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Department of Drama
P. O. Box 400128
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4128
Phone: (434) 924-3326
Fax: (434) 924-1447

Overview  The department’s mission is to provide a creative and intellectually stimulating environment in which to study and produce dramatic arts. The department’s interdependent academic and production programs strive to broaden students’ understanding of society and culture by exploring personal expression in a variety of theatrical disciplines. Students are encouraged to practice theatre by actively engaging in a search for vital connections between theatre’s role in the past and present, and its future purpose in the world. The department also endeavors to serve as a major cultural resource for the greater University and regional communities.
Because it is essential that students be involved in every aspect of theatre, the department provides every possible opportunity for students to work as directors, actors, designers, stage managers, technicians, and playwrights. Majors are expected to participate in the production program and attend all productions. Students complete studio and course assignment work in every production area and compete successfully in auditions for roles in main-stage and laboratory theatre productions. The program offers a wide range of projects for undergraduates, from acting in scenes for directing classes, to staging work for classes in other departments. In some cases, students also work as designers on one or more of the main season productions. The B.A. program provides its students with intellectual stimulation and a healthy creative challenge.
The Department of Drama has modern facilities that accommodate all classroom, studio, and production activities. The complex includes two theatres: the 595 seat Culbreth, with its large, well-equipped proscenium stage, and the flexible Helms, which seats 160-200 people. Large and modern scene, costume, and property shops, as well as offices, rehearsal studios, dressing rooms, and computer labs, complete the facility. An excellent Fine Arts Library is only a few steps away.

Faculty  The department boasts a nationally known resident faculty with solid experience and an understanding of the demands of the professional theatre in its many manifestations. Guest artists often augment the resident faculty, providing an on-going professional presence that offers students immediate experience of the ideas and practice in today’s theatre. All of the faculty spend significant time outside of the classroom working personally with serious theatre students.

Students  At any given time, there are approximately eighty drama or undeclared majors.

Requirements for Major  DRAM 201 with a minimum passing grade of C. The total credits required for the major (including the prerequisite) is 33.
DRAM 202 Acting I 3
DRAM 351 Directing I 3
DRAM 353 Production Lab: Stage Management 1
History, Literature, Criticism
DRAM 305 History I ..3
DRAM 306 History II 3

Elect one 3 credit course from the following 3:
DRAM 360 Modern American Drama
DRAM 361 Modern European Drama
DRAM 207 African American Theatre
Elect 4 credits from two of three areas 8
DRAM 211 Lighting Technology or
DRAM 411 Lighting Design 3
DRAM 213 Production Lab:
Lighting and Sound 1
DRAM 221 Scenic Technology 3
DRAM 223 Production Lab:
Scenery and Properties 1
DRAM 231 Costume Technology or
DRAM 431 Costume Design 3
DRAM 233 Production Lab:
Costume and Makeup 1
DRAM 201 Image to Form 3
DRAM 491 Senior Seminar 3
Select 3 credits from the following 3
DRAM 224 Scene Design: Art and Architecture
DRAM 302 Theatre Make-Up
DRAM 331 History of Dress
DRAM 341 Acting II
DRAM 342 Voice for the Theatre
DRAM 343 Improvisation
DRAM 344 Movement for the Theatre
DRAM 345 Musical Theatre
DRAM 349 Acting Out
DRAM 371 Playwriting I
DRAM 421 [225] Scenic Design
DRAM 497 Special Topics in Design
DRAM 498 Special Topics in Technology
Total 33
[includes prerequisite]

Requirements for Minor  DRAM 201 with a minimum passing grade of C, including the following courses for a total of 21 credits: DRAM 305 or 306, 351/353, as well as one from the following: DRAM 211, 213, 221, 223, 231, 233, 341, 351, 371, 411 or 431 and one elective (not to include 101/102).
Drama majors and minors are expected to participate in the production program and attend all theatre productions and department meetings. The minimum passing grade is C for all required courses.

Drama Activities  The activities of the drama department include the main season of major production and the Studio Laboratory Theatre Series, as well as professional theatre companies, guest artists, and ballet troupes. In addition, each summer the department sponsors the professional Heritage Repertory Theatre. All productions are presented in the Helms and Culbreth Theatres located in the Department of Drama building on Culbreth Road.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Professor LaVahn Hoh, Undergraduate Advisor, Department of Drama, Drama Building, P.O. Box 400128, 109 Culbreth Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904-4128; (434) 924-8962 or (434) 924-3326; www.virginia. edu/~drama.
Course Descriptions

Note  Course prerequisites may be waived with instructor permission.
DRAM 101 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Theatre
Investigates theatre arts and their relation to contemporary culture, emphasizing play analysis, types of production, and the roles of various theatre artists.
DRAM 102 - (3) (S)
Oral Interpretation
For non-majors. Enhances communication skills through basic voice and speech exercises leading to staged readings of prose, poetry, comedy, and drama.
DRAM 201 - (3) (S)
Theatre Art: Image to Form
Examines the translation of dramatic image into theatrical form as explored through elements of storytelling, script analysis, 2- and 3-D design, and the experience of performance.
DRAM 202 - (3) (S)
Theatre Art: Acting I
Explores basic theories and techniques of acting and directing through exercises, improvisations, and scenes from contemporary dramatic literature.
DRAM 208 - (3) (Y)
Circus in America
Introduces the circus as a form of American entertainment. Focuses on its development, growth, decline, and cultural influences.
DRAM 211 - (3) (S)
Lighting Technology
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 202, or instructor permission; corequisite:  DRAM 213.
Studies the basic techniques for moving the lighting design from drafted plot through finished design, including equipment, dimming and control systems, and color theory.
DRAM 213 - (1) (S)
Production Laboratory: Lighting and Sound
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 202, or instructor permission; corequisite:  DRAM 211.
Application of lighting and sound technology in laboratory production projects. May be repeated up to four credits.
DRAM 221 - (3) (S)
Scenic Technology
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 202, or instructor permission.
Studies the basic techniques for moving set design from drawing to finished environment, including drafting, carpentry, painting, and dressing. Lab required.
DRAM 223 - (1) (S)
Production Laboratory: Scenery and Properties
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 202, or instructor permission; corequisite:  DRAM 221 or instructor permission.
Application of scenery and properties technology in laboratory production projects. May be repeated up to four credits.
DRAM 224 - (3) (Y)
Scene Design: Art and Architecture
Studies art and architecture’s contributions to scenic design. Considers how art and architecture from the Renaissance to the present shaped the craft of scenic design for the theatre, ballet, and opera.
DRAM 225 - (3) (Y)
Scenic Design
Prerequisite: DRAM 201, or instructor permission.
Studies the development of the scene design as theatrical environment, from script analysis through research to completed ground plan and rendering. Lab required.
DRAM 231 - (3) (S)
Costume Technology
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 202, or instructor permission; corequisite:  DRAM 233 or instructor permission.
Studies basic techniques for moving the costume design from drawing to finished character, including construction, alteration, patterning, fitting, and accessories. Lab required.
DRAM 233 - (1) (S)
Production Laboratory: Costume and Makeup
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 202, or instructor permission; corequisite:  DRAM 231 or instructor permission.
Application of costume and makeup technology in production laboratory. May be repeated up to four credits.
DRAM 243 - (1) (S)
Production Laboratory: Acting and Directing
Application of acting and directing skills in production laboratory. May be repeated up to four credits.
DRAM 280 - (3) (Y)
Television News Writing and Production
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Students analyze, discuss, and learn the techniques of television news writing. Explores the difference between print and television news; the value of research; the impact of deadlines; the worth of clear, concise, accurate expression; the importance of ethics; and the urgency of time. Working in teams, students participate in a variety of roles included in television news production, such as reporting and editing, with an emphasis on writing to the dictates of the television medium.
DRAM 281 - (3) (Y)
Cinema as Art Form
A course in visual thinking; introduces film criticism, concentrating on classic and current American and non-American films.
DRAM 282 - (3) (Y)
Television Texts, Scripting and Directing
Studies the theory and creative principles of television scripting and directing; analysis of form, content, and production values; includes composition, writing, lighting, camerawork and performance.
DRAM 302 - (3) (IR)
Theatre Make-Up
Prerequisite: DRAM201 and 202, or instructor permission.
Introduces the design and application of theatre make-up. Emphasizes observation and mastery of basic techniques and materials employed in facial analysis and the creation of juvenile, lead, character, and aged make- up.
DRAM 305 - (3) (Y)
History of Theatre I
Studies the history of theatre as an art form in relation to the development of Western culture from ancient times to the Restoration.
DRAM 306 - (3) (Y)
History of Theatre II
Prerequisite: DRAM 305.
Studies the history of theatre as an art form in relation to the development of Western culture from the Restoration to the present.
DRAM 307 - (3) (S)
African-American Theatre
Presents a comprehensive study of “Black Theatre” as the African-American contribution to the theatre. Explores the historical, cultural, and socio-political underpinnings of this theatre as an artistic form in American and world culture. Students gain a broader understanding of the relationship and contributions of this theatre to theatre arts, business, education, lore, and humanity. A practical theatrical experience is a part of the course offering.
DRAM 331 - (3) (Y)
History of Dress
Studies the history of dress, from ancient to modern times, as a reflection of the individual’s self expression and the relationship to one’s culture. Lab required.
DRAM 341 - (3) (S)
Acting II
Prerequisite: DRAM 202.
Self to character: exercises and scene work emphasizing the development of the actor’s vocal and physical resources as a means of creating and communicating character, emotion, and relationships.
DRAM 342 - (3) (S)
Voice for the Theatre
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Intended to give the drama major a thorough grounding in the voice and speech demands of theatre performance and to launch the student on a life-long investigation of voice and speech production.
DRAM 343 - (3) (S)
Prerequisite: DRAM 202 or instructor permission.
A workshop that explores several dimensions of theatrical self-expression through improvised exercises and situations. This course will employ lecture, discussion and performance activities to raise awareness and proficiency in improvisational techniques through dramatic interaction involving imagination and creativity.
DRAM 345 - (3) (Y)
Musical Theatre Performance
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the integration of song into scene work, and examination of special problems posed for the actor/singer/dancer. Focuses on a character’s song presentation within the context of a musical play.
DRAM 349 - (3) (Y)
Acting Out
Prerequisite: By audition and instructor permission.
Select ensemble company rehearses and performs scenes from Shakespeare, classic, and contemporary dramatic literature in public performance workshops.
DRAM 351 - (3) (Y)
Directing I
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 202.
Encourages the development of the director’s analytical and rehearsal skills in translating text, actors, and space into valid and effective scenes; drawn from plays in the mode of psychological realism.
DRAM 352 - (1) (S)
Stage Management
Prerequisite: DRAM 201, 202, 211, 221, and 231, or instructor permission; corequisite: DRAM 353.
Examines stage management principles of theatre production in a variety of settings, from academic to regional to Broadway. Studies techniques of organization, rehearsal process, and human relations skills. Include safety and emergency procedures for both performers and audience.
DRAM 353 - (1-2) (S)
Production Laboratory: Stage Management
Prerequisite: DRAM 201, 202, 211, 221, and 231, or instructor permission; corequisite: DRAM 352.
One credit is required; may be repeated up to four credits.
Application of stage management skills to production and performance.
DRAM 360 - (3) (Y)
Modern American Drama
Studies representative twentieth-century American dramas in the context of theatre history.
DRAM 371 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting I
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Introduces the art and craft of playwriting, focusing on short exercises and in-class writing assignments.
DRAM 372 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting II
Prerequisite: DRAM 371.
Continuation of Playwriting I, focusing on specific craft exercises and the development of individual style.
DRAM 381 - (3) (SS)
Film Criticism
Extends the work of DRAM 281 by concentrating on the development of a critical perspective in the study of films and film-makers.
DRAM 383 - (3) (Y)
History of Film I
Analyzes the development of the silent film, 1895 to 1928; emphasizes the technical and thematic links between national schools of cinema art and the contributions of individual directors. Includes weekly film screenings.
DRAM 384 - (3) (Y)
History of Film II
Prerequisite: DRAM 281 or 383, or instructor permission.
Analyzes the development of film art from the inception of sound to the 1950s. Includes weekly film screenings.
DRAM 387 - (3)(Y)
Contemporary Independent Film and Video
Prerequisite: DRAM 281, or instructor permission.
Investigates the nature of “independent” film and video in relation to the dominant commercial media, surveying a broad range of independent media genres, from the independent features of John Cassavetes and Quentin Tarantino through the alternatives practiced by experimental and documentary makers.
DRAM 411 - (3) (Y)
Lighting Design
Prerequisite: DRAM 201 and 211, or instructor permission.
Studies the development of lighting design, from script analysis through concept to completed production. Lab required.
DRAM 431 - (3) (Y)
Costume Design
Prerequisite: DRAM 201, or instructor permission.
Studies the development of costume design as a revelation of character and relationship to the special world. Proceeds from script analysis through research to the completed rendering. Lab required.
DRAM 441 - (3) (Y)
Acting III
Prerequisite: DRAM 341.
Creating roles: scripted scenes, exercises, and ensemble work to expand the actor’s approach to characterization and interpretation within various dramatic genres.
DRAM 444 - (3) (Y)
Dance for Theatre
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Examines the history of social and theatrical dance, its function in a particular society, and its dramatic purpose within a play. Requires demonstrated proficiency in traditional ballet, jazz, and tap technique. Choreography common to musical theatre performance is taught within each style.
DRAM 449 - (3) (Y)
Stage Combat
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Examines the history of human violence and various forms of personal and military combat frequently used on stage, as well as "comedic violence," such as slapstick, clowning, and commedia. Students safely perform physical aggression that is appropriate and dramatically effective, following the safety guidelines and techniques recommended by the Society of American Fight Directors.
DRAM 451 - (3) (Y)
Directing II
Prerequisite: DRAM 351 and instructor permission.
Continues the work of DRAM 351 with special attention to the director’s organization, scheduling, and efficient use of resources. Students direct a one-act play.
DRAM 471 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting III
Prerequisite: DRAM 372.
Advanced workshop focusing on the development of longer works and the rewriting process.
DRAM 472 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting IV
Prerequisite: DRAM 471.
A continuation of Playwriting III.
DRAM 491 - (3) (S)
Senior Seminar
Seminar discussions and assignments that allow the student to demonstrate knowledge of the theatre as well as artistic, aesthetic, and critical judgment.
DRAM 492 - (1-3) (S)
Special Studies in Drama
Prerequisite: Instructor permission and advisor.
Independent study project conducted under the supervision of an instructor of the student’s choice. Instructor determines credit.
DRAM 493 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Performance
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Special topics in performance offered to upper-level students.
DRAM 494 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Movement
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Specialized topics in movement offered to upper-level students.
DRAM 495 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Voice
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Specialized topics in voice and speech offered to upper-level performance students.
DRAM 496 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Directing
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Intensive study of specific topics offered to upper-level students.
DRAM 497 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Design
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Intensive study of specific topics in theatre design offered to upper-level students.
DRAM 498 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Design Technology
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Intensive study of specific topics offered to upper-level students.
DRAM 499 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Playwriting
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Specialized topics offered to upper-level students.
DRAM 504 - (3) (O)
Early American Drama
Examines the American theatre (both the dramatic literature and significant productions) prior to O'Neill. Focuses on the development of a uniquely American drama and the ways in which the theatre reflected the era in which it was created.
DRAM 506 - (3) (IR)
Modernism in the Theatre
Prerequisite: DRAM 305, 306 or equivalent.
Studies the theory, literature, and mis-en-scene of the theatre during the modern era.
DRAM 508 - (3) (IR)
Performance in the Postmodernism Era
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or instructor permission.
Through detailed research and the “reconstruction” of performance(s), students examine the work of contemporary theatre artists and the nature of the shift from a modern position/perspective/aesthetic to what many historians and critics regard as a post-modern one.
DRAM 555 - (3) (Y)
Performing Arts Management
Prerequisite: Graduate standing; 12 credits in DRAM and/or business related courses; or instructor permission.
Examines the principles and practices of managing the non-profit performing arts organization. Using the theatre as a model, this course focuses on the responsibilities of the top manager within the organization, and the relationship to both artistic staff and the board of trustees.
DRAM 571 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting V
Prerequisite: Nine credits of DRAM or instructor permission.
Introduces the craft of playwriting and examination of exemplary works. Weekly problem exercises emphasize the development of a way of working.
DRAM 572 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting VI
Prerequisite: DRAM 571 and instructor permission.
Analyzes the craft of playwriting. Continued study of exemplary plays and problem exercises, and increased emphasis on reading and discussion of student work.
James Wilson Department of Economics

