candidates for the degree must complete, with a grade point average of at least 2.0, a minimum of 120 credits composed of required courses and approved electives.

Recommended B.S. in Chemistry with Specialization in Environmental Chemistry

First Year
CHEM 181 Chemical Structure
3
CHEM 181L Chemical Structure Lab
3
CHEM 182 Chemical Reactions I
3
CHEM 182L Chemical Reactions I Lab
3
ENWR 110 Composition
3
MATH 121 Applied Calculus I or
MATH 131 Calculus I
4
MATH 122 Applied Calculus II or
MATH 132 Calculus II
4
Language(5)
8
Approved electives(3)
0-3
31-34
Second Year
CHEM 281 Chemical Reactions II
3
CHEM 281L Chemical Reactions II Lab
4
CHEM 282 Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics
3
CHEM 282L Chem. Thermodynam. Lab
3
Language(5)
6
EVSC _____ Two core courses and labs(8)
8
Approved electives(3)
5
32
Third Year
CHEM 551 Instrumental Analysis or
EVSC 485L Coastal Processes Lab(9)
3
CHEM 341 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 342 Physical Chemistry
3
PHYS 201, 202 Principles of Phys. I & II or
PHYS 231, 232 Classical & Modern Phys.
8
PHYS 201L Basic Physics Lab I
PHYS 202L Basic Physics Lab II
Approved electives(3)
12
32
Fourth Year
CHEM 432 Inorganic Chemistry
3
Two Approved upper-level CHEM or EVSC electives(9)
6
Approved electives(3)
21
30
 
Specialization in Materials  The department offers an opportunity for a student to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry with a Specialization in Materials. Candidates for the degree must complete, with a grade point average of at least 2.0, a minimum of 120 credits composed of required courses and approved electives.

Recommended B.S. in Chemistry with Specialization in Materials

First Year
CHEM 181 Chemical Structure
3
CHEM 181L Chemical Structure Lab
3
CHEM 182 Chemical Reactions I
3
CHEM 182L Chemical Reactions I Lab
3
ENWR 110 Composition
3
MATH 131 Calculus I
4
MATH 132 Calculus II
4
MSE 102 Intro to Science Materials
3
Language(5)
8
34
Second Year
CHEM 281 Chemical Reactions II
3
CHEM 281L Chemical Reactions II Lab
4
CHEM 282 Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics
3
CHEM 282L Chem. Thermodynam. Lab
3
PHYS 231 Classical and Modern Physics I
4
PHYS 232 Classical and Mod. Phys. II
4
PHYS 201L Basic Physics Lab I(6)
PHYS 202L Basic Physics Lab II
MATH 221 Calculus III or
MATH 225 Ordinary Differential Eq.
4
Language(5)
6
34
Third Year
CHEM 341 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 342 Physical Chemistry
3
CHEM 371 Intermediate Techniques in Chemistry Experiments
3
CHEM 551 Instrumental Methods of Analysis
3
MSE 301, 301L Corrosion and Lab
4
MSE 305 Phase Diagrams and Kinetics of Materials
3
Approved electives(3)
11
30
Fourth Year
CHEM 432 Inorganic Chemistry
3
MSE ____ or
CHEM ____ Elective(10)
3
Approved electives(3)
24
30
 
(1) This table shows the normal sequence of required courses. Students who have taken CHEM 141, 142, 141L, 142L and wish to obtain the B.S. should complete CHEM 222. CHEM 222 may not be taken for credit by students who complete CHEM 181, 282, 181L, 282L. It is possible to major in chemistry after taking PHYS 201, 202 rather than PHYS 231, 232. Candidates not following the normal course sequence should consult an advisor as early as possible.

(2) Students are required to complete the equivalent of Language 201. German or Russian are recommended but not required. If this requirement is satisfied in less than three semesters, the student may elect other language courses or a different subject.

(3) Approved electives are chosen by the candidate in conference with an advisor; they must include courses that meet other College requirements.

(4) The fourth-year program is adaptable to individual student interests in that there are no specific required courses. Students may choose from any 400 or greater level course in physical, organic, inorganic, analytical, or biological chemistry.

(5) Students are required to complete the equivalent of Language 202. German or Russian are recommended but not required. If this requirement is satisfied in less than four semesters, the student may elect other language courses or a different subject.

(6) PHYS 221, 222 taken after PHYS 231, 232 is an acceptable alternative.

(7) This table shows the normal sequence of required courses. Students who have taken CHEM 141, 142, 141L, 142L and wish to obtain the B.S. should complete CHEM 222. CHEM 222 may not be offered for credit by students who complete CHEM 181, 282, 181L, 282L. Students may also complete the physics requirement by taking the PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252 sequence. Candidates not following the normal sequence should consult an advisor as early as possible.

(8) Student must take at least two EVSC core courses and labs. These include EVSC 280/280L, 320/320L, 340/340L, and 350/350L.

(9) Two additional courses at 400-level CHEM or above, or approved upper-level EVSC courses (300 to 500 level). Examples include EVSC 386, 427, 480, 493, or additional EVSC core courses. By taking EVSC 485 and two upper-level EVSC courses as electives, a student qualifies for a minor in environmental sciences.

(10) Students are required to take one 400-level elective in CHEM or an approved elective in material science (e.g., MSE 301, MSE 304, ENGR 497).

Distinguished Majors Program  Students with a cumulative grade point average of 3.4 or higher after five semesters may apply for the Distinguished Majors Program (DMP). Applications and inquiries must be made to the Undergraduate Programs Committee prior to the beginning of the seventh semester. The DMP consists of specified course requirements within the B.A. or B.S. programs and two semesters (six credits) of study or research under the supervision of a faculty member. The results of the research will be submitted in written form and presented to a faculty committee. Additional information can be obtained from the Undergraduate Programs Committee of the Department of Chemistry.