P.O. Box 400182
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4182
Phone: (434) 924-3177 Fax: (434) 982-2904

Faculty  The University has a distinguished Department of Economics. Its twenty-five faculty members have international reputations in their areas of specialization and are committed to teaching undergraduates, training graduate students, and conducting economic research.

Students  Currently, there are about 600 economics majors at the University. The number of students who enroll in one or both of the introductory economics courses greatly exceeds the number of Economics majors. The introductory courses are taught in a variety of formats, from large sections of as many as 500 students (which are supplemented by small discussion sections led by teaching assistants) to small sections of about 50. Higher-level courses typically—although not always—contain 40-60 students.
After graduating, most economics majors begin careers in business or finance. Of these, many enter M.B.A. programs after two or three years of work experience. A second group of the University’s economics graduates attend law school. Others choose a variety of paths: military service, work in the public sector, or medical school, for example. Each year, a few graduates continue their study of economics and related subjects in graduate school.

Requirements for Major  To declare the economics major:

1. Prospective majors must have attained at least a 2.3 average in all economics courses completed at the University at the time of declaration, and
2. Prospective majors must have received a minimum grade of C+ in either ECON 201 or ECON 301, and
3. Prospective majors must have already completed the calculus requirement for the major, which may be satisfied in any of the following four ways:
a) Complete Math 131, APMA 109 or APMA 111 at the University with a grade of at least C, or
b) Complete Math 121 at the University with a grade of at least C+, or
c) Enter the University with AP or transfer credit for Math 131 or APMA 109 or APMA 111, or
d) Satisfactorily complete, via courses taken at the University or through transfer credit, two semesters of calculus at either the MATH 121, MATH 122 level or the MATH 131, MATH 132 level with an average grade in the two courses of at least C.

Note: Majors are encouraged to take additional mathematics courses with a second semester of calculus being especially useful. Students seriously considering the finance concentration or graduate work in economics should take MATH 131 and MATH 132 (or APMA 111 or APMA 109 and APMA 110) and not the MATH 121 and MATH 122 sequence. Students seriously considering graduate work in economics should read our advice regarding course selection on the department web page or in the undergraduate program brochure, available in 114, Rouss Hall.

The Department of Economics offers a program of study that instills an understanding of economic events and arrangements. In part, this understanding comes from learning facts about economic institutions and economic history. But facts do not interpret themselves. To be understood, these facts must be viewed through the lens of economic theory. The undergraduate program in economics emphasizes applications of economic theory to a wide variety of real-world events and arrangements. Students have opportunities to investigate the economic aspects of resource utilization, public policy, business, law, finance, and international trade. An in-depth study of economics teaches students to think clearly and critically about complex issues.

To graduate with a major in economics, students must complete the calculus requirement described above. In addition, students must complete the five core courses listed below plus fifteen credits of additional economics electives and have a cumulative GPA in economics of 2.0 at the time of graduation. Of the fifteen credits of additional economics electives, at least twelve must be earned in courses numbered 300 or greater. The core courses required of all majors are ECON 201, 202, 301 (or 311), 302 and an approved statistics course. The approved statistics courses are ECON 371, ECON 372, MATH 312, APMA 312, and STAT 212. All of the core courses except ECON 302 must be completed by the end of the student's sixth semester. Majors who fail to do this will be dropped from the program. For more details on the procedure for calculating the economics GPA at the time of graduation, see the department's undergraduate web page, http://www.virginia.edu/ ~econ/newugradx.htm or the undergraduate program brochure, which is available in the Department Office, Rouss Hall, 114.

Distinguished Majors Program in Economics  The Department of Economics has a Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) for those who seek to graduate with high or highest distinction in economics. Students in the DMP must take ECON 372 no later than the fall of their fourth year, enroll in ECON 411 in the fall of their fourth year, and write a thesis (ECON 496) under the supervision of a faculty member. Third-year economics majors with a cumulative GPA of 3.6 or better may apply.

Concentration in Financial Economics
  Economics majors may declare a concentration in financial economics. The requirements for this concentration are the ordinary requirements for the major with ECON 303 Money and Banking, ECON 434 Theory of Financial Markets or ECON 435 Corporate Finance, and ECON 436 Topics in Quantitative Finance as three of the economics electives. In addition, students must complete COMM 201 Financial Accounting, and MATH 310 (or APMA 310) Introduction to Mathematical Probability. (Note: MATH 132 is a prerequisite for MATH 310, and MATH 122 is generally not an adequate substitute.) Economics majors are eligible to declare the concentration after the last day to drop a class in the seventh semester, provided they have completed or are currently enrolled in MATH 310 (or APMA 310).

Requirements for Minor  Students who wish to minor in economics must complete ECON 201, 202, 301 or 311, an approved statistics course (listed above) and nine credits of ECON electives with a cumulative GPA of 2.0. At least six credits in economics elective courses must be earned in courses numbered 300 or above. They must also complete satisfactorily at least one semester of calculus (for example, MATH 121, 131, or APMA 109), which may not be taken on a credit/no-credit basis. Students may declare a minor as soon as they satisfactorily complete the four required courses, the calculus course, and attain a grade point average of at least 2.0 in all economics courses completed at UVA. College rules require that the minor be declared by the end of the ADD period in the semester before graduation, ordinarily the seventh semester. The procedure for declaring a minor in economics is described on the department's undergraduate program web page and in the undergraduate program brochure, which is available in the Department Office, Rouss Hall, 114.

Prospective Graduate Students  Any student seriously considering graduate work in economics should take ECON 372 and several mathematics courses. MATH 132 and 351, or its equivalent, are essential. Beyond these, the most useful courses for a prospective graduate student of economics are MATH 231, 310, 312, 325, and 331.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Economics, 114 Rouss Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903-3288; (434) 924-3177; Fax: (434) 982-2904; www.virginia.edu/~econ.
Course Descriptions
ECON 201, 202 - (3) (S)
Principles of Economics: Microeconomics, Macroeconomics
ECON 201; Microeconomics: Studies demand and supply, consumer behavior, the theory of business enterprise, the operation of competitive and monopolistic markets, and the forces determining income distribution.
ECON 202; Macroeconomics: Studies the determinants of aggregate economic activity, the effects of monetary and fiscal policy upon national income, and economic policy toward unemployment and inflation.

A full introduction to economic principles warrants completion of both ECON 201 and 202. Students planning to take both semesters of economic principles are advised to take ECON 201 first, though this is not required. The department recommends ECON 201 to students intending to take only one semester of principles.
ECON 206 - (3) (Y)
American Economic History
Surveys American economic history from colonial origins to the present. Cross-listed as HIUS 206.
ECON 301 - (4) (S)
Intermediate Microeconomics
Prerequisite: ECON 201 and one semester of calculus.
Studies the theory of prices and markets; includes an analysis of the forces determining the allocation of economic resources in a market economy.
ECON 302 - (3) (S)
Intermediate Macroeconomics
Prerequisite: ECON 202 and 301 or 311, or instructor permission.
Studies macroeconomic theory and policy; includes an analysis of the forces determining employment, income, and the price level.
ECON 303 - (3) (S)
Money and Banking
Prerequisite: ECON 202.
Analyzes monetary standards, the role of money in an economic system, and the operation and evolution of central banking systems.
ECON 304 - (3) (IR)
The Economics of Education
Prerequisite: ECON 201.
Analyzes the demand for, and supply of, education in the United States, governmental policies regarding education, and proposed reforms.
ECON 305 - (3) (Y)
The Economics of Welfare Reform
Prerequisite: ECON 201.
Critical evaluation of the arguments used to justify welfare programs such as AFDC, Medicaid, food stamps, and public housing. Includes theoretical analyses and empirical evidence on the intended and unintended effects of these programs, and discusses reforms of the welfare system that might lead to better achieving its goals.
ECON 307 - (3) (S)
Economics and Gender
Prerequisite: ECON 201 or instructor permission.
This course examines gender differences in the economy, decision-making and the division of labor within the family, and public policies that affect the status of women.
ECON 309 - (3) (Y)
Latin American Economic Issues
Prerequisite: ECON 201, 202.
Analyzes issues in the economic development of the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and Brazil, including traditional primary product dependence, the post World War II push for industrialization via import substitution, chronic and hyperinflation, foreign capital flows and debt, and recent market reforms and their effects on growth and poverty.
ECON 311 - (4) (Y)
Mathematical Microeconomics
Prerequisite: ECON 201 and two semesters of calculus.
Covers the same topics as ECON 301 using differential calculus through constrained maximization of functions of several variables. Credit is not given for both ECON 301 and 311.
ECON 331 - (3) (S)
Economics and Elections
Prerequisite: ECON 202 or instructor permission.
Studies interactions between economic conditions and elections. Emphasizes economic policy making, political business cycles, and the impact of economic conditions on voter participation, vote choice, and election outcomes.
ECON 333 - (3) (IR)
Public Choice
Prerequisite: ECON 201.
Studies politics using economic analysis. Topics include the theory of voting rules, regulation, taxation, and interest groups; the growth of government; and the design of constitutions.
ECON 371 - (4) (S)
Introduction to Statistical Analysis
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or equivalent.
Introduction to the probability and statistical theory underlying the estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses in economics. Simple and multiple regression analysis. Students will use computers to analyze economic data. Three hours of lecture, one hour of discussion (Credit is not given for both ECON 371 and STAT 212).
ECON 372 - (3) (S)
Introductory Econometrics
Prerequisite: ECON 201, 202 and 371 (or equivalent) and one semester of calculus.
Studies the application of statistical methods to the testing and estimation of economic relationships. Emphasizes applied econometric studies and the problems that arise when analyzing time series and cross section data by means of stochastic linear models.
ECON 401 - (3) (Y)
Game Theory
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, and ECON 371 or equivalent.
Analyzes the theory of strategically interdependent decision making, with applications to auctions, bargaining, oligopoly, signalling, and strategic voting.
ECON 408 - (3) (Y)
Law and Economics
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or instructor permission.
Applies microeconomic theory to the analysis of legal rules and institutions. Includes the effect of economic forces on the development of law, and the effect of laws on the allocation of resources.
ECON 409 - (3) (Y)
Mathematical Economics
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311; MATH 121 and 122 or equivalent.
Introduction to the basic mathematical techniques used by professional economists and other quantitative social scientists: equations, derivatives, comparative statics analysis of equilibrium models, optimization, constrained optimization, integration and dynamic models, difference and differential equation models, and inequality constraints in linear and nonlinear optimization problems. The purpose of the course is to prepare students for graduate work in economics and in the more quantitative MBA program.
ECON 410 - (3) (Y)
Managerial Economics
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311 and a course in statistics.
Applies economic analysis to management problems in business and government. Emphasizes solving problems through marginal analysis, decision making under uncertainty, determining and using the value of information, searching and bidding, bargaining and negotiation, and analysis of transaction costs. Examines methods of capital budgeting, linear programming, game theory, and forecasting. Considers strategic decisions in markets.
ECON 411 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Advanced Microeconomics
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311; a course in probability or statistics; and instructor permission.
Studies the applications of, and further topics, in microeconomic theory. Required for Distinguished Majors but open to any successful advanced student in economics. Topics vary from year to year but may include applications of decision-making to insurance, portfolio choice, and saving by households; applications of game theory to bargaining, contracts, and oligopoly; the economics of information; and welfare economics and applications to public policy.
ECON 412 - (3) (Y)
Evolution of Economic Thought
Prerequisite: ECON 201, 202.
Studies the history of the development of economics as a systematic body of thought. Focuses on the period 1750-1900, with readings from leading economists of the time.
ECON 413 - (3) (IR)
Topics in the History of Economic Thought
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, and 302, or instructor permission.
Studies the development of modern economic thought. Topics may change from year to year but will usually relate to the post-1870 period (i.e., the marginalist or Keynesian revolutions).
ECON 415 - (3) (Y)
Economics of Labor
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, and 371 or its equivalent, or instructor permission.
Analyzes employment and wages, including the economics of education, unemployment, labor unions, discrimination and income inequality.
ECON 416 - (3) (Y)
Economics of Health
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or ECON 311.
Uses microeconomic theory to examine the demand for health services and medical care, the market for medical insurance, the behavior of physicians and hospitals, issues pertaining to malpractice, and government policy.
ECON 418 - (3) (IR)
Economics of Regulation
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311.
Analyzes the methods and institutions of industry regulation. Examines electricity, natural gas, transportation, and television. Considers regulation that involves many industries, such as product safety, occupational safety, and environmental protection.
ECON 419 - (3) (S)
Industrial Organization
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311.
Studies market structure, firm strategy, and market performance. Topics include strategic interactions among firms, as well as business practices such as mergers and acquisitions, price discrimination, advertising, product selection, innovation, vertical restraints, cartels, and exclusionary conduct.
ECON 420 - (3) (Y)
Antitrust Policy
Prerequisite: ECON 201.
Studies government regulation and control of business through public policies designed to promote workable competition.
ECON 421 - (3) (Y)
International Trade: Theory and Policy
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311.
Studies the nature and determinants of international trade and factor movements; the effects of international trade on prices of goods and factors; the consequences of tariffs, quotas, customs unions, and other trade policies and agreements, national or international; and international trade and the balance of payments.
ECON 422 - (3) (Y)
International Finance and Macroeconomics
Prerequisite: ECON 302.
Studies fixed and floating exchange rate systems. Topics include determinants of a nation’s balance of international payments; macroeconomic interdependence of nations under various exchange-rate regimes and its implications for domestic stabilization policies; and the international coordination of monetary and stabilization policies.
ECON 431 - (3) (S)
Economics of the Public Sector
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311.
Explores the justifications for government activities; includes principles of policy analysis, analyses of major expenditure programs and taxes, and the economic theories of political activities.
ECON 433 - (3) (Y)
Economics of Taxation
Prerequisite: ECON 301.
The course introduces the basic principles of taxation from an economic rather than an accounting perspective. The themes of the course are the incidence and efficiency of taxes—who ends up paying a tax and how people change their behavior to avoid a tax. The course will focus directly on the U.S. tax system and how it treats income from work, saving, and production.
ECON 434 - (3) (Y)
The Theory of Financial Markets
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, 303, and 371 or its equivalent.
Studies the theory and operation of financial markets and the role of financial assets and institutions in the economic decisions of individuals, firms, and governments.
ECON 435 - (3) (Y)
Corporate Finance
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, 303, and 371 or its equivalent.
Analyzes the theory of financing corporate operations and corporate decisions regarding the allocation of capital among alternative projects; includes the nature of financial instruments and the behavior of capital markets.
ECON 436 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Quantitative Finance
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, ECON 303, 371 or its equivalent, MATH 310 (or APMA 310) and instructor permission.
Advanced survey of selected topics in financial economics drawn from portfolio theory, the pricing of primary and derivative financial assets, and corporate finance. Emphasizes the development, empirical testing, and application of behavioral and predictive models.
ECON 440 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Economic History
Prerequisite: ECON 302, or ECON 201 and 202 and instructor permission.
Comparative study of the historical development of selected advanced economies (e.g., the United States, England, Japan, continental Europe). The nations covered vary with instructor.
ECON 441 - (3) (Y)
Economics of the European Union
Prerequisite: ECON 302.
Studies the history, theory, and empirics of European economic integration. Focuses on monetary union, as well as product and factor market integration.
ECON 442 - (3) (IR)
Macroeconomic Policy
Prerequisite: ECON 302.
Integrated analysis of public policies (including: monetary, fiscal, debt-management, foreign exchange, and incomes) designed to cope with fluctuations in national income, employment, and the price level, and to influence the rate of economic growth. Emphasizes policies adopted during specific historical episodes and the theory of macroeconomic policy.
ECON 443 - (3) (IR)
Environmental Economics
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311.
Economic analysis of public policy issues in the provision of environmental quality and the use of natural resources. Explores market failure as a justification for environmental regulation, and the efficacy of specific forms of regulation, including mandated technologies, taxes, subsidies, and pollution permit trading programs. Topics include air and water pollution, climate change, the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, population, and sustainable development.
ECON 451 - (3) (Y)
Economic Development
Prerequisite: ECON 202 and 301 or instructor permission.
Studies the peculiar problems of economic growth in underdeveloped countries. Emphasizes public policies for both the countries themselves and the more developed countries and international agencies.
ECON 471 - (3) (Y)
Economic Forecasting
Prerequisite: ECON 371 or MATH 312 or APMA 312.
Analyzes the theory and practice of forecasting economic variables using models for linear stochastic processes, including specifying, estimating, and diagnosing models of economic time series.
ECON 482 - (3) (Y)
Experimental Economics
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311; a course in statistics; or instructor permission.
Explores the use of laboratory methods to study economic behavior. Topics include experimental design, laboratory technique, financial incentives, and analysis of data. Emphasizes applications: bargaining, auctions, market price competition, market failures, voting, contributions to public goods, lottery choice decisions, and the design of electronic markets for financial assets.
ECON 489 - (1-3) (Y)
Majors Seminar
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Reading, discussion, and research in selected topics. Topics vary by instructor and course may be taken for credit more than once.
ECON 495, 496 - (1-3) (S)
Supervised Research
Prerequisite: GPA of 3.3 in U.Va. ECON courses.
Research under the direction of a regular faculty member.
ECON 507 - (3) (IR)
British Economic History Since 1850
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the structure, performance, and policy of the British economy since 1850, focusing on the causes and consequences of Britain’s relative economic decline.
ECON 509 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Mathematical Economics I
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus and instructor permission.
Studies topics in univariate and multivariate calculus and linear algebra, and applications to the theories of economic statics.
ECON 510 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Mathematical Economics II
Prerequisite: ECON 509 or instructor permission.
Studies topics in the theories of difference and differential equations and dynamic optimization, and applications to the theories of economic dynamics.
Department of English Language and Literature