Requirements for Minor  A minor in chemistry requires the satisfactory completion of CHEM 141, 142, 141L, 142L, 241, 242, 241L, 242L or CHEM 181, 182, 181L, 182L, 281, 282, 281L, 282L; CHEM 341 and one other chemistry course at the 300-level or higher (except chemistry research courses). CHEM 222 may be presented as the elective course if CHEM 142 is included in the program.

Students who receive advanced standing credit for CHEM 141, 142 and who take CHEM 181, 282 may count both CHEM 141, 142 and CHEM 181, 282 toward the degree.

Students are responsible for breakage charges.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the head of Undergraduate Advising, Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Building, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-3344; www.virginia.edu/chem/ (Undergraduate Information).

Course Descriptions

CHEM 121 - (3) (Y)
Concepts of Chemistry
Studies the unifying ideas of the structure of matter and energy, including topics such as the ozone layer and radioactivity, and the nature of scientific investigation. Primarily for non-science majors. Three class hours; no laboratory.

CHEM 122 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Chemistry
By examining what science teaches us about relevant topics such as energy, synthetics, and food, the student develops a sense of the tone, vocabulary, and demarcation of scientific discourse. Independent of, and complementary to, CHEM 121. Primarily for non-science majors. Three class hours; no laboratory.

CHEM 141, 142 - (3) (Y)
Introductory College Chemistry
Corequisite: CHEM 141L, 142L or CHEM 181L, 182L.
Introduces the principles and applications of chemistry. Topics include stoichiometry, chemical equations and reactions, chemical bonding, states of matter, thermochemistry, chemical kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and descriptive chemistry of the elements. For students planning to elect further courses in chemistry, physics, and biology. Three class hours.

CHEM 141L, 142L - (2) (Y)
Introductory College Chemistry Laboratory
Corequisite: CHEM 141, 142, or CHEM 181, 182.
Surveys the practice of chemistry as an experimental science, the development of skills in laboratory manipulation, and laboratory safety. Topics include observation, measurement and data analysis, separation and purification techniques, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. Three and one-half laboratory hours, and an optional one-hour laboratory lecture.

CHEM 151, 152 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Chemistry for Engineers
Corequisite: CHEM 141L, 142L, CHEM 151L, 152L, or CHEM 181L, 182L.
The principles and applications of chemistry are tailored to engineering students. Topics include stoichiometry, chemical equations and reactions, chemical bonding, states of matter, thermochemistry, chemical kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and descriptive chemistry of the elements. For engineering students, but may be used as a prerequisite for further courses in chemistry. Three class hours.

CHEM 151L, 152L - (1) (Y)
Introductory Chemistry for Engineers Laboratory
Corequisite: CHEM 151, 152.
Surveys the practice of chemistry as an experimental science, the development of skills in laboratory manipulation, and laboratory safety. Topics include observation, measurement and data analysis, separation and purification techniques, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. Three and one-half laboratory hours. Meets every other week.

CHEM 170, 171 - (1-3) (Y)
Liberal Arts Seminar
Seminar assigned primarily for first and second-year students taught on a voluntary basis by a faculty member. Topics vary.

CHEM 181 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Structure
Prerequisite: A strong background in high school chemistry.
First of a four-semester sequence covering the basic concepts of general and organic chemistry (the 180/280 sequence is comparable to the 140/240 sequence but is more rigorous). Establishes a foundation of fundamental particles and the nature of the atom, develops a rationale for molecular structure, and explores the basis of chemical reactivity. Topics include introductory quantum mechanics, atomic structure, chemical bonding, spectroscopy, and elementary molecular reactivity.

CHEM 181L - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Structure Laboratory
Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 181.
Accompanies CHEM 181. Four laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 182 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions I
Prerequisite: CHEM 181.
Seeks to understand elementary reaction types as a function of chemical structure by emphasizing organic compounds. Topics include acid-base, nucleophilic substitution, oxidation-reduction, electrophilic addition, elimination, conformational analysis, stereochemistry, aromaticity, and molecular spectroscopy.

CHEM 182L - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions I Laboratory
Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 182.
Accompanies CHEM 182. Four laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 191 - (3) (IR)
Archaeological Chemistry
Prerequisite: High school chemistry or physics.
Studies the methods for the discovery, scientific characterization, and preservation of archaeological artifacts; intended for students of archaeology, anthropology, art history, and other disciplines dealing with ancient civilizations.

CHEM 210 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Survey of Organic Chemistry
Prerequisite: CHEM 121, 122 or CHEM 141, 142, or CHEM 181, 182.
Surveys organic chemistry and acquaints the student with the scope of carbon chemistry, its basic principles, and some of its applications. Not intended for chemistry majors; not a suitable organic chemistry course for pre-medical students. (Three hours lecture, no laboratory).

CHEM 212 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Prerequisite: One semester of general chemistry; corequisite: CHEM 212L.
Introduces the nomenclature, structure, reactivity, and applications of organic compounds, including those which are of importance in the chemical industry. Three lecture hours.

CHEM 212L - (1) (Y)
Introduction to Organic Chemistry Laboratory
Corequisite: CHEM 212.
Six-to-seven four-hour laboratory sessions and an equal number of one-hour laboratory lectures to accompany CHEM 212.

CHEM 222 - (4) (Y)
Solution Chemistry
Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 141, 142 or 181, 182 and 141L with an A grade in 141.
Application of the principles of chemical equilibrium to solutions. The laboratory applies classical and instrumental methods to systems involving solubility, ionization, complexion formation, and oxidation-reduction equilibria. Two class hours, four laboratory hours. No credit may be received for CHEM 222 if CHEM 181L and 282Lhave been taken.

CHEM 241, 242 - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry
Prerequisite: CHEM 141, 142 or equivalent. CHEM 281 or 241 is a prerequisite for CHEM 242; corequisites: CHEM 241L, 242L, or 281L, 282L.
Surveys the compounds of carbon in relation to their structure, identification, synthesis, natural occurrence, and mechanisms of reactions. Three class hours; optional discussions.