P.O. Box 400121
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4121
Phone: (434) 924-7105
Fax: (434) 924-1478

Overview  From Geoffrey Chaucer’s bawdy Wife of Bath to James Joyce’s stately, plump Buck Mulligan, from Elizabeth Bishop’s “manmoth” to Toni Morrison’s Milkman, the study of imaginative literature is justified not only by the greatness of individual works but by the insights such works give into the origins of cultures, individuals, and modes of perception. Students study literary achievement both in its own terms and in the context of the many cultural traditions that co-exist under the word English (African-American, feminist, Irish, Anglo-Saxon, for example). With one of the most distinguished faculties in the country, the department provides a great multiplicity of approaches to English and American literature, offering courses not only in the major literary periods, but in particular genres (novel, lyric, epic, comedy), in individual authors, in comparative literature, in literary theory, and in such specialized areas as linguistics, film, and folklore. The writing program includes courses in poetry and fiction writing, as well as writing studies, academic and professional writing, and journalism.

Faculty  English majors have access to a large and varied group of internationally renowned experts engaged in exploring different aspects of literature. The number of publications, grants, and fellowships of the faculty constitutes one of the most impressive compilations of any department in the country. The department has never tried to concentrate on any one area of literature or on a single critical orientation. Rather, the department has gathered a lively diversity of professors with strengths in every facet of literary endeavor. In addition to those who concentrate their study in historical periods from medieval to modern, the faculty also contains folklore specialists, linguistic specialists, film critics, psychoanalytic critics, biographers, philosophers of the theory of criticism, and specialists in the relation of literature to culture. For those who wish to develop special skills in writing, the faculty includes practicing journalists, fiction writers, and poets, some of whose awards include the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award, and membership in the Academy of Arts and Letters.
Since there is a large faculty, the student-faculty ratio in the department is low, at approximately 8:1. In many cases, students who demonstrate initiative and potential may work on an independent study basis with a faculty member. This mentor relationship can prove to be invaluable in developing research skills.

Students  With over 500 majors, English is one of the largest departments at the University. This is in part due to the outstanding reputation the department enjoys around the country and around the world. It is also due to the exceptionally varied offerings of the department.
Students begin their study of English with an introductory seminar (ENLT 201M). These are limited to twenty-two students and they focus on fundamental skills of critical reading and writing. Majors then move on to upper-level survey courses and advanced seminars. The 300-level survey courses tend to be lectures covering broad topics (e.g., American Literature before 1865; Literature of the Renaissance); their enrollments range from under 40 to over 200. Very large lecture courses are supplemented by discussion sections, which are limited to twenty students and led by Ph.D. candidates in the department. Advanced (400-level) seminars are limited to twenty students. All 300- and 400-level courses are taught by faculty.
Students taking courses in the department learn to write effectively and clearly, to think critically and analytically, and to question the works and the world around them. Students are prepared to communicate in a world in which competing discourses proliferate and grow more complex daily.
The skills that majors learn are applicable to virtually any future career choice, although many students use English as preparation for graduate work. Approximately 60 percent of the students who major in English go on to professional or graduate school. Many enter law school, often at top ten programs. Others use English as solid preparation for business school, and an increasingly large number are using it as a humanistic preparation for medicine. A significant number of undergraduate majors go on to study English either in Ph.D. or in M.F.A. programs. Those who do not pursue graduate school find the study of English an excellent preparation for government service, business careers, international agencies, and secondary school teaching.

Prerequisites for Entry into the Department  To declare a major in English, students must achieve a grade of C or better in ENWR 110 (or the equivalent). In addition, all students must achieve a grade of C or better in an ENLT 201-M course—the prerequisite for the English major.

Requirements for Major  Students planning to declare a major in English should first read the booklet Undergraduate Study in English, available online (http: //www. engl.virginia.edu/) and in the Undergraduate English Office (236 Bryan Hall). They should then make an appointment to see the Director of Undergraduate Studies in English or one of the two undergraduate advisors.
For a degree in English, a student must take ten upper-division courses (those numbered 300 or above). The prerequisite ENLT-201M course is not included among these ten courses. All majors must take the three-semester survey sequence, ENGL 381, 382, 383 (History of Literatures in English). Majors must also take:

1. Two courses in literature pre-1800 (ENMD, ENRN, or ENEC). Only one of these may be a course in Shakespeare.
2. one 400-level seminar.

Students may offer three credits of course work in either the literature of another language (taught in translation or in the original), CPLT 201/ENLT 215, or CPLT 202/ENLT 216 for credit toward their English major. No more than nine credits offered toward the English major may be in any one of the distribution categories (ENMD, ENRN, ENEC, ENNC, ENTC, ENAM, ENCR, ENGN, ENGL, ENWR, ENSP). However, students participating in the Distinguished Majors Program are allowed to take five courses in the ENGL category, while students enrolled in an area program (e.g., modern studies) may take a fourth course under an appropriate rubric. Students who elect to take more than 30 credits of English may, of course, go over the nine credit limit in any category in choosing their electives. Normally, only courses numbered through the 500-level are open to undergraduates.
Majors must maintain at least a 2.0 GPA in their English courses each semester. Students who fail to maintain this average are put on departmental probation. If the problem continues, they may be invited to declare a different major.
Special Programs in English
Enrollment  Admission to advanced creative writing undergraduate seminars is by permission of the instructor only. Students should apply to the instructor during registration. Students wishing to take Independent Study (ENGL 493, 494, or ENWR 495, 496) should apply to the director of the undergraduate program. Students wishing to write an honors thesis (ENGL 491-492) should apply to the director of the Distinguished Majors Program.

Independent Study  Only one semester of independent study (in writing or literature) may be counted toward the English major; students should apply to the director of undergraduate studies in the semester before the semester in which they wish to pursue their project.
For students who want to work on an individual critical enterprise under the direction of a faculty member, ENGL 493 or 494 allows considerable flexibility. There are no formal limitations on the project’s nature, as long as a faculty member is willing to direct it and the proposed course of study does not duplicate what is already available in regular courses. The student and faculty member determine the length of the reading list and the nature of the written or oral work required. Students may register for this course only if they have completed four 300- or 400-level courses and have a GPA in English of at least 3.3. They should have their projects at least roughly defined when they submit their applications to the director of undergraduate studies.
Students who wish to pursue an independent project in creative writing may do so under the rubrics ENWR 495, 496. Once they have found a faculty member who is willing to direct their work, they should apply to the director of undergraduate studies for approval of their plans. Students who wish to enroll in ENWR 495 or 496 must have completed four 300- or 400-level courses and have better than a 3.3 GPA in the major.

Distinguished Majors Program in English  Majors who wish to be considered for a degree with distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction in English are expected to complete at least two 400-level seminars and the two-semester distinguished majors tutorial (ENGL 491, 492). In the tutorial, these students pursue a project of their own devising that they would not have the opportunity to develop in the department’s regularly scheduled courses. The reading requirements for the project are determined by the student and the faculty member who has agreed to direct the enterprise, and each student produces a long essay (approximately 50 pages), carefully revised for final submission to the Honors Committee. In awarding honors, the committee considers: two faculty evaluations of the thesis; the quality of the student’s work in any 400-level English seminars taken; and  the student’s overall performance in the major. Using these criteria, the committee recommends either no distinction, distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction.
Students who wish to be admitted to the Distinguished Majors Program must have a GPA of 3.6 in the major and 3.4 overall, and must submit a formal application to the director of the Distinguished Majors Program in early April of their third year.

Requirements for Minor  Students wishing to minor in English must complete 18 credits of upper-level English courses (numbered 300 and above). The 18 credits must include any two semesters of the three-semester survey sequence ENGL 381, 382 and 383, (History of Literatures in English). No more than six credits may be in any one of the following distribution categories: ENMD, ENRN, ENEC, ENNC, ENTC, ENAM, ENCR, ENGN, ENWR, and ENSP. However, students may take all three parts of the core survey (ENGL 381, 382, 383) and apply them to the minor.

The American Studies Program  See description under AMST, the American Studies Interdisciplinary Major.

Area Programs in English  The English department’s area programs are interdisciplinary in focus and offer majors the opportunity to examine the interrelationships between literature and history, religion, philosophy, and the fine arts. Each area program has its own formal requirements, but all of them ask the student to take courses both in the English department and in other departments of the University. All of them include special seminars and colloquia—sometimes limited to students enrolled in the area program—that are expressly designed to help students formulate methods of interdisciplinary study and synthesize material from other areas.
The area programs currently offered are medieval and Renaissance studies, American studies, and modern studies. These programs are very demanding and may require more credits than the regular English major. Students should apply to them no later than the end of their second year. A full description of each programs requirements and the names of their current directors may be found in the handbook Undergraduate Study in English.

The Area Program in Poetry Writing  The Area Program in Poetry Writing allows talented undergraduate writers to pursue serious study of the craft of poetry writing within the contexts of the English major and of an interdisciplinary curriculum individually tailored to nurture and inspire each student's particular work and developing aesthetic. The program is a two-year course of study; students apply in the spring semester of their second year. Along with declaring an English major, students must take 30 hours of courses in English, including ENGL 383 and either ENGL 381 or 382; 12 hours of upper-level (300 or above) poetry writing courses or independent studies; two poetry writing area program seminars (ENPW 482); and either Shakespeare or one pre-1800 course in English at the 300-level or above. A poetics course is recommended as well, when offered. The student may also (but is not required to) apply to the Distinguished Majors Program in English and submit a thesis for honors.
The Poetry Thesis Program is modeled in the Distinguished Majors Thesis option already in place in the English Department, and will be administered by the Director of Creative Writing in cooperation with the Director of the DM Program. It is a year-long course—a directed poetry writing project for students in the English Department's Undergradute Area Program in Poetry Writing, leading to completion of a manuscript of poems and an accompanying essay. Both semesters of the course are required for honors candidates, and the students will be graded on a year-long basis.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Pam Marcantel, Undergraduate Secretary, 236 Bryan Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-7887; Fax: (434) 924-1478; mpm3a@virginia.edu; www.engl. virginia.edu.
Course Descriptions
Note  With the exception of ENWR 380, all writing courses at or above the 300 level require writing samples and permission of the instructor before registering.
ENWR 105 - (3) (Y)
Academic Writing I
Part I of the two-semester option for meeting the first writing requirement. Covers finding and developing topics, building academic arguments, and organizing essays and reports. Graded A, B, C, or NC. Includes a tutorial at the Writing Center. Followed by ENWR 106.
ENWR 106 - (3) (Y)
Academic Writing II
Prerequisite: ENWR 105.
Part II of the two-semester option for meeting the first writing requirement. Covers elements of audience analysis, cohesion, focus, and style. Graded A, B, C, or NC. Includes a tutorial at the Writing Center. Fulfills the first writing requirement.
ENWR 110 - (3) (S)
Accelerated Academic Writing
The single-semester option for meeting the first writing requirement. Covers framing and developing effective academic arguments, with an emphasis on essays and reports. Graded A, B, C, or NC. Special topics sections are listed on the English department’s Web site. Students whose social security numbers end in an even digit must take ENWR 110 in the fall; those with social security numbers ending in an odd digit take it in the spring.
ENWR 210 - (3) (S)
Advanced Academic Writing
Covers framing and developing effective academic arguments, with an emphasis on essays and reports. Designed for first-year students scoring 740 or above on the SAT II subject test, those who move out of ENWR 110 via portfolio placement, and Echols scholars. Special topics sections are listed on the English department’s Web site.
ENWR 220 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Academic and Professional Writing
Prerequisite: Completion of first writing requirement.
Includes courses on writing studies, corporate communications, and digital writing.
ENWR 230 - (3) (S)
Poetry Writing
Prerequisite: First- or  second-year student.
An introduction to the craft of writing poetry, with relevant readings in the genre.
ENWR 250 - (3) (S)
Fiction Writing
Prerequisite: First- or second-year student.
An introduction to the craft of writing fiction, with relevant readings in the genre.
ENWR 270 - (3) (S)
News Writing
Introductory course in news writing, emphasizing editorials, features, and reporting.
ENWR 282 - (3) (Y)
Television Texts; Scripting and Directing
Studies the theory and creative principles of television scripting and directing; includes analysis of form, content, and production values; and composition, writing, lighting, camera work, and performance. Cross-listed as DRAM 282.
ENWR 301, 302 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Writing I, II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Primarily for students having interest and ability in writing. Instruction in prose forms ranging from simple narration, description, and exposition to short stories and essays. Reading assignments.
ENWR 331, 332 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Poetry Writing I, II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
For students advanced beyond the level of ENWR 230. Involves workshop of student work, craft discussion, and relevant reading. May be repeated with different instructor.
ENWR 351, 352 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Fiction Writing
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
For students advanced beyond the level of ENWR 250. Involves workshop of student work, craft discussion, and relevant reading. May be repeated with different instructor.
ENWR 370 - (3) (IR)
Intermediate News Writing
Prerequisite: ENWR 270 or instructor permission.
Writing news and feature stories for magazines and newspapers.
ENWR 371 - (3) (IR)
News Magazine Writing
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
A course in weekly news magazine writing.
ENWR 372 - (3) (S)
Magazine Writing
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
A course in writing non-fiction articles for general magazines.
ENWR 380 - (3) (S)
Academic and Professional Writing
Prerequisite: Successful completion of at least one 300-level course in the student’s major.
Prepares students for professional or advanced academic writing; also prepares students to manage (assign, edit, supervise, and coach) the writing of others. Lectures present general principles of effective writing based on the latest research in writing studies; seminars allow students to master those principles in the context of projects keyed to their specific interests, background, and career plans.
ENWR 481, 482 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Fiction Writing I, II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Devoted to the writing of prose fiction, especially the short story. Student work is discussed in class and individual conferences. Parallel reading in the work of modern novelists and short story writers is required. For advanced students with prior experience in writing fiction. May be repeated with different instructor.
ENWR 483, 484 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Poetry Writing I, II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
For advanced students with prior experience in writing poetry. Student work is discussed in class and in individual conferences. Reading in contemporary poetry is also assigned. May be repeated with different instructor.
ENWR 495, 496 - (3) (Y)
Independent Project in Creative Writing
Prerequisite:  instructor permission.
For the student who wants to work on a creative writing project under the direction of a faculty member.
ENWR 531, 532 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Poetry Writing
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Intensive work in the writing of poetry for students with prior experience. May be repeated with different instructor.
ENWR 541, 542 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: Instructor permission. Limited enrollment. 541 is prerequisite for 542.
Intensive study of one-act plays by such masters as Chekhov, Pirandello, and Synge, with particular attention to character and context and to scene construction. Each student writes two one-act plays.
ENWR 551, 552 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Fiction Writing
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
A course for advanced short story writers. Student manuscripts are discussed in individual conference and in class. May be repeated with different instructor.
ENWR 561 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Suitable for graduates and undergraduates, especially those interested in theatrical production and communications. Explains film, television, and radio production values with weekly exercises in the grammar, composition, and writing of screenplays, radio drama, literary adaptation, documentaries, and docudrama. Selected scripts may be produced by the drama department.
Poetry Writing
ENPW 482 - (3) (S)
Poetry Seminar
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
This seminar class, designed for students in the English Department's Undergraduate Area Program in Poetry Writing, is a close readings course for serious makers and readers of poems. Seminar topics will vary by semester.
ENPW 491,492 - (3) (Y)
Poetry Thesis
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Directed poetry writing project for students in the English Department's Undergraduate Area Program in Poetry Writing, leading to completion of a manuscript of poems. Both courses are required for students in the Distinguished Majors Program. Graded on a year-long basis.
Introductory Seminars in Literature
These courses are designed primarily for first- and second-year students interested in becoming English majors and for non-majors at all levels. The purpose of the ENLT series is to introduce students to the aims, methods, and skills involved in reading literature and in writing about it. All ENLT courses fulfill the second writing requirement. ENLT 201M is the prerequisite for declaring the major.
ENLT 201 M - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Literary Studies
Prerequisite for declaring an English major. Introduces students to some fundamental skills in critical thinking and critical writing about literary texts. Readings include various examples of poetry, fiction, and drama. The course is organized along interactive and participatory lines.
ENLT 211 - (3) (Y)
Masterpieces of English Literature I
Surveys selected English masterpieces from the fourteenth through the eighteenth century.
ENLT 212 - (3) (Y)
Masterpieces of English Literature II
Surveys selected English writers from the late eighteenth through the twentieth century.
ENLT 213 - (3) (Y)
Major Authors of American Literature
Studies major works in American literature before 1900.
ENLT 214 - (3) (Y)
Modern American Authors
Surveys major American writers of the twentieth century.
ENLT 215, 216 - (3) (Y)
Studies in European Literature
Studies major classical and continental works from antiquity to the present dayCross-listed as CPLT 201, 202.
ENLT 223 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Poetry
Examines the poetic techniques and conventions of imagery and verse that poets have used across the centuries. Exercises in scansion, close reading, and framing arguments about poetry.
ENLT 224 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Drama
Introduces the techniques of the dramatic art, with close analysis of selected plays.
ENLT 226 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Fiction
Studies the techniques of fiction.
ENLT 247 - (3) (Y)
Black Writers in America
Chronological survey in African American literature in the U.S. from its beginning in vernacular culture to the present day
ENLT 248 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Literature
Introduces trends in contemporary English, American, and Continental literature, especially in fiction, but with some consideration of poetry and drama.
ENLT 250 - (3) (Y)
Studies selected sonnets and plays of Shakespeare.
ENLT 252 - (3) (Y)
Women in Literature
Analyzes the representations of women in literature as well as literary texts by women writers.
ENLT 255 - (3) (Y)
Special Topics
Usually an introduction to non-traditional or specialized topics in literary studies, (e.g., native American literature, gay and lesbian studies, techno-literacy, Arthurian romance, Grub Street in eighteenth-century England, and American exceptionalism).
Upper Division Courses in English
The following courses are designed primarily for English majors and for students who have some previous experience or special ability in reading and writing about literature.
Medieval Literature
ENMD 311, 312 - (3) (IR)
Medieval European Literature in Translation
Surveys English, French, German, Italian, Irish, Icelandic, and Spanish literature of the Middle Ages.
ENMD 325, 326 - (3) (IR)
Chaucer I, II
Studies selected Canterbury Tales and other works, read in the original.
ENMD 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Medieval Literature I, II
Limited enrollment.
ENMD 501 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Old English
Studies the language and literature of Anglo-Saxon England.
ENMD 505, 506 - (3) (IR)
Old Icelandic
Introduces the language and literature of medieval Scandinavia; readings from the Poetic Edda and the sagas.
ENMD 520 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: ENMD 501 or equivalent.
Reading of the poem, emphasizing critical methods and exploring its relations to the culture of Anglo-Saxon England.
Renaissance Literature
ENRN 311 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the Renaissance
Surveys sixteenth-century English prose and poetry, emphasizing satire, early fiction, love lyrics, epic, and biography.
ENRN 313 - (3) (IR)
The Seventeenth Century I
Surveys the prose and poetry of the earlier seventeenth century.
ENRN 321, 322 - (3) (S)
Shakespeare I, II
First semester emphasizes histories and comedies; second semester tragedies and romances.
ENRN 323 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Shakespeare
Intensive study of selected plays. Limited enrollment.
ENRN 325 - (3) (IR)
Study of selected poems and prose, with particular emphasis on Paradise Lost.
ENRN 340 - (3) (IR)
The Drama in English From the Beginning to 1642
Studies non-Shakespearean Elizabethan and Jacobean drama
ENRN 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Renaissance Literature I, II
Limited enrollment. Topics vary from year to year.
ENRN 483, 484 - (3) (IR)
Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Studies
Interdisciplinary seminar on the interrelationships between literature and history, the classical tradition, philosophy, religion, and art history in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Topics vary from year to year.
Restoration and Eighteenth Century Literature
ENEC 310 - (3) (IR)
The Seventeenth Century II
Surveys representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1660-1700.
ENEC 311 - (3) (IR)
English Literature of the Restoration and Early Eighteenth Century
Surveys representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1660-1740.
ENEC 312 - (3) (IR)
English Literature of the Late Eighteenth Century
Surveys representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1740-1800.
ENEC 313 - (3) (IR)
English Literature of the Restoration and Eighteenth Century
Surveys representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1660-1800.
ENEC 351 - (3) (IR)
The English Novel I
Studies the rise and development of the English novel in the 18th century.
ENEC 381, 382 - (3) (IR)
Eighteenth-Century Topics
Topics vary from year to year.
ENEC 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Eighteenth- Century Literature I, II
Limited enrollment. Topics vary from year to year.
ENEC 540 - (3) (IR)
English Drama 1660-1800
Surveys representative plays and dramatic developments from 1660 to 1800.
American Literature
ENAM 311 - (3) (IR)
American Literature to 1865
Surveys American literature from the Colonial Era to the Age of Emerson and Melville.
ENAM 312 - (3) (IR)
American Literature Since 1865
Surveys American literature, both prose and poetry, from the Civil War to the present.
ENAM 313 - (3) (IR)
African-American Survey, I
Analyzes the earliest examples of African-American literature, emphasizing African cultural themes and techniques that were transformed by the experience of slavery as that experience met European cultural and religious practices. Studies essays, speeches, pamphlets, poetry, and songs.
ENAM 314 - (3) (IR)
African-American Survey, II
Continuation of the ENAM 313, this course begins with the career of Richard Wright and brings the Afro-American literary and performing tradition up to the present day.
ENAM 315 - (3) (IR)
The American Renaissance
Analyzes the major writings of Poe, Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman, Thoreau, and Dickinson.
ENAM 316 - (3) (IR)
Realism and Naturalism in America
Analyzes American literary realism and naturalism, its sociological, philosophical, and literary origins as well as its relation to other contemporaneous literary movements
ENAM 322 - (3) (IR)
Major American Authors
Studies the work of one or two major authors.
ENAM 330 - (3) (IR)
American Poetry
Studies theme and technique in major American poets. Emphasizes the writers as poets rather than as Americans.
ENAM 355 - (3) (IR)
American Fiction to 1900
Surveys the development of American fiction up to 1900.
ENAM 357 - (3) (IR)
Women in American Art
Analyzes the roles played by women both as visual artists and as the subjects of representation in American art from the colonial period to the present. Some background in either art history or gender studies is desirable.
ENAM 358 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Fiction
Intensive study of selected American writers.
ENAM 381 - (3) (IR)
Studies in African-American Literature and Culture
Intensive study of African-American writers and cultural figures in a diversity of genres. Includes artists from across the African diaspora in comparative American perspective.
ENAM 383 - (3) (IR)
American Introspection (1770-1990)
Analyzes the nature and identity of America, real and imaginary, as perceived by major writers in various genres. Emphasizes the relation of forms to ideas, and recurring myths and motifs.
ENAM 385 - (3) (IR)
Folklore in America
Surveys the traditional expressive culture of various ethnic and religious groups in America, including songs, folk narratives, folk religion, proverbs, riddles. Emphasizes southeastern Anglo-Americans.
ENAM 387 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the West
Analyzes selected works by writers of the Western United States from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Emphasizes the Anglo-American exploration, settlement, and development of the West, as well as readings from other ethnic groups, including Native and Hispanic Americans.
ENAM 388 - (3) (IR)
The Literature of the South
Analyzes selected works of poetry and prose by major Southern writers.
ENAM 389 - (3) (Y)
Mass Media and American Culture
Studies the development and impact of mass forms of communication in America including newspapers, magazines, film, the wireless and the radio, television, and the Internet.
ENAM 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in American Literature I, II
Limited enrollment. Topics vary from year to year.
Nineteenth Century British Literature
ENNC 311 - (3) (IR)
English Poetry and Prose of the Nineteenth Century I
Surveys the poetry and non-fictional prose of the Romantic period, includes major Romantic poets and essayists.
ENNC 312 - (3) (IR)
English Poetry and Prose of the Nineteenth Century II
Surveys the poetry and non-fictional prose of the Victorian period, includes the major Victorian poets and essayists.
ENNC 321 - (3) (IR)
Major British Authors of the Earlier Nineteenth Century
Analyzes the principal works of three or more Romantic authors.
ENNC 322 - (3) (IR)
Major British Writers of the Later Nineteenth Century
Analyzes the principal works of two or more Victorian authors.
ENNC 323 - (3) (IR)
Victorian Prose
Studies major Victorian prose writers with attention to fiction, autobiography, history, and other non-fictional forms.
ENNC341 - (3) (IR)
The Origins of Modern Drama
Examines experiments in dramatic form in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
ENNC 351 - (3) (IR)
The English Novel II
Reading of novels by Austen, Dickens, Thackeray, the Brontës, Gaskell, Meredith, Eliot, and Hardy.
ENNC 352 - (3) (E)
The Lives of the Victorians
Introduces the literature and culture of the Victorian period, focusing on life-narrative in a variety of genres, including poetry, fiction, biography, and autobiography.
ENNC 353 - (3) (IR)
The Continental Novel of the Nineteenth Century
Study of major works of continental fiction in the nineteenth century.
ENNC 381, 382 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth Century Topics
Examination of particular movements within the period, (e.g., the Aesthetic Movement; the Pre-Raphaelites; and Condition-of-England novels).
ENNC 385 - (3) (IR)
The Fiction of Empire
Studies the representation of the British Empire in nineteenth-century works of fiction.
ENNC 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Nineteenth
Century Literature I, II
Limited enrollment. Topics vary from year to year.
ENNC 491, 492 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Topics in Nineteenth
Century Literature I, II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission. Limited enrollment.
Topics vary from year to year.