CHEM 241L, 242L - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry Laboratory
Corequisite: CHEM 281, 282 or CHEM 241, 242.
Focuses on the development of skills in methods of preparation, purification and identification of organic compounds. One discussion hour; four laboratory hours.

CHEM 281 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions II
Prerequisite: CHEM 182.
Continued exploration of organic reactions and structures initiated in CHEM 182. Includes electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic addition, nucleophilic acyl substitution, organometallic compounds, carbohydrates, lipids, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids.

CHEM 281L - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions II Laboratory
Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 281.
Accompanies CHEM 281. Six laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 282 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Prerequisite: CHEM 281 and MATH 122 or 132; corequisite: PHYS 202 or 232.
Focuses on the macroscopic properties of chemical systems. Topics include states of matter, physical equilibria, chemical equilibria, thermodynamic relationships, kinetic theory, and electrochemistry.

CHEM 282L - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics Laboratory
Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 282.
Accompanies CHEM 282. Four laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 341, 342 - (3) (Y)
Physical Chemistry
Prerequisite: CHEM 141, 142 or CHEM 181, 182, MATH 122 or 132, and PHYS 201, 202 or PHYS231, 232.
Introduces physical chemistry with numerous biological applications.
CHEM 341:  properties of gases, liquids, and solids; thermodynamics; chemical and biochemical equilibrium; solutions; electrochemistry; and structure and stability of biological macromolecules.
CHEM 342: chemical kinetics; introductory quantum theory; chemical bonding; spectroscopy and molecular structure; biochemical transport; and statistical mechanics.

CHEM 351, 352 - (1) (Y)
Research Seminar in Biological Chemistry
Students and faculty discuss current topics of interest in biological chemistry. Intended for students who are participants in the undergraduate research program. Credit/no credit basis.

CHEM 351 - (3) (Y)
Physical Chemistry
Prerequisite: CHEM 151, 152, PHYS 241E, and APMA 205, 206.
Introduces physical chemistry designated specifically for undergraduate chemical engineers. Survey of the basic principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic theory of gases, quantum mechanics of atoms and molecules, molecular spectroscopy, statistical mechanics, and reaction dynamics. Emphasizes the fundamental theories, models, and laws used in describing, representing, and explaining physical processes and properties characteristic of chemical systems.

CHEM 362 - (3) (Y)
Physical Chemistry
Prerequisite: CHEM 341 or CHEM 361.
The second semester of physical chemistry for B.S. majors. Topics include quantum chemistry, atomic and molecular structure, molecular spectroscopy, statistical thermodynamics, and kinetics.

CHEM 371, 372 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Techniques in Chemical Experimentation
Prerequisite: CHEM 141, 142 or equivalent; corequisite: CHEM 341, 342.
Execution of laboratory experiments that illustrate important laws and demonstrate quantitative methods of measuring the chemical and physical properties of matter. Four laboratory hours, one class hour.

CHEM 391, 392 - (1) (Y)
Introductory Research Seminar
Introduces research approaches and tools in chemistry including examples of formulation of approaches, literature searches, research methods, and reporting of results. Oral presentations by students, faculty, and visiting lecturers.

CHEM 393, 394 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Covers specialized topics in chemistry not normally covered in formal lecture or laboratory courses. Under the direction of the faculty.

CHEM 395, 396 - (1-3) (Y)
Introduction to Research
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Introduces the methods of research in chemistry that include use of the research literature and instruction in basic experimental and theoretical procedures and techniques. Under the direct supervision of faculty.

CHEM 432 - (3) (Y)
Inorganic Chemistry
Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 341, 342.
Unified treatment of the chemistry of the important classes of inorganic compounds and their reactions, with emphasis on underlying principles of molecular structure, symmetry, and bonding theory, including molecular orbital descriptions and reactivity. Three class hours.

CHEM 441 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry I
Prerequisite: One year of organic chemistry.
Introduces the components of biological macromolecules and the principles behind their observed structures. Examines the means by which enzymes catalyze transformations of other molecules, emphasizing the chemical principles involved. Topics include a  description of the key metabolic cycles and pathways, the enzymes which catalyze these reactions, and the ways in which these pathways are regulated. Three class hours.

CHEM 442 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry II
Prerequisite: CHEM 441 or instructor permission.
Covers three main areas: structure and function of biological membranes; complex biochemical systems and processes, including photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, vision, neurotransmission, hormonal regulation, muscle contraction, and microtubules; and molecular biology, including DNA and RNA metabolism, protein synthesis, regulation of gene expression, and recombinant DNA methodology. Three class hours.

CHEM 451 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry Laboratory I
Prerequisite: CHEM 182L or CHEM 222. Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 441 or instructor permission.
Studies the isolation and purification of biological materials. Topics include the chemical properties of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids; and the chemical and physical methods used in the characterization and quantitative determination of proteins. One class hour, four laboratory hours.

CHEM 452 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry Laboratory II
Prerequisite/corequisite: CHEM 442 and 451.
Analyzes the physical methods used in studying macromolecules. Experiments include spectroscopic, hydrodynamic, and kinetic methods. Topics include enzyme kinetics and the statistical analysis of data. One class hour, four laboratory hours.

CHEM 491, 492 - (1) (Y)
Undergraduate Research Seminar
Corequisite: CHEM 495, 496.
Discussion of research approaches, methods and results for students registered in CHEM 495, 496. Oral presentations by students, faculty and visiting lecturers.

CHEM 495, 496 - (3) (Y)
Supervised and Original Research in Chemistry
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Original research involving experimental or theoretical chemistry carried out under the direct supervision of faculty. A minimum of nine hours per week, including conferences with research supervisor.