Twentieth Century Literature
ENTC 311 - (3) (IR)
British Literature of the Twentieth Century
Surveys major trends and figures in British literature from 1890 to the present.
ENTC 312 - (3) (IR)
American Literature of the Twentieth Century
Studies the major poetry and fiction.
ENTC 313 - (3) (IR)
Modern Comparative Literature I
Studies major international movements and figures in the twentieth century.
ENTC 315 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the Americas
Comparative study of various major writers of North, Central, and South America.
ENTC 316 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century Women Writers
Studies fiction, poetry, and non-fiction written by women in the twentieth century.
ENTC 321, 322 - (3) (IR)
Major British and American Writers of the Twentieth Century
Close reading of the works of two or three major British or American authors.
ENTC 330 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary American Poetry
Studies the style and themes of recent and contemporary poets and their influence.
ENTC 331 - (3) (IR)
Major African-American Poets
Examines poems representative of the African American literary traditions.
ENTC 333 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century British Poetry
Studies in the twentieth-century sensibility.
ENTC 334 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary British Poetry
Study of identity and style in poetry since 1945.
ENTC 341, 342 - (3) (IR)
Modern Drama I, II
A two-semester survey of European and American modern drama, with some attention to works from other regions. The first half covers the late nineteenth century to World War II; the second focuses on drama from the post-war period to the present.
ENTC 351, 352 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century Fiction I, II
Introduces British, American, and Continental masterpieces, emphasizing new ideas and the new forms of fiction in the twentieth century.
ENTC 355 - (3) (Y)
Asian American Fiction
Studies Asian American literature as a cultural phenomenon and literary tradition, presenting a range of twentieth-century fictions by immigrants or their descendants from India, Pakistan, China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and the Philippines.
ENTC 356 - (3) (IR)
The African Novel
Studies the development of the anglophone African novel as a genre, as well as the representation of the post-colonial dilemma of African nations and the revision of gender and ethnic roles.
ENTC 380 - (3) (IR)
Concepts of the Modern
Studies the modern sensibility through an examination of the themes and techniques of aestheticism, psychology, existentialism, and twentieth-century.
ENTC 381 - (3) (E)
Modern Irish Literature
Surveys Irish writing from the late nineteenth century to the present. Focuses on the relationships of Irish literature to Ireland’s national identity and political processes.
ENTC 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Twentieth
Century Literature I, II
Limited enrollment.
Topics vary from year to year.
ENTC 483, 484 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in Modern Studies
Prerequisite: Instructor permission. Limited enrollment.
An interdisciplinary seminar focusing on the interrelationships between literature and history, the social sciences, philosophy, religion, and the fine arts in the Modern period.
Genre Studies
ENGN 331 - (3) (IR)
The Lyric
Studies the major lyrical forms and traditions in Western literature, with particularly close reading of poems written in English.
ENGN 340 - (3) (IR)
Drama From the Restoration to the Twentieth Century
Surveys English drama (with some attention to one or two European dramatists) from the Restoration to the twentieth century.
ENGN 341 - (3) (IR)
Studies the development of tragic forms.
ENGN 350 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Short Fiction
Analyzes form, technique, and ideas in selected short fiction from various periods in the British, American, and Continental traditions.
ENGN 351, 352 - (3) (IR)
Forms of the Novel I, II
Studies the relation of form, narrative technique, and idea in selected novels from various periods of English, American, and Continental fiction (in translation). First semester to about 1900, second semester to the present.
ENGN 380 - (3) (IR)
Investigates the narrative form and cultural uses of Romance.
ENGN 382 - (3) (IR)
The Art and Theory of Comedy
Studies in comic theory and practice from the classical period to the present.
ENGN 384 - (3) (IR)
Reading and discussion of major satirical works from classical times to the present.
ENGN 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Literary Genres I, II
Limited enrollment.
Topics vary from year to year.
Studies in Criticism
ENCR 300 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary Literary Theory
Introduces some of the most influential schools of contemporary literary theory and criticism.
ENCR 361 - (3) (IR)
Analyzes the theory and practice of interpretation of literary texts.
ENCR 362 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Criticism and Cultural Studies
Introduces the various and contested theories and practices of what has come to be called “cultural studies.” Examines various theoretical traditions and histories of mass culture and advertising.
ENCR 363 - (3) (IR)
Psychoanalytic Criticism
Studies Freudian and post-Freudian psychology and its literary applications.
ENCR 371, 372 - (3) (IR)
Intellectual Prose
Studies non-fiction discursive prose. Readings drawn from such fields as criticism, aesthetic theory, philosophy, social and political thought, history, economics, and science; from the Renaissance to the present day.
ENCR 381/SWAG 381 - (3) (IR)
Feminist Theories and Methods
Introduces current feminist scholarship in a variety of areas—literature, history, film, anthropology, and psychoanalysis, among others—pairing feminist texts with more traditional ones. Features guest speakers and culminates in an interdisciplinary project.
ENCR 481 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Literary Criticism
Limited enrollment.
ENCR 532 - (3) (IR)
Poetic Form
Provides necessary background study for other courses in English and American poetry for all periods. Useful for students composing poetry in creative writing classes. Enriches the study of poetry in other languages.
ENCR 562 - (3) (IR)
History of Critical Theory
Studies representative theories about the nature and function of literature from Plato to the present.
ENCR 565 - (3) (IR)
Books as Physical Objects
Surveys bookmaking over the past five centuries. Emphasizes analysis and description of physical features and consideration of how a text is affectedby the physical conditions of its production.
ENCR 580 - (3) (IR)
Queer Theories and Queer Practices
Introduces “queer theory” through an examination of key theoretical texts (Foucault, Sedgwick, Butler, and others) and several exemplary practices, which vary from semester to semester.
Special Topics in Literature
ENSP 282 - (3) (IR)
Documentary Form and Content
Studies non-fictional film and television texts, emphasizing argumentative form and content.
ENSP 480 - (4) (IR)
The Bible
Analyzes readings in the English Bible. Designed to familiarize or re-familiarize the literary student with the shape, argument, rhetoric, and purposes of the canon; with the persons, events, and perspectives of the major narratives; and with the conventions, techniques, resources, and peculiarities of the texts.
ENSP 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Special Topics in Literature I, II
Limited enrollment.
Topics vary from year to year.
ENSP 581 - (3) (IR)
Film Aesthetics
Studies film as a work of art produced by cinematic skills and valued for what it is in itself. Emphasizes major theoretical works and analyzing individual films. Studies films with reference to the techniques and methods that produce the “aesthetic effect” style, and the problems of authorship arising out of considerations of style and aesthetic unity.
ENSP 583 - (3) (Y)
Literature and the Film
Studies the relationship between the two media, emphasizing the literary origins and backgrounds of film, verbal and visual languages, and the problems of adaptation from novels and short stories to film. Seven to nine novels (or plays) are read and analyzed with regard to film adaptations of these works. Film screenings two to two and one half hours per week outside of class.
ENSP 591/592 - (3) (S)
Literary Journal Editing
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
This course, organized around the literary journal Meridian (which is sponsored by the English department’s MFA program) is designed to involve students in every aspect of literary journal production, from selecting and editing manuscripts to layout/design; from grant writing and promotion to final distribution. Along with editing and relevant research, students write book reviews, conduct interviews, and produce articles to be published in connection with the release of each issue of the journal.
Language Study
ENLS 303 - (3) (IR)
History of the English Language
Studies the development of English word forms and vocabulary from Anglo-Saxon to present-day English.
ENLS 359 - (3) (IR)
American English
A historical examination of the peculiar development of the English language, both spoken and written, in the Americas, primarily in the United States, from the time of the first European settlements to the present.
Miscellaneous English
ENGL 381, 382, 383 - (3) (Y)
History of Literatures in English I, II, III
A three-semester, chronological survey of literatures in English from their beginnings to the present day. Studies the formal and thematic features of different genres in relation to the chief literary, social, and cultural influences upon them. ENGL 381 covers the period up to 1660; ENGL 382, the period 1660-1880; and ENGL 383, the period 1880 to the present. Required of all majors.
ENGL 491, 492 - (3) (Y)
Distinguished Majors Program
Directed research leading to completion of an extended essay to be submitted to the Honors Committee. Both courses are required of honors candidates. Graded on a year-long basis.
ENGL 493, 494 - (3) (Y)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Completion of four 300- or 400-level courses.
Department of Environmental Sciences
P.O. Box 400123
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4123
Phone: (434) 924-7761
Fax: (434) 982-2137

Overview  The interdisciplinary field of environmental sciences is concerned with the interaction of physical and biological processes that shape our natural environment. The Department of Environmental Sciences offers instruction and conducts research in the areas of atmospheric science, hydrology, geoscience, ecology, environmental chemistry, and land and resource analysis. It offers students the opportunity to understand how these processes interact in time and space, and how a change in any one may affect others. The research efforts of faculty and students deal largely with understanding the fundamental science of physical processes, and to a lesser extent with applications of this understanding to environmental problems, management, or policy making. Majors can specialize in one area or diversify across all areas depending on career goals.
The environmental sciences major provides strong preparation for several post-graduate paths. The program’s in-depth training in the theory and methods of atmospheric science, hydrology, geoscience, ecology and environmental chemistry prepares students for graduate school in either environmental sciences or one of the disciplines it involves. Moreover, with its focus on reasoning, analysis, and management skills that involve natural processes, the program provides a strong foundation for professional schools. It also furnishes students with the liberal arts science training necessary for post-graduate employment in natural resource fields. Many environmental sciences majors concentrate their programs in one or two fields with graduate or professional schools in mind. Others use the breadth and interdisciplinary nature of the curriculum to prepare for careers in science writing, scientific methods, mathematical modeling and computing, teaching, or environmental management.
In 1998, the Department of Environmental Sciences initiated the Environmental Literacy Program at the University of Virginia. The purpose of this program is to bring together studies of the physical, biological, and social environment to provide students and faculty the opportunity to expand their understanding of the environmental issues facing society today and in the future. The program’s mission is to identify, facilitate, and develop activities within the University and the community at large that enhance the understanding of the environment. This mission is accomplished by supporting a variety of activities, both in and out of the classroom, including seminars, field trips, and community and educational outreach.
As part of the Environmental Literacy Program, the department’s 100- and 200-level courses provide introductions to the geologic, ecologic, atmospheric, oceanographic, environmental chemistry, and materials processes that are frequently managed, planned, financed, litigated over, and involved in health considerations. For science  majors, as well as non-science and pre-professional students, these courses provide solid training in the interactions of biological and physical processes, and the procedures of interdisciplinary research and discovery.

Faculty  There are more than thirty faculty members in the department. Many of these faculty are world-renowned for their research in such areas as forest ecology, atmospheric chemistry, transport of bacteria and other contaminants in groundwater, isotope geochemistry, and coastal processes. All of the faculty are committed to teaching and working with students.
Recognizing that environmental processes and concerns are among the most important issues of our time, the University has enabled the department to link its research with scientists and others worldwide who deal with global environmental change.

Students  There are currently more than 150 students majoring in environmental sciences. Students may specialize in one area or select work from two or more of the four areas of studies. Majors who aim for continued education in graduate and professional schools or specific job paths generally concentrate in one or two areas. Those interested in such careers as science writing, computing, or teaching choose advanced courses from a broader range. Majors are employed in consulting, government agencies, forestry and agricultural firms, lobbying, weather forecasting, and many other exciting and enjoyable careers.
Introductory courses are usually conducted in a lecture format; some are large, but faculty members are easily accessible. Advanced courses are quite small, and all are taught by faculty. The department encourages all majors to explore opportunities to work with faculty and graduate students in research projects that provide practice in using the tools and concepts of various disciplines and help to develop career goals and opportunities.