CHEM 511 - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry III
Prerequisite: One year of organic chemistry. One year of physical chemistry is recommended.
Systematic review and extension of the facts and theory of organic chemistry; including the mechanism of reactions, structure and stereochemistry. Three class hours.

CHEM 516 - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry of Selected Biological Compounds
Prerequisite: CHEM 241, 242 or 281, 282.
Traces the biosynthesis of naturally occurring substances from their photosynthetic beginnings to their eventual end as complex natural products. Topics include the major metabolic pathways, important enzyme systems, fatty acids, prostaglandins, terpenes, steroids, vitamins, hormones, alkaloids, pheromones, neuro-transmitters, drug development, vision and brain chemistry, insect-plant-herbivore interactions, and the basis of various human illnesses such as inborn errors of metabolism.

CHEM 521 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Physical Chemistry I
Prerequisite: CHEM 341, 342.
Studies introductory quantum mechanics. Topics include the application of group theory to molecular orbital theory; and rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra. Three class hours.

CHEM 522 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Physical Chemistry II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the laws of thermodynamics and extra-thermodynamic principles; statistical mechanics; theory of reaction rates; and the interpretation of experimental kinetic data. Three class hours.

CHEM 535 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry I
Prerequisite: CHEM 432 or instructor permission.
Introduces the electronic structure of atoms and simple molecules, including basic concepts and applications of symmetry and group theory. The chemistry of the main group elements is described using energetics, structure, and reaction pathways to provide a theoretical background. Emphasizes applying these concepts to predicting the stability and developing synthetic routes to individual compounds or classes.

CHEM 536 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry II
Prerequisite: CHEM 432 or instructor permission.
Introduces the electronic structure of compounds of the transition metals using ligan field theory and molecular orbital theory. Describes the chemistry of coordination and organometallic compounds, emphasizing structure, reactivity, and synthesis. Examines applications to transformations in organic chemistry and to catalysis.

CHEM 551 - (3) (Y)
Instrumental Methods of Analysis
Corequisite: CHEM 341 or CHEM 361 or instructor permission.
Study of the utilization of modern analytical instrumentation for chemical analysis. Includes emission and mass spectrometry, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared absorption spectroscopy, atomic absorption, electrical methods of analysis, chromatography, neutron activation analysis, and X-ray methods. Three class hours.

Department of Classics
Cabell Hall, Rm 401
P.O. Box 400788
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4788
Phone: (434) 924-3008
Fax: (434) 924-3062

Overview  In 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote to the renowned scientist Joseph Priestly, 'To read the Latin and Greek authors in their original is a sublime luxury.... I thank on my knees him who directed my early education for having in my possession this rich source of delight.' Accordingly, in his plan for the University of Virginia, Jefferson established the School of Ancient Languages as one of its ten divisions. The Department of Classics carries on the same mission today.

Mr. Jefferson, who valued the useful no less than the sublime, knew that the classics provide both. Greek and Latin languages, literature, and culture formed the core of education until the middle of the nineteenth century, and for good reason. First, the Greek and Latin languages are themselves a training in clear thought and forceful style. Second, many of the most important ideas, principles, methods of investigation and analysis, and modes of government in use today occurred first to the Greeks and the Romans, and found their most memorable expression in that culture; and to understand where our civilization is today, it is necessary to know where it has been. Third, Greco-Roman antiquity can be approached both as like ourselves, the recognizable ancestor of modern civilization, and as a civilization quite markedly 'other' than ourselves, instructive because of its difference. Fourth, ever since the Renaissance, when the word 'interdisciplinary' had not even been thought of, a classical education has been an education that stretches the mind by combining literature, history, philosophy, art, architecture, government, and religion. For these reasons and many others, students today major in classics or take Latin or Greek or civilization courses to complement their other studies. Our majors find it a useful preparation for fields as diverse as business, law, medicine, or a career in the arts, in addition to the more obvious careers in teaching at the high school or college level.

Faculty  The interests of the faculty include the varied aspects of Greek and Roman literature, Greek religion, and Greek and Roman history. The faculty has published texts and commentaries on major classical authors, interpretive works on Ovid, Homer, and other ancient writers, and studies of Greek religion and mythology. The Department has a wide-ranging and intellectually diverse group of professors, whose expertise extends from archaic Greece to the Latin Middle Ages. Their particular interests include Greek and Roman religion, Homer and Hesiod, Greek lyric and Hellenistic poetry, tragedy, Latin poetry of the Republic and Empire, Late Latin and medieval literature, textual criticism, Greek epigraphy and papyrology, and the Greek and Roman historians.

Since classics is an interdisciplinary program, the classics faculty is joined by faculty from other departments, such as archaeology, ancient history and political theory, ancient religions, and philosophy. A total of sixteen faculty members work with students to provide a thorough and wide-ranging view of ancient culture and its effects on our lives.

Students  Approximately thirty students are majoring in the classics program. Many of them combine a major in classics with another major, an option which makes them exceptionally strong candidates for selective graduate schools and educational posts. With the exception of intermediate Latin, most language courses are taught by a faculty member. Also, since the department offers both master's and doctoral programs, undergraduates with advanced skills can take upper-level coursework at the graduate level. The interaction among undergraduates, graduates, and faculty provides an atmosphere exceptionally conducive to the learning process.

Special Resources

Classics Club 
The Classics Club is a University organization of students interested in classical antiquity. The Club sponsors social and academic events for the classical community.

Study Abroad  The University of Virginia is an institutional member of the Center for Intercollegiate Studies (the Centro) in Rome, and students regularly avail themselves of this connection to spend a semester or a year abroad. For Athens there is a College Year in Athens program. There are several other programs that arrange for the study of classics in the United Kingdom or on the continent.

Anne Marye Owen Prize  The best student each year in GREE 101-102 and the best first-year student enrolled in the fall 300-level Latin course receive the Anne Marye Owen Prize, which carries a substantial cash award.

J. P. Elder Award The J.P. Elder Award is given each year to an outstanding graduating major in Classics.

Marian Stocker Award The Marian Stocker Award is presented at the graduation ceremony to a deserving Classics major about to embark on a career in high school teaching of Latin.

Study Abroad The University of Virginia is an institutional member of the Center for Intercollegiate Studies (the Centro) in Rome, and students regularly avail themselves of this connection to spend a semester or a year abroad. For Athens there is a College Year in Athens program. There are several other programs that arrange for the study of classics in the United Kingdom or on the continent.


Requirements for a Degree in Classics with a Concentration in Greek  Requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts with Greek as the subject of specialization: 18 credits above the 101-102 level in Greek; six credits Latin; additional courses, including HIEU 203 and CLAS 201 or 202, totaling at least twelve credits in related subjects approved by the faculty advisor.

Requirements for Minor in Greek  12 credits above 101-102 level in Greek and CLAS 201.

Requirements for Degree in Classics with a Concentration in Latin  Requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts with Latin as the subject of specialization: eighteen credits of Latin language courses above the level of LATI 103; GREE 101-102 or its equivalent; and additional courses, including CLAS 201or 202, HIEU 204, totaling at least twelve credits in related subjects approved by the faculty advisor.

Requirements for Minor in Latin  Twelve credits above the level of LATI 103 and CLAS 202.

Placement  All first-year students who present secondary-school credits in Latin and who wish to take one of the first- or second-year courses in Latin are placed on the basis of scores from the College Entrance Examination Board Achievement Test. Those who enter without having taken this test are required to take it during orientation week.

Distinguished Major Program  Majors with an overall GPA of 3.4 or higher may apply for the Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) to the director of undergraduate studies. Requirements include 3 credits either at the graduate level or at the 400 level; 3 credits of graduate (500-level) courses; and 6 research credits, the first half of which the student spends exploring a research topic under the guidance of a faculty member in the spring semester of the third year; the remaining three credits are spent in the fall of the fourth year completing the research and writing a thesis.


High School Teaching in Latin. Anyone interested in teaching Latin at the secondary level may wish to pursue the combined Bachelor of Arts and Master of Teaching, offered jointly with the Curry School of Education. This five-year program involves both a complete major in Classics and a course of study leading to professional teaching licensure.

Foreign Language Requirement  The foreign language requirement may be completed in Latin by passing LATI 202, and in Greek by passing GREE 202 or GREE 224, except that persons offering CEEB Achievement Test scores of 650 or above in either language are exempt entirely from further study to complete their language requirement. A grade of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement Vergil exam earns credit for LATI 202 and exemption from the language requirement. A grade of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement Latin Literature exam earns credit for a 300-level course and exemption from the language requirement.

Additional Information  For more information, contact John Dillery, Director of Undergraduate Studies, Chair, Department of Classics, P.O. Box 400788, 401 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4788; (434) 924-3008; www.virginia.edu/~classics/

Course Descriptions

Classics

The following courses have no prerequisite, require no knowledge of Greek or Latin, and may not be taken to fulfill language requirements.

CLAS 201 - (3) (Y)
Greek Civilization
Studies Greek history, literature, and art.

CLAS 202 - (3) (Y)
Roman Civilization
Studies Roman history, literature, and art.

CLAS 204 - (3) (Y)
Greek Mythology

Introduces major themes of Greek mythological thought; surveys myths about the olympic pantheon and the legends of the heroes.

CLAS 304 - (3) (E)
Gender in Antiquity

Studies ancient views of gender and sexuality in ancient society.

CLAS 310 - (3) (E)
Age of Odysseus
Studies the literature, culture, history, art, and religion of the times of the Homeric epics (Bronze Age to circa 700 B.C.). Readings include Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, The Homeric Hymns, and Hesiod's Theogony and Works and Days. Some emphasis on the archaeology of Mycenaean sites.

CLAS 311 - (3) (E)
Age of Pericles
Studies the literature, art, architecture, history, and politics of the Periclean Age of Athens, with special emphasis on Pericles (circa 495-429 B.C.) and his accomplishments. Readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Thucydides, and Plutarch.

CLAS 312 - (3) (E)
Age of Alexander
Studies the times, person, accomplishments of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), the literature, art, and architecture of the period, and the influence of Alexander on the development of Greek and Western culture. Readings from Plutarch, Arrian, Demosthenes, and poets and philosophers of the early Hellenistic period.

CLAS 313 - (3) (E)
Age of Augustus
Studies the times, person, and accomplishments of the Roman Emperor Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), with special emphasis on the literature, art, architecture, and political developments of the period. Readings from Tacitus, Suetonius, and the poetry of Vergil, Horace, and Ovid.

CLAS 314 - (3) (E)
Age of Augustine
Studies cultural developments in the fourth and fifth centuries, centering on St. Augustine and the literature of the period. Readings from such works as Augustine's Confessions and City of God, Jerome's letters, Cassian's Conversations, Sulpicius Severus' biography of St. Martin, and the poetry of Claudian and Prudentius.

CLAS 321 - (3) (Y)
Tragedy and Comedy
Analyzes readings in the tragic poets Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca; and the comic poets Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, and Terence, together with ancient and modern discussions.

Greek

GREE 101, 102 - (8) (Y)
Elementary Greek
Attic Greek: beginning grammar, composition, and selected readings.

GREE 201 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Greek I
Prerequisite: GREE 101-102.
Xenophon and Plato

GREE 202 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Greek II
Prerequisite: GREE 201.
Herodotus and Euripides

GREE 223 - (3) (Y)
The New Testament I
Prerequisite: GREE 101-102.
Introduces New Testament Greek; selections from the Gospels.