Special Resources  Departmental facilities include field vehicles, boats, electronics shops, greenhouses, environmental chambers, extensive computing facilities, a Geographic Information Systems laboratory, aerial photographic interpretation equipment, the Office of the State Climatologist, Internet access to the McIDAS-X and GEMPAK weather information services, and four environmental research sites, including the barrier islands of Virginia’s Eastern Shore; two Piedmont sites; the Blandy Farm Experimental Research Station at Front Royal, Virginia; the Pace site near Charlottesville; and the Mountain Lake Biological Research Station in Giles County, Virginia. Majors are encouraged to take advantage of all of these facilities.

Requirements for Major  The Bachelor of Arts degree in Environmental Sciences requires that students complete 30 graded credits of departmental course work with a 2.0 cumulative grade point average. EVSC 280, 320, 340, and 350 with their laboratories are the required core courses. The interdisciplinary nature of the environmental science’s advanced courses is one of the program’s great strengths and unique features. To take maximum advantage of these courses, students should complete the four core courses by the beginning of their fourth year. Three credits of non-core 100- or 200-level course work, taken prior to the third year, may be counted toward the major. At least 11 credits of non-core courses at the 300 level or higher must be taken.
The department requires one semester of calculus and two semesters of college-level chemistry, biology, or physics with laboratories. Students should begin to fulfill this requirement in their first year by taking MATH 131 and any two of the following: CHEM 141, CHEM 142, BIOL 201, BIOL 202, PHYS 231, or PHYS 232 with their labs.
To do serious research and compete effectively in graduate school and employment, additional math and science is generally needed. Work in any environmental sciences area necessitates developing an understanding of related fields. Thus, to encourage each student’s success in research and the competition for top graduate schools and jobs, the department requires students to undertake related work selected on the following basis: Ecology depends on a basic knowledge of chemistry (CHEM 141, 142) and biology (BIOL 201, 202). Geoscience, hydrology, and atmospheric science depend on chemistry and physics (PHYS 231, 232). All of these areas depend on calculus (MATH 131, 132 recommended) and the techniques of statistics (STAT 112 or SOC 311) and computer programming (CS 102 or 120). Moreover, most applications and analyses of legal or policy issues depend on basic economics (ECON 201, 202).
If this related work has been accomplished, students can begin the department’s core courses in the first or second year. With college-level chemistry and calculus, most students are prepared for EVSC 280 (Physical Geology) and EVSC 320 (Fundamentals of Ecology). Students are advised to obtain computer skills and an understanding of statistics as early as possible, and to take additional related science as their interests develop.
Students who score a 4 or a 5 on the Environmental Science Advanced Placement exam will receive 3 credits for EVSC 101. Students who score a 6 or 7 on the higher-level International Baccalaureate Program Environmental Systems test will receive 3 credits for EVSC 120. Any three hours of non-core, lower division courses, or advanced placement credit on either the Environmental Science or Environmental Systems exam, may be counted toward the major or minor if taken prior to one’s third year. (Note that only 3 hours of non-core courses below the 300 level may count toward the major so EVSC 101 and EVSC 120 may not both be used.)

Requirements for Minor  A minor consists of at least 16 credits of environmental sciences course work in a program of study proposed by the student and approved by the department faculty. The program must include at least two core courses (EVSC 280, 320, 340, 350) with laboratories, and one non-core course at the 300 level or higher, with no more than six credits of non-core courses below the 300 level. To take advantage of advanced interdisciplinary courses, the core courses should be completed early.

The Environmental Sciences Organization, recognized by Student Council, presents an undergraduate professionalization seminar, field trips, career and job search activities, curriculum review and planning, and many social events. All University students are welcome to join.

Distinction and Prizes  The department participates in the College’s Distinguished Majors Program designed for highly qualified students. This program must be started early. Information can be obtained from an advisor.
Each year, the department gives the following awards to members of the graduating class who have distinguished themselves academically during their four years of study at the University:
1. the Wallace-Poole Award to the most outstanding major;
2. the Wilbur A. Nelson Award, the Mahlon G. Kelly Award, and the Michael Garstang Award to students who are outstanding in the areas of environmental geology, ecology, and atmospheric sciences;
3. an award to the outstanding student in the area of hydrology; and
4. the Trout Unlimited Award for excellence in aquatic ecology.

Each year, the department offers the following awards to majors in the program:
1. the Bloomer and Mitchell Awards for geoscience-oriented students; and
2. the Chamberlain Award for departmental majors.
The Blandy Experimental Farm and the Orland E. White Arboretum of the University of Virginia are located in Boyce, Virginia at the northern end of the Shenandoah Valley. At this facility, faculty and students conduct research on the ecology of plants, mammals, and insects. Field classes from the Departments of Environmental Sciences and Biology conduct laboratory exercises at the facility, and each year an extensive summer program of course work is presented. The farm contains a wide array of habitats including forest, successional fields, pasture, cropland, ponds, and marshes. The Orland E. White Arboretum, the State Arboretum of Virginia, contains a beautifully landscaped collection of 1,000 species and varieties of trees and shrubs. The facilities also include greenhouses, laboratories, computer facilities, and housing, laundry and dining facilities. Students may participate in supervised research or independent study at Blandy Farm primarily during the summer.

Research Opportunities  Research projects throughout the department provide a number of employment and experience opportunities for undergraduates.
Students in their third and fourth years are encouraged to gain research experience by participating in faculty research or initiating their own research projects with faculty supervision. These projects can be conducted for credit by arranging with a faculty member to supervise an independent study (EVSC 493, 494) or research project (EVSC 495, 496).