GREE 224 - (3) (Y)
The New Testament II
Prerequisite: GREE 201 or GREE 223.
Selections from the Epistles.

GREE 301 - (3) (O)
Advanced Reading in Greek
Prerequisite: GREE 202.
Reading of a tragedy and a related prose work. Weekly exercises in writing Greek.

GREE 302 - (3) (O)
Advanced Reading in Greek
Prerequisite: GREE 301 or 303.
Readings in Greek from Homer's Iliad.

GREE 303 - (3) (E)
Advanced Reading in Greek
Prerequisite: GREE 202.
Reading of a comedy and a related prose work. Weekly exercises in writing Greek.

GREE 304 - (3) (E)
Advanced Reading in Greek
Prerequisite: GREE 301 or 303.
Readings in Greek from Homer's Odyssey. Offered in alternate years.

GREE 503 - (3) (SI)
Classical Greek Prose
Selections illustrating the development of prose style in the fifth and fourth centuries, B.C.

GREE 504 - (3) (SI)
Later Greek Prose
Selections from Greek authors, illustrating the development of prose style from the third century, B.C., to the second century, A.D.

GREE 508 - (3) (SI)
Greek Epigraphy
Studies the inscriptions of the ancient Greeks.

GREE 509 - (3) (SI)
Prose Composition
Translation from English into Greek.

GREE 510 - (3) (SI)
Homer
Studies various Homeric problems with readings from Homeric epics.

GREE 511 - (3) (SI)
Hesiod
Studies the Works and Days and Theogony, and their place in the literary tradition.

GREE 512 - (3) (SI)
Greek Lyric Poetry
Surveys Greek lyric forms from earliest times.

GREE 513 - (3) (SI)
Pindar
Selections from the Odes; studies the development of the choral lyric in Greek Poetry.

GREE 514 - (3) (SI)
Aeschylus' Oresteia
Reading and discussion of Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Choephoroi, and Eumenides.

GREE 515 - (3) (SI)
Sophocles
Selected plays of Sophocles with studies of their dramatic techniques.

GREE 516 - (3) (SI)
Herodotus
Readings in the Histories.

GREE 517 - (3) (SI)
Euripides
Reading of selected plays, with study of the poetic and dramatic technique.

GREE 518 - (3) (SI)
Thucydides
Studies selections from the History of the Peloponnesian War, with attention to the development of Greek historical prose style and the historical monograph.

GREE 519 - (3) (SI)
Aristophanes
Readings from selected plays of Aristophanes, with close examination of the history and development of Greek Old Comedy.

GREE 520 - (3) (SI)
New Comedy
Readings from the Dyscolus and other substantial fragments; discussion of New Comedy, its origins, and its legacy.

GREE 521 - (3) (SI)
Plato
Readings from selected dialogues of Plato; studies Plato's philosophy and literary style.

GREE 522 - (3) (SI)
Aristotle
Reading and discussion of the Nicomachean Ethics.

GREE 523 - (3) (SI)
Hellenistic Poetry
Readings in the poets of the Hellenistic period.

Latin

LATI 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary Latin
Beginning grammar, prose composition, and simple Latin readings.

LATI 103 - (4) (Y)
Fundamentals of Latin (Intensive)
Prerequisite: Two or more years of high school Latin and appropriate CEEB score, or permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies.
Covers the material of 101,102 in one semester. Intended principally as a review for those who know some Latin. May be taken as a rapid introduction to Latin.

LATI 201 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Latin I
Prerequisite: LATI 102, 103, or appropriate CEEB score.
Introductory readings from Caesar and Ovid.

LATI 202 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Latin II
Prerequisite: LATI 201.
Introductory readings from Cicero and Catullus.

LATI 301 - (3) (IR)
Plautus
Reading of two plays of Plautus with attention to style and dramaturgy.

LATI 302 - (3) (IR)
Catullus
Selections from Carmina.

Note  The prerequisite for LATI 303 through LATI 311 is LATI 202, four years of high school Latin, or appropriate SAT score.

LATI 303 - (3) (IR)
Cicero
Selections from Cicero's speeches, philosophical works, and letters.

LATI 304 - (3) (IR)
Prose Composition
Graded exercises in translation from English into Latin, with some attention to the reverse process.

LATI 305 - (3) (IR)
The Satirical Writing of Petronius and Seneca
Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis, and Seneca's Apocolocyntosis.

LATI 307 - (3) (IR)
Livy
Selections from Livy's History.

LATI 308 - (3) (IR)
Horace
Selections from Horace's Satires, Epodes, Odes, and Epistles.

LATI 309 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Mediaeval Latin
Selections of Mediaeval Latin prose and verse.

LATI 310 - (3) (IR)
Vergil
Selections from Vergil's Aeneid.

LATI 311 - (3) (IR)
Ovid
Selections from either the narrative poems (Metamorphoses, Fasti) or from the amatory poems.

LATI 501 - (3) (SI)
History of Republican Latin Literature
Lectures with readings of important works of the period.

LATI 502 - (3) (SI)
History of Latin Literature of the Empire
Lectures with readings of important works of the period.

LATI 503 - (3) (SI)
History of Medieval Latin Literature
Study of medieval Latin literature from Boethius to Dante.

LATI 504 - (3) (SI)
Prose Composition

LATI 505 - (3) (SI)
Latin Paleography
Studies scripts and book production from antiquity to the Renaissance.

LATI 506 - (3) (SI)
Roman Comedy
Selected plays of Plautus and Terence.

LATI 507 - (3) (SI)
Latin Elegy
Studies selections from Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid.

LATI 508 - (3) (SI)
Roman Satire
Studies the satiric fragments from the Roman Republic and Horace's Sermones; the origins of Roman Satire.

LATI 509 - (3) (SI)
Roman Literary Criticism
Studies Roman literary theory, with readings from the Rhetorica ad Herrenium, Cicero's works on the principles of oratory, Horace's Ars Poetica, and Quintilian.

LATI 510 - (3) (SI)
Lucretius
Studies selections from Lucretius' De Rerum Natura; the development of Roman Eipcureanism.

LATI 511 - (3) (SI)
Catullus
Studies the surviving poems of Catullus, with particular attention to questions of genre, structure, and literary history.

LATI 512 - (3) (SI)
Julius Caesar
Studies either the Bellum Gallicum or the Bellum Civile, both as literary monuments and as first-hand accounts of major events in the last years of the Roman Republic.

LATI 513 - (3) (SI)
Cicero's Philosophical Works
Focuses on either the ethical and epistomological or the theological or political treatises.

LATI 514 - (3) (SI)
Cicero's Rhetorical Works
Readings from the orations and the rhetorical treatises.

LATI 515 - (3) (SI)
Sallust
Studies the historical monographs Catilina and Jurgurtha in their literary and historical setting, with attention to the remains of the Histories and other contemporary documents.

LATI 516 - (3) (SI)
Vergil's Aeneid

LATI 517 - (3) (SI)
Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics

LATI 518 - (3) (SI)
Horace's Odes

LATI 519 - (3) (SI)
Livy
Selected readings from the Ab urbe condita.

LATI 520 - (3) (SI)
Ovid's Metamorphoses

LATI 521 - (3) (SI)
Ovid's Love Poetry
Readings from the Amores, Heroides, Ars Amatoria, and Remedia Amoris.

LATI 522 - (3) (SI)
Tacitus
Selections from Tacitus.

LATI 523 - (3) (SI)
Petronius
Studies Petronius' Satyricon and the development of fiction-writing in classical antiquity.

LATI 524 - (3) (SI)
Juvenal
Studies the satires of Juvenal and the development of satire among the Romans.

LATI 525 - (6) (SI)
Seneca's Philosophical Works
Studies selected philosophical texts of Seneca, chiefly the Epistulae Morales and the nature and development of Roman Stoicism.

LATI 526 - (3) (SI)
Latin Epic After Vergil
Readings from Lucan, Statius, and Silius Italicus.

LATI 527 - (3) (SI)
Apuleius' Metamorphoses
Reading of the text; the influence of the work on subsequent literature and art.

LATI 528 - (3) (SI)
Christian Latin Writings of the Roman Empire

Program in Cognitive Science
P.O. Box 400400
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400
Phone: (434) 924-0655

Overview  Cognitive science is the study of cognition'cognition being the structure, acquisition, and use of knowledge. Knowledge-based systems process information. That is, they have the capabilities of encoding information, applying lawful transformations on these inputs, and modifying their processing logic in accordance with changes in both their inputs and their own outputs.

The scientific study of information processing systems has developed in a number of interrelated yet distinct disciplines, especially cognitive psychology, computer science, linguistics, and neuroscience. While these disciplines are all concerned with the processing of information, they each focus on somewhat different systems. Cognitive psychology is concerned with all of the human information processing faculties. Computer science deals with the modeling or automation of intelligent functions on digital hardware. Linguistics examines the particular cognitive faculty of language, sometimes studied from the perspective of its use by people, but often modeled without concern for human performance limitations. Finally, neuroscience seeks to explain how information processing functions are performed within the constraints of the neuroanatomical structure of biological systems.

Increasingly, these distinct disciplines are developing overlapping domains of inquiry. For example, often the competencies that a computer scientist wishes to model are within the human repertoire of skills; thus, their logic is understood to some degree by cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers of knowledge. Moreover, all of these disciplines can be seen to converge in their inquiry into the form and function of language.

Students  A major in cognitive science prepares students for a wide variety of career opportunities. The options available depend on the particular program of study elected by the student and whether he or she pursues advanced degrees in either cognitive science or one of its related disciplines. The major provides a strong background for entry into any business setting in which computer literacy and a knowledge of human information processing capacities is of concern. These applications span the range from the automation of computerized expert systems to the design of effective human/computer interfaces.

Requirements for Major  Thirty credits are required for the major in cognitive science.

Prospective majors must complete, with grades of C+ or better, two designated cognitive science courses from two different core areas: cognitive psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and philosophy (a list of designated courses follows). Prospective majors must also have a GPA of 2.0 or better for all cognitive science courses completed at the University.

Required courses: MATH 131 or 122 (students are strongly advised to take MATH 131 instead of MATH 122); at least one designated cognitive science course in each of the five core areas; at least two courses at the 400 level or above in one of the five core areas, excluding directed readings, research, or internship courses. Courses counted in the 30 credits may not be taken on a credit/no credit basis. Students are dropped from the major if they fall below a cumulative GPA of 2.0 for all designated cognitive science courses.

Distinguished Majors Program in Cognitive Science

General Information
Outstanding cognitive science majors who have completed 18 credit hours towards their major and who have a cumulative GPA of 3.4 or better may apply by the third semester before graduating to the Distinguished Majors Program.  Students who are accepted will complete a thesis based on two semesters of empirical or theoretical research. Upon successful completion of the program, students will normally be recommended for a baccalaureate award of Distinction, High Distinction or Highest Distinction.

Requirements
Students applying to the DMP must have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.4 and have completed 18 credit hours towards their Cognitive Science major by the end of the semester in which they apply. In addition to the normal requirements for the cognitive science major, they must register for two semesters of supervised research (Cognitive Science 497 and 498). Based on their independent research, students must complete a thesis or review at least one month prior to graduation.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the director, Dennis Proffitt, 102 Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-0655; www.virginia.edu/~cogsci.

Courses Approved for Major

Particular courses within relevant departments are designated as being cognitive science courses. Courses from other departments, such as mathematics or systems engineering, may be designated as cognitive science courses if their content is judged to be appropriate by the undergraduate committee that oversees the curriculum. The following is a list of designated courses offered on a regular basis. There are also numerous cognitive science courses that are offered more infrequently; thus, the following list is not exhaustive.