Additional Information  For more information, contact Wallace Reed, Faculty Advisor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Clark Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-7761; www.evsc.virginia.edu.
Course Descriptions
Environmental Sciences
EVSC 101 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Environmental Sciences
Introduces the principles and basic facts of the natural environment. Topics include earth materials, land forms, weather and climate, vegetation and soils, and the processes of environmental change and their implications to economic and human systems.
EVSC 102 - (3) (Y)
Practical Concepts in Environmental Sciences
Prerequisite/corequisite: EVSC 101.
Practical concepts and problem solving in environmental sciences through demonstrations, hands-on activities, structured discussions, and problem sets beyond those of traditional lecture and discussion components offered in EVSC 101. Emphasizes experience and critical thinking in the four core areas: geology, hydrology, atmospheric sciences, and ecology.
EVSC 120 - (3) (Y)
Elements of Ecology
Introduces the science of ecology and its application to current environmental issues. A number of topics relating to population growth and regulation, biodiversity, sustainability, and global change are used as a framework to investigate basic ecological principles. Emphasizes the application of basic science to the understanding and mitigation of current environmental problems.
EVSC 140 - (3) (Y)
Water on Earth
Studies the natural history of the Earth’s hydrosphere, including its origin, evolution, and importance in Earth processes. Introduces the hydrological cycle and the role of water in a variety of Earth processes. Discusses human influences on the hydrosphere and current topics in hydrological science and water resources, such as contamination and resource allocation, emphasizing the scientific basis for past, present, and future decisions.
EVSC 148 - (3) (Y)
Resources and the Environment
Explores the impact of people on the environment in the past and present with projections for the future. Addresses the phenomena and effects of food and energy production and industrial processes, including such topics as lead pollution, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and the disposal of radioactive waste. Demonstrates how the environment works in the absence of humans and discusses how human use of resources perturbs the environment.
EVSC 181 - (3) (Y)
Climate Change: Past and Future
Explores past changes of the Earth’s climate system (atmosphere, oceans, vegetation, land surface and ice sheets) caused by changes in atmospheric CO2, the strength of the sun, the Earth’s orbit around the sun, volcanic eruptions, and plate tectonics. Future climate change is projected based on past changes.
EVSC 201 - (3) (S)
Materials That Shape Civilizations
Reviews the structure, properties, methods of production, uses, and world supply of the materials on which present and past civilizations have been based; including materials used in heavy industry, construction, communications, medicine, as well as textiles and naturally occurring organic materials. Emphasizes the effects of environment on materials and energy relationships. Cross-listed as MSE 201.
EVSC 210 - (3) (Y)
Beaches, Coasts and Rivers
Studies the geologic framework and biophysical processes of the coastal zone, and the role of the major river systems in modifying the coastal environment. Emphasizes human modifications, including case studies along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts.
EVSC 215 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Oceanography
Analyzes the principles that govern the world’s oceans and their integration into an understanding of the major marine environments. Topics include marine pollution, global climate, and marine policy.
EVSC 222 - (3) (Y)
Conservation Ecology—Biodiversity and Beyond
Studies ecological science relevant to sustaining populations, species, ecosystems, and the global biosphere. Includes discussion of genetic inbreeding, critical population size, community structure and organization, maintenance of critical ecosystem function, and global biogeochemistry. Case studies from around the world demonstrate links between human-driven environmental change and the health of the biosphere, at all levels, from the organism to the planet.
EVSC 230/ETP 230 - (3) (Y)
Politics, Science, and Values: An Introduction to Environmental Policy
Introduces a wide variety of domestic and international environmental policy issues. Explores how political processes, scientific evidence, ideas, and values affect environmental policymaking. This class satisfies the social sciences area requirement and not the natural sciences/mathematics area requirement, since EVSC 230 is devoted to the subject of environmental policy.
EVSC 250 - (3) (Y)
Man’s Atmospheric Environment
Long-term global climactic controls and short-term severe weather events such as hurricanes and tornadoes are treated in terms of the physical laws governing the motions of the atmosphere and the energy driving the system. Discusses climactic and atmospheric events that severely impact human behavior. Explores responses by early and modern humans to perturbations in the weather and climate. Examines utilization of renewable energy residing in the sun, wind, and water; and advertent and inadvertent weather modification.
EVSC 280 - (3) (S)
Physical Geology
Recommended: At least one semester of college chemistry with lab such as CHEM 141, 142.
Studies the composition, structure, and internal processes of earth; the classification, origin, and distribution of earth materials; earth’s interior; and the interpretation of geological data for the solution of problems of the natural environment.
EVSC 280L - (1) (S)
Physical Geology Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 280.
Field and laboratory experimentation into the nature of earth materials and processes, especially as applied to use and human problems.
EVSC 320 - (3) (S)
Fundamentals of Ecology
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus; recommended: at least one semester of college-level chemistry and biology with labs such as CHEM 141, 142, and BIOL 202.
Studies energy flow, nutrient cycling and allocation in natural ecosystems, organization of species at the population and community levels, and interaction between people and the biosphere.
EVSC 320L - (1) (S)
Fundamentals of Ecology Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 320.
Field and laboratory experimentation illustrative of ecological systems, and their checks, balances, and cycles.
EVSC 340 - (3) (Y)
Physical Hydrology
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus.
Studies the physical principles governing the flow of water on and beneath the earth’s surface, including fundamental concepts of fluid dynamics applied to the description of open channel hydraulics, ground water hydraulics, and dynamics of soil moisture. Introduces elements of surface water and ground water hydrology and explores humanity’s influence on its hydrological environment.
EVSC 340L - (1) (Y)
Physical Hydrology Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 340.
Field and laboratory experimentation illustrative of the hydrological cycle, including energy and mass transfer in surface and ground water.
EVSC 350 - (3) (Y)
Atmosphere and Weather
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus; recommended: at least one semester of college physics with lab such as PHYS 231, 232.
Introduces the physical laws governing atmospheric behavior and examines atmospheric variables and their role in the fluid environment of the earth.
EVSC 350L - (1) (Y)
Atmosphere and Weather Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 350.
Studies the principles of measurements, instrumentation for measuring atmospheric parameters, and methods of observing and calculating atmospheric variables.
EVSC 362 - (3) (S)
Prerequisite: The equivalent of the College natural science/mathematics and social science area requirements. Experience with word processing, file managers, and other computing skills is essential.
Explores the theory of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and their applications in a range of disciplines using various GISsoftware packages. Example applications are from physical and social sciences, often with a focus on the Charlottesville-Albemarle area. For students interested in immediate applications of GIS in their work.
EVSC 384 - (4) (Y)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
Prerequisite: EVSC 280 or instructor permission.
Examines erosional processes and their role in creating landforms. Explores the influence of processes and landforms on land use and the human environment, including hazards from floods and landslides.
EVSC 385 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisite: EVSC 280, calculus, and physics.
Studies the basic principles of continuum mechanics and their application to problems in the geological sciences, including the behavior of the Earth’s lithosphere, rock mechanics, and flow of water.
EVSC 386 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Geochemistry
Prerequisite: CHEM 141, 142 and EVSC 280.
Studies the principles that govern the distribution and abundance of the elements in the Earth’s lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere.
EVSC 413 - (3) (Y)
Population Ecology and Conservation
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 and one course in calculus.
Studies ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral processes that occur within and between populations in natural communities. Emphasizes the mathematics of population dynamics and species interactions and uses models to demonstrate the diversity of life histories in plants and animals. Discusses the application of population ecology to current issues in conversation biology.
EVSC 415 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Oceanography
Prerequisite: One year college-level science.
Introduces oceanography together with a survey of marine resources and the scientific bases for their management.
EVSC 420 - (3) (Y)
The Ecology of Coastal Wetlands
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 or equivalent.
Investigates the ecology of coastal interface ecosystems, including sea grass, mangrove, and salt marsh emphasizing biogeochemisty, succession, and dynamic processes related to the development and maintenance of these systems. Explores the differences between tropical and temperate coastal systems.
EVSC 423 - (3) (O)
Marine Environments and Organisms
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 or equivalent.
Surveys the major habitats of marine and estuarine areas and the organisms which have adapted to life in these environments. Emphasizes the organisms and communities which have evolved in response to stress and competition in the sea, and the systematics and natural history of marine organisms.
EVSC 425 - (3) (Y)
Ecosystem Ecology
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 and one semester of chemistry or instructor permission.
Study of the flows of energy and the cycling of elements in ecosystems and how these concepts connect the various components of the Earth system.
EVSC 427 - (4) (Y)
Soil Science
Prerequisite: EVSC 280 and 320; one year college chemistry or instructor permission.
Introduces the study of soils as a natural system. Topics include the fundamentals of soil chemistry, hydrology, and biology with respect to genesis, classification and utilization.
EVSC 428 - (4) (Y)
Environmental Microbiology
Prerequisite: BIOL 201, CHEM 141, 142, EVSC 320.
Analyzes the impact of microbial physiologic reactions on environmental quality: microbes as transformers of chemical pollutants; microbes as transformers of nutrient elements; microbes as agents of energy transfer in ecosystems; and microbes as contaminants. Emphasizes the quantitation of microbial activities.
EVSC 430 - (3) (O)
Management of Forest Ecosystems
Prerequisite: EVSC 320, 340 or 350 recommended.
Studies processes in forest ecosystems which effect management decisions. Emphasizes the interactions between the physiological processes of plants and system-level functions such as the cycling of nutrients and the flow of energy and water. Examples of current and projected uses of forest systems are discussed throughout, including harvesting for fiber and energy, and the preservation of forests as water purification and air pollution control systems.
EVSC 431 - (3) (Y)
Methods in Aquatic Ecology
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 or equivalent.
Trains students in field and laboratory techniques used in aquatic ecological research. Two weekend field trips to the Eastern Shore of Virginia serve as the foundation. Laboratory exercises include the data and samples gathered in the barrier island lagoons and in the Chesapeake Bay. Analyzes water quality and patterns of primary and secondary production in aquatic ecosystems.
EVSC 432 - (3) (Y)
Aquatic Plant Ecology
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 or equivalent.
Studies the physiology and ecology of aquatic plants from tropical, temperate, and polar waters. Emphasizes comparisons among major plant groups (phytoplankton, macroalgae, vascular) of fundamental physiological processes, including photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, resource allocation, and growth. Discusses iterations between plant physiology an ecosystem function and the structure of plant communities for both marine and freshwater environments. Examples of human impacts on aquatic environments, including eutrophication and global climate change, are considered in the context of plant physiology and ecology.
EVSC 444 - (4) (Y)
Applied Hydrology
Prerequisite: EVSC 340.
Introduces hydrology as applied to environmental problems including water resources, systems analysis, and the effects of urbanization and land use on the hydrological cycle. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory.
EVSC 446 - (3) (Y)
Hydrological Field Methods and Data Analysis
Prerequisite: EVSC 340.
Hydrological instruments are introduced; students employ the instruments to make field measurements and perform a range of data analysis exercises.
EVSC 447 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Climatological Analysis
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus; recommended: EVSC 350.
Discusses the general circulation of the atmosphere, followed by quantitative analysis of climactic fluctuations and their impact upon ecologic and economic systems.
EVSC 455 - (3) (O)
Synoptic Climatology
Prerequisite: EVSC 350 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Studies the formation, movements, and meteorological and climatological attributes of synoptic-scale weather systems and the impact on the environment. Explores the relationship of these systems to air quality, atmospheric transport, climate change, and evaporation and precipitation regimes.
EVSC 457 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisite: EVSC 350 or instructor permission.
Analyzes the principles governing atmospheric processes occurring at small temporal and spatial scales near the Earth’s surface, including energy, mass, and momentum transfer. Includes features of the atmospheric environment affecting plants and feedback mechanisms between plants and their local microclimates, trace gas exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, energy budgets, evapotranspiration, and motions near the surface.
EVSC 465 - (3) (O)
Environmental Policymaking in the United States
Prerequisite: Completion of Natural Sciences/Mathematics area requirement and third- or fourth-year standing, or instructor permission.
Exploration of the possibilities for, and constraints on, domestic environmental policymaking. Examination of the roles of Congress, the executive branch, and the courts in environmental policymaking. Critical analysis of the analytical principles and values commonly employed in environmental policymaking.
EVSC 466 - (3) (S)
GIS and Arc/Info
Prerequisite: The equivalent of the College natural science/mathematics and social science area requirements. Experience with word processing, file managers, and other computing skills is essential.
Explores the theory of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the use of Arc/Info software for research and other applications in a range of disciplines. Example applications are from physical and social sciences, often with a focus on the Charlottesville-Albemarle area. For students interested in research and longer term applications of GIS.
EVSC 468 - (3) (Y)
Advanced GIS
Prerequisite: An introductory GIS course.
Explores advanced Geographic Information Systems concepts through use of Arc/Info, Erdas Imagine, and other GIS software in individual and group projects. Topics include data management, raster modeling, image manipulation, and 3-D visualization.
EVSC 470 - (3) (Y)
Instrumental Methods for Analysis of Environmental Samples
Prerequisite: CHEM 142 or equivalent.
Studies instrumental methods of chemical analysis in an overall context of sampling and evaluating sources of pollution. Analyzes contaminants in air, water, soil, or plant materials.
EVSC 478 - (3) (O)
Groundwater Geology
Prerequisite: EVSC 280, 340.
Study of the mechanics of groundwater flow, with attendant heat and mass transport; regional geological controls on groundwater occurrence and movement; and the role of groundwater in geological processes.
EVSC 480 - (4) (Y)
Prerequisite: EVSC 280; prerequisite or corequisite: One year of college chemistry.
Study of crystallography, crystal chemistry and optical mineralogy; mineral symmetry as it relates to chemical bonding; interaction of crystals with polarized light; and the identification of minerals by physical, optical, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Field experience and laboratories are included.
EVSC 481 - (4) (O)
Prerequisite: EVSC 280.
Study of the origin and classification of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Emphasizes rock series and tectonic associations of rock types. Study of thin sections and hand samples in the laboratory. Field experience and laboratories are included.
EVSC 482 - (3) (IR)
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation
Prerequisite: EVSC 280.
Explores the fundamentals of geological chronology including principles of sedimentation and sequences in layered rocks, and stratigraphic classification of sedimentary rocks, emphasizing spatial and temporal relationships; study of lithofacies and biofacies for interpretation of geologic history; and systematic examination of geologic periods.
EVSC 483 - (3) (Y)
Earth’s Climactic History
Prerequisite: EVSC 280.
Analyzes changes through geologic time of the Earth’s climate system (ice sheets, oceans, atmosphere, vegetation) in response to solar variability, sea-floor spreading, mountain building, atmospheric CO2 levels, volcanic eruptions, and earth-sun orbital changes.
EVSC 484 - (3) (E)
Engineering Geology
Prerequisite: EVSC 280 and 340.
Studies engineering properties of earth materials and their behavior in response to surface processes as they affect land use and natural resource utilization. Two lecture hours and three field or laboratory hours.
EVSC 485 - (3) (Y)
Coastal Processes
Prerequisite: EVSC 280.
Reviews wave generation, wave prediction, wave refraction, transformation, shoaling, and associated inshore currents. Topics include the generation of littoral drift and shallow water surge; beach and barrier island geomorphology and problems of erosion. Includes the historical development of research in coastal processes and a quantitative analysis of spatial patterns along sandy coasts.
EVSC 485L - (1) (Y)
Coastal Processes Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 485.
Laboratory analysis of sediment, map, and aerial photo data sets. Lab demonstrations with the wave tank and rapid sediment analyzer. Weekly exercises and research projects required.
EVSC 487 - (3) (Y)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Prerequisite: One semester of college chemistry and one or two of the EVSC core classes.
Studies the processes that regulate the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus within and between oceans, continents, and atmosphere.
EVSC 488 -  (3) (O)
Planetary Geology
Prerequisite: Introductory course in geosciences or astronomy.
Studies the origin and evolution of the solar system, emphasizing the geology of the planets and satellites of the inner solar system and the satellites of the gaseous planets. Compares and contrasts the Earth with Venus and Mars.
EVSC 489 - (4) (E)
Structural Geology
Prerequisite: EVSC 280, or instructor permission.
Studies the origin, development, and classification of microscopic and macroscopic structures in folded and faulted rocks; the response of rocks to stress and strain; brittle and ductile deformation; and the tectonic evolution of mountain belts. Includes field experience and laboratories.
EVSC 493, 494 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Specialized topics in ecology, atmosphere, hydrology, environmental geology, or environmental systems not normally covered in formal classes under the direction of the faculty.
EVSC 495, 496 - (3) (IR)
Supervised Research
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Original research usually involving a field or laboratory problem in the environmental sciences under the direction of one or more faculty members. The results may form the basis of an undergraduate thesis which is required to partially fulfill the Distinguished Majors Program in environmental sciences.
EVSC 503 - (4) (Y)
Applied Statistics for Environmental Scientists
Prerequisite: MATH 111 or STAT 112; corequisite: EVSC 503L.
Provides a firm knowledge of experimental design, hypothesis testing, and the use of statistical methods of data analysis.
EVSC 503L - (0) (Y)
Applied Statistics Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 503.
Uses computer laboratories in the analysis of quantitative data.
EVSC 511 - (4) (E)
Systems Analysis in Environmental Sciences
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or equivalent, computer programming experience.
Applies a variety of systems analysis techniques to the environmental sciences, particularly ecology. Examines and uses simulation models of ecosystems, biological populations, and hydrological, atmospheric, and geological systems to address scientific questions in the environmental sciences. Student projects apply techniques to specific problems.
EVSC 544 - (3) (O)
Physical Oceanography
Prerequisite: PHYS 231, 232 or equivalent, two semesters calculus, MATH 131, 132 recommended, or instructor permission.
Studies the physical properties, processes, and structure of the oceans; mass and energy budgets; methods of measurements; and the nature and theory of ocean currents, waves, and tides in the open sea, near shore and in estuaries.
EVAT 541 - (4) (Y)
Atmospheric Dynamics
Prerequisite: MATH 131, 132 and PHYS 231, 232.
Introduces theoretical meteorology encompassing dry and moist air thermodynamics, the mechanics of atmospheric motion, and the dynamics of atmospheric weather systems.
EVAT 542 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisite: EVSC 350 or instructor permission.
Examines principles of radiation transfer, soil heat flux, atmospheric heat transfer, atmospheric moisture, evapotranspiration, motions near the Earth’s surface, and surface energy balances to provide a basis for describing the microclimate of various surfaces.
EVAT 550 - (3) (O)
Environmental Climatology
Corequisites: EVSC 350 or the text The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere.
An advanced survey of the theoretical and experimental research areas in climatology and meteorology, emphasizing environmental problems associated with the atmosphere. Fundamental principles used in these studies are introduced and discussed, along with procedures used to present and analyze atmospheric information.
EVAT 554 - (3) (O)
Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamics
Prerequisite: EVSC 350 or equivalent, or one semester of calculus-based physics, or instructor permission.
Begins with the equations of motion governing the atmosphere and generalizations necessary for application to ocean dynamics. Topics include influence of atmospheric thermal- and wind-forcing on the ocean, oceanic feedback on the atmosphere, and intrinsically coupled ocean-atmosphere processes. Examines the behavior of the coupled ocean-atmosphere and climate system on seasonal, interannual, and longer time scales (e.g., El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon).
EVEC 521 - (4) (Y)
Aquatic Ecology
Prerequisite: EVSC 320, 340, 420, integral calculus, or instructor permission.
Analyzes the physics and chemistry of fresh-water and marine environments, functional classification of organisms in aquatic communities, and the energy and nutrient dynamics of aquatic communities. Three hours lecture, three laboratory hours.
EVEC 522 - (4) (O)
Terrestrial Ecology
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 and instructor permission.
Analyzes the patterns and processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Topic include macro- and micro-meteorological factors such as producer, consumer, and decomposer processes; hydrologic and biogeochemical pathways; and changes through space and time. Three lecture and four field or laboratory hours.
EVEC 523 - (3) (Y)
Microbial Ecology
Prerequisite: EVSC 280, 320, 340, 350, or instructor permission.
Treats the relationships of microorganisms to similar organisms, to dissimilar (macro) organisms and to the physical-chemical environment to demonstrate basic ecological theory and indicate the importance of the microbes in maintaining the world as we know it. Topics include the organisms, microbial habitats, community formation and structure, interspecific relationships, nutrient cycling, and anthropogenic ecology.
EVEC 523L - (1) (Y)
Microbial Ecology Laboratory
Prerequisite: Instructor permission; corequisite: EVEC 523.
Intended to complement EVEC 523. Provides an opportunity to learn and experience the techniques used in microbial ecological research. Utilizes both classic techniques and state-of-the-art methods to determine microbial biomass in nature. Covers various methods of determining microbiological activity. Several exercises involve field sampling and analysis.
EVEC 525 - (3) (Y)
Ecological Issues in Global Change
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 or equivalent, one year of college calculus, or instructor permission.
Introduces development and application of theoretical constructs and mathematical models for projecting the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems to large scale changes in the environment. Requires a computer-based laboratory (EVEC 525L) to provide an increased familiarity with ecological models used in global change studies.
EVEC 525L - (1) (Y)
Ecological Issues in Global Change Laboratory
Corequisite: EVEC 525.
Computer-based laboratory in the application of ecological models to problems in evaluating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to large scale environmental change. Designed to parallel lecture material in EVEC 525.
EVGE 504 - (3) (O)
Prerequisite: CHEM 141, 142, EVSC 280, 480, two semesters calculus, MATH 131, 132 recommended.
Studies the principles that govern the distribution and abundance of the elements in the earth’s lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere.
EVGE 507 - (4) (Y)
Aqueous Geochemistry
Prerequisite: One year of calculus, one year of chemistry, one mineralogy or petrology course.
Studies the principals of thermodynamics as applied to mineral-water systems. Treatment includes mineral stability, phase diagrams, solution thermodynamics, electrolyte theory, aqueous complex and hydrolysis equilibria, and electrochemical equilibria.
EVGE 582 - (4) (Y)
Prerequisite: EVSC 280 or 340.
Studies the processes that shape the land surface and their relationship to human activity.
EVGE 584 - (3) (Y)
Sediment Processes and Environments
Prerequisite: One year of calculus and physics, or instructor permission; corequisite: EVGE 584L.
Studies the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment; initial motion of sediment, bedload and suspended load transport and bedforms; and important sediment-transporting environments. Applies sediment transport theory to problems of geological and environmental interest.
EVGE 584L - (1) (Y)
Sediment Processes Laboratory
Corequisite: EVGE 584.
Laboratory investigation of sediment transport phenomena and readings of classic and current research.
EVHY 544 - (3) (Y)
Catchment Hydrology: Process and Theory
Prerequisite: EVSC 340.
Introduces current theories of the hydrological response of catchments and takes an integrative approach; illuminates the derivation of theory in light of the time and location of the process studies on which they were based.
EVHY 545 - (4) (Y)
Hydrological Transport Processes
Prerequisite: EVSC 280 and 340.
Studies the physical principles governing the transport of dissolved substances and of sediment and particulate matter in the terrestrial portion of the hydrological cycle.
EVHY 547 - (4) (Y)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics
Prerequisite: One year of calculus and physics or instructor permission.
Studies the mechanics of fluids and fluid-related processes occurring at the earth’s surface, including laminar, inviscid, and turbulent flows, drag, boundary layers, diffusion and dispersion of mass, flow through porous media, and effects of the Earth’s rotation. Emphasizes topics related to the environmental sciences.
EVHY 578 - (4) (Y)
Groundwater Hydrology
Prerequisite: EVSC 280, 340 or equivalents, two semesters calculus, CHEM 141, 142 or equivalents.
Introduces physical and chemical groundwater hydrology including such topics as the mechanics of groundwater flow, emphasizing geological factors influencing groundwater occurrence and movement; the influence of natural geological heterogeneity on groundwater flow patterns; and mass and heat transport in groundwater flow systems. The accompanying laboratory examines methods of hydrogeological data acquisition and analysis.
Program in Environmental Thought and Practice
Overview  Environmental Thought and Practice is a new major developed by a diverse group of faculty from across the University who are committed to addressing current environmental issues within a broadly interdisciplinary framework. Environmental problems concern natural phenomena whose dimensions are appropriately described by environmental scientists.  However, the "problems" themselves result from changes in public perception that are contingent upon cultural constructs and historical events. Attempts to solve these problems necessarily fall within the political sphere, but policy debates draw in principles and discourses from philosophy, economics, and ethics. In short, understanding and solving environmental problems demands the ability to connect ideas from such diverse disciplines as anthropology, literature, history, ethics, politics, ecology, the earth and atmospheric sciences, economics, and land use planning.  