Cognitive Psychology

PSYC 215 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Cognition

PSYC 230 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Perception

PSYC 305, 306 - (4) (S)
Research Methods and Analysis

PSYC 416 - (3) (IR)
Thinking About thinking

PSYC 418 - (3) (Y)
Invention and Design

PSYC 430 - (3) (IR)
Theories of Perception

PSYC 468 - (3) (IR)
Psychology and Law

PSYC 555 - (3) Y)
Developmental Psycholinguistics

Computer Science
All courses except CS110 and 120

Linguistics

LNGS 325 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Analysis

ANTH 349 - (3) (IR)
Language and Thought

ANTH 504 - (3) (Y)
Linguistic Field Methods

LING 501 - (3) (IR)
Synchronic Linguistics

LNGS 506 - (3) (IR)
Syntax and Semantics

ANTH 542 - (3) (IR)
20th Century Linguistic Theory

Neuroscience

PSYC 220 - (3) (S)
Psychobiology

PSYC 321 - (3) (S)
Psychobiology Lab

PSYC 420 - (3) (Y)
Neural Mechanisms of Behavior

PSYC 520 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in Psychobiology

PSYC 521 - (3) (IR)
Developmental Psychobiology

PSYC 525 - (3) (IR)
Neuroendocrinology

PSYC 526 - (3) (IR)
Psychobiology of Memory

PSYC 527- (3) (IR)
Neurotransmitters and Behavior

PSYC 531 - (3) (IR)
Functional Neuroanatomy

PSYC 533 - (3) (IR)
Neural Networks

Philosophy

PHIL 233 - (3) (E)
Computers, Minds, and Brains

PHIL 242 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Symbolic Logic

PHIL 332 - (3) (Y)
Epistemology

PHIL 333 - (3) (IR)
Materialism and the Mind-Body Problem

PHIL 334 - (3) (E)
Philosophy of Mind

PHIL 350 - (3) (IR)
Philosophy of Language

PHIL 542 - (3) (E)
Symbolic Logic

Program in Comparative Literature
317 Cabell Hall
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone: (434) 924-7738

Overview  How is the character of Ulysses portrayed in Homer, Dante, Tennyson, and Joyce, and what do the different characterizations say about the civilizations and the authors who created them? Questions of this sort are fundamental to the study of comparative literature. The program is designed for the student whose literary interests lie beyond the confines of any one canon of literature. As the word comparative implies, the program permits students to combine courses from several literature departments into a coherent program, which is neither restricted to one national tradition nor to one language. Students will study the literatures of several cultures and national traditions, as well as the concepts underlying an understanding of comparative literature itself.

Faculty  As might be expected with an inter-departmental program, the faculty represent a wide range of departments. Once a student has been accepted into the program, he or she is assigned a faculty mentor who works in an area of the student's interest. Because of the small size of the program and the competitive nature of acceptance,  students and faculty work closely together.  There are frequent gatherings-such as guest lectures and informal thesis presentations by fourth year students-where faculty and students can interact.

Students  In order to permit majors to develop a sense of participation in a common endeavor and ensure adequate advising, the Program in Comparative Literature is held to fifteen students per class. This means that all courses specific to the program are quite small and intensive.

There are three formal prerequisites for admission to the program. First, students must complete a two-semester survey of Western literature from antiquity to the Renaissance and from the Enlightenment to the present  (CPLT 201, 202). These two classes cover Western literature from antiquity to the early twentieth century and emphasize learning through the study of recurring themes, as well as the texts themselves and the personal and social aspects of literature. Second, students must submit a brief writing sample that highlights their skills in literary analysis. Third, prospective majors must demonstrate sufficient interest in the goals of the program through an interview with a member of the comparative literature faculty.

Students who have graduated with a major in this program have been accepted to top graduate programs in comparative literature, English, Spanish, German, French, and classics, as well as top law and business schools. Moreover, the program is also an excellent foundation for a career in international relations.

Requirements for Major  The major in comparative literature permits a student to combine courses from several literature departments into a coherent program not restricted to one national tradition or to one language. Students selecting this major take at least two advanced courses in a national literature other than English or American, with readings in the original language, and three additional major literature courses, one of which focuses on some other national literature(s). In the fall semester of the third and fourth year, all majors take a required seminar (or an authorized equivalent) that prepares them for conceiving and writing a thesis in their final year. A reading course is required in both semesters of the fourth year to ensure progress on the thesis. The total requirement, including the two program seminars and the year of thesis writing, is 27 credits beyond the prerequisites.

Requirements for Minor  The minor consists of 12 credits beyond the prerequisite, including CPLT 351. Each student's program must embrace at least two national literatures and must be approved by the director.

For more information, contact Elisabeth Ladenson, Department of French, 317 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22904; (434) 924-7738; el3a@virginia.edu; www.virginia.edu/complit/

Course Descriptions

CPLT 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
History of European Literature From Antiquity to the Renaissance and From the Enlightenment to the Present
Surveys European literature from antiquity to the twentieth century, with emphasis on some recurring themes, the texts themselves, and the meaning of literature in broader historical contexts.

CPLT 351 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Comparative Literature
Explores a topic in literary theory and criticism. The seminar topic changes from year to year. Generally offered in the fall semester and required of third-year majors.

CPLT 493 - (3) (Y)
Seminar for Majors
Offered in the fall semester primarily for fourth-year majors. The seminar topic normally changes from year to year.

CPLT 497-498 - (6) (S)
Fourth Year Thesis
Two-semester course in which the student prepares and writes a thesis with the guidance of a faculty member. In the fall semester (497), the student develops a proposal and works out methodological problems in the form of a preliminary essay; in the spring (498), the student writes and submits the thesis in two drafts.

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