The objective of the Environmental Thought and Practice program is to produce students who can:

1. comprehend and think critically about scientific information, economic analysis, and the various ethical constructs that enter into environmental decisions; and,
2. appreciate how political and social context, historical events, and cultural expectations shape the way we perceive and solve environmental problems.

Faculty  The co-directors of the program are Vivian Thomson, Assistant Professor of Environmental Sciences and Politics, and Thomas Smith, Associate Professor of Environmental Sciences. The Program's Advisory Committee includes Timothy Beatley, Associate Professor, Urban and Environmental Planning (School of Architecture); Ruth Gaare Bernheim, Executive Director, Institute for Practical Ethics; Jonathan Z. Cannon, Professor of Law and Director, Center for Environmental Studies (School of Law); James Childress, Edwin B. Kyle Professor of Religious Studies and Professor of Medical Education; Stephen Cushman, Professor, English; Fred Damon, Professor, Anthropology; Peter Metcalf, Professor, Anthropology; Ed Russell, Associate Professor, Technology, Culture, and Communication (School of Engineering); Hank Shugart, W. W. Corcoran Professor of Environmental Sciences and Biology and Director, Global Environmental Change Program; Michael Joseph Smith, Thomas C. Sorensen Professor of Political and Social Thought and Associate Professor of Politics.

Students  The major is designed for students with a strong interest in the theory and practice of environmental issues. Each spring a maximum of 15 students will be selected for the program from a pool of applicants. Students will be chosen on the basis of prior academic performance, faculty recommendation, and an essay explaining the student's interest in the field. The program will provide students with a background for continued study in graduate and professional schools or careers in business, government, NGOs, or advocacy groups.

Requirements for the Major  The Environmental Thought and Practice interdisciplinary major requires four prerequisites, three core classes, and seven electives.  Before enrolling in the major students must meet the College's natural sciences and social sciences area requirements.  

Prerequisites  In order to apply for the major students must be enrolled in, or have already completed, at least two of the following related courses.

(1) ECON 201 Microeconomics
(2) Any Environmental Sciences class other than those taken to meet the core or Natural Science area requirements
(3) One of the following Statistics classes: STAT 112, SOC 311, ECON 371 (requires MATH 121 or equivalent), MATH 312 (requires MATH 310), or APMA 312 (requires APMA 310 or equivalent)
(4) PLAN 103 Introduction to community and environmental planning

Core courses  The following core courses are required of all majors.

(1) EVSC 230/ETP 230 Politics, Science, and Values: Introduction to Environ- mental Policy
(2) Either EVSC 280/280L(1) (Physical Geology) or EVSC 320/320L (Funda- mentals of Ecology) or EVSC 340/340L (Physical Hydrology) or EVSC 350/350L (Atmosphere and Weather)
(3) ETP 401 Environmental decisions (majors only)

(1) EVSC 320, 340, and 350 all require one semester of calculus; EVSC 280 recommends one semester of chem- istry; EVSC 320 recommends one semester each of chemistry and biol- ogy; EVSC 350 recommends one semester of physics with lab.

Electives  Each student must also choose seven (7) classes distributed across the three areas indicated below, with the restriction that at least two (2) classes must be taken in Area I (Values, Culture, and History) and at least one (1) class must be taken in each of Areas II and III (two classes are required in Area I because there are no such classes in the core curriculum). Once these distribution requirements have been met, an internship approved by the ETP program may be substituted for one elective class. Classes taken to fulfill the prerequisite or core requirements may not be counted as electives.

I.  Values, Culture, and History

HIUS 271/
TCC 206 American environmental history
PLAN 554 Environmental ethics and sustainability
ANTH 334 Ecology and society
ENAM 482C Advanced studies in Ameri- can literature: Emerson and Thoreau
INST 352 Sally Brown Seminar in Environmental Literature
LAR 512 History of landscape architecture
LAR 513 History of American landscape architecture (requires LAR 512)
LAR 514 Intro to theories of modern landscape (requires LAR 512)

If approved by one of the ETP Program Directors, students may count one (1) related 300-, 400-, or 500-level class in History, Anthropology, Philosophy, English, Religious Studies, Landscape Architecture, or Technology, Culture, and Communication against the two-class requirement for this area.

II.  Policy, Planning, and Society(1)

Students may fulfill their one-class requirement for this track by taking any one (1) of the following specific classes (there are no prerequisites for these upper-level Planning classes):

ECON 443 Energy and environment (requires ECON 301)
EVSC 465 Environmental policymaking in the United States
PLAP 424A Special topics in American politics: Politics of the environment
PLAP 471 Resources and the environment
PLAN 303 Neighborhoods, community, and regions
PLAN 306 Land, law, and environment
PLAN 404 Planning in government: decisions and alternatives
PLAN 551 Sustainable communities
PLAN 553 Environmental policy and planning

If approved by one of the ETP Program Directors, students may take one (1) related 300-, 400-, or 500-level course in Economics, Politics, Sociology, the Law School, Darden, or Urban and Environmental Planning to meet the overall seven-course elective requirement, but not to meet the basic one-class requirement for this area.

(1)The College allows students to count 18 credits of classes in other schools toward the 120-credit graduation requirement.

III.  Natural Science

Any 300- or 400-level EVSC course. If approved by one of the ETP Program Directors, students may take one (1) related 300-, 400-, or 500-level class in Biology, Chemistry, or environmental engineering (e.g., MAE 414, CE 205) to meet the overall seven-class elective requirement, but not to meet the basic one-class requirement for this area. (Upper level EVSC classes build on the classes listed above under "Core Classes." Upper-level biology, chemistry, and environmental engineering classes can have several prerequisites.)

Admission  Students interested in becoming ETP majors should submit:

1. a completed ETP application form;
2. a letter of recommendation from a faculty member; and,
3. a 300-400 word essay that addresses why you are interested in becoming a ETP major.

The above materials should be sent to either of the co-directors of the ETP program by March 1. Candidates will hear from the committee by the end of April.
The co-directors of the program hold a meeting for prospective students in early February to answer any questions about admission procedure and program requirements. Students may obtain this information from the ETP website or by directly contacting either of the programs co-directors.

Additional Information  For more information contact either: Vivian Thomson, Clark Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, (434) 924-3964, vet4y@virginia. edu or Thomas Smith, Clark Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, (434) 924-3107, tms9a@virginia. edu
Course Descriptions
ETP 230/EVSC 230 - (3) (Y)
Politics, Science, and Values: An Introduction to Environmental Policy
Introduces a wide variety of domestic and international environmental policy issues. Explores how political processes, scientific evidence, ideas, and values affect environmental policymaking. This class satisfies the social sciences area requirement and not the natural sciences/mathematics area requirement, since ETP/EVSC 230 is devoted to the subject of environmental policy.
ETP 401 - (3) (Y)
Environmental Decisions (MAJORS ONLY)
This team-taught, capstone seminar for the Environmental Thought and Practice major helps students integrate the broad range of ideas and information employed in environmental decision-making. A case study approach is used to examine the scientific, historical, cultural, ethical and legal dimensions of selected environmental issues.
Department of French Language and Literature
P.O. Box 400770
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4770
Phone: (434) 924-7158
Fax: (434) 924-7157

Overview  The major in French is designed to afford the student a broad background and the opportunity to pursue specialized interests in one or a combination of key areas. Students find the major interdisciplinary in nature and a solid preparation for a multitude of careers.

Faculty  The department’s commitment to breadth and depth is reflected in the range and intellectual diversity of its professors, who study and teach all periods of French and Francophone literature from formal, historical, or post-modern perspectives, all aspects of the structure and history of the French language, and the interplay of society and its intellectual and artistic productions.

Students  More than half of the French majors have two majors. The most popular combinations with French are foreign affairs, economics, anthropology, English, Spanish, and pre-medicine. Although some French majors use the program as a stepping stone to teaching, others find it useful for business, government careers, and service with international agencies. For still others, the analytical and writing skills the major cultivates provide a solid preparation for professional school.

Special Resources
La Maison Francaise  The French House, a restored Victorian mansion, lodges students who speak only French in the common areas. Students may apply during their first year at the University and may live there during their second, third, and fourth years. Applicants to the house need not be French majors.

Requirements for Major  Totaling 30 credits (or ten three-credit courses), the major in French requires FREN 331 followed by 332, and any other eight courses selected by the student in consultation with a department advisor. Of these eight courses, at least three must be at the 400 level or above (language, culture, or literature). 400-level literature courses must be preceded by at least one 300-level literature course unless the student is exempted by the instructor or the major advisor. The following courses carry no credit toward the major or minor: FREN 311, 333 and 335 or any FRTR course.

Distinguished Majors Program in French  The DMP is available to French majors presenting an overall GPA of at least 3.4 and departmental GPA of 3.5 in courses at the 300-level or above. The DMP consists of FREN 498 and 499, as well as one advanced major course taken for honors. Students typically apply for admission in the spring of their third year.

Combined B.A.-M.T. Program  Anyone interested in teaching French at the secondary level may wish to look into the Bachelor of Arts and Master of Teaching Program, offered jointly with the Curry School of Education. This five-year program involves both a complete major in French following a specified curriculum and a course of study leading to professional teaching licensure. It is a complex program and requires careful planning. This program is described in the Undergraduate Record; both the College of Arts and Sciences section and the Curry School of Education section should be consulted. For details beyond those published in the Curry School’s section of the Record (Teacher Degree Programs), please consult the director of undergraduate studies.

Requirements for Minor  Totaling 18 credits (or six three-credit courses), the minor in French is fulfilled by completion of FREN 331 and 332 or the equivalent, plus four electives chosen from among those that carry credit toward the major. At least one of the electives must be on the 400 level.

Note  By arrangement, up to twelve credits of appropriate major credit (or six credits of appropriate credit for the minor) may be earned in an approved program abroad.
Placement of first-year students presenting admissions credit in French is normally based on the SAT French Achievement Test or the corresponding department test. AP scores may be substituted, and 300-level course credit granted according to the following rules: with a 4 on the AP language examination, students have fulfilled the language requirement, and are normally required to take FREN 332 before moving on to more advanced work. Students presenting a score of 5, and those having taken the AP French literature exam, are asked to contact an advisor in the department.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of French Language and Literature, 302 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-7158; www.virginia.edu/ ~french.
Course Descriptions
Note  The following courses may not be taken to fulfill the language requirement, nor as part of the requirements for the major in French.
French in Translation (Taught in English)
FRTR 220 - (3) (IR)
Topics in French and Francophone Culture
Introduces the interdisciplinary study of culture in France or other French-speaking countries. Topics vary from year to year, and  may include cuisine and national identity; literature and history; and contemporary society and cultural change. Taught by one or several professors in the French department.
FRTR 221 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Medieval Literature
An introduction to the culture of the High Middle Ages in France. Topics vary and may include love literature, family relations, war, and science and religion. May be repeated for credit for different topics.
FRTR 223 - (3) (IR)
Topics in French Baroque and Classical Culture
An introduction to seventeenth century French literature, both fiction and non-fiction, against the background of the period's political, religious, and philosophical controversies and of its plastic arts.
FRTR 244 - (3) (IR)
Topics in French Cinema
Studies topics relating to concepts of film structure, history, and criticism in French and within the French tradition. Topics offered include Introduction to French Cinema and Written Text/Film Text.
FRTR 329/790 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Caribbean Culture
Comparative examination of contemporary culture in the Caribbean region with an emphasis on literature. Considers historical writing (essays), musical forms, and film as manifestations of the process of creolization in the area. Questions of ethnic diversity and nation-building are central to the course.
Courses Given in French
FREN 101 - (4) (S-SS)
Elementary French
Prerequisite: Limited or no previous formal instruction in French.
Development of basic oral expression, listening and reading comprehension, and writing. Language laboratory work is required. Followed by FREN 102.
FREN 102 - (4) (S-SS)
Elementary French
Prerequisite: FREN 101 or one or two years of previous formal instruction in French and appropriate SAT score.
Designed for students with an elementary knowledge of French. Further develops the skills of speaking, listening, comprehension, reading, and writing. Language laboratory work is required. Followed by FREN 201.
FREN 105 - (4) (Y)
Accelerated Elementary French
Prerequisite: Previous background in French (more than two years of French in secondary school) and an achievement test score below 540 or a placement score below 378, or permission of the department.
Reviews basic oral expression, listening, reading comprehension, and writing. Covers the material in the FREN 101-102 text in one semester at an accelerated pace. Language lab required followed by FREN 201.
FREN 201 - (3) (S-SS)
Intermediate French
Prerequisite: FREN 102 or one to three years of formal instruction in French and appropriate SAT score.
Develops the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Focuses on reading skill development through readings on contemporary Francophone culture and short stories. Followed by FREN 202.
FREN 202 - (3) (S-SS)
Intermediate French
Prerequisite: FREN 201 or one to three years of formal instruction in French and appropriate SAT score.
Designed for continued development of the four skills at an advanced level. Readings emphasize contemporary Francophone culture and include a modern French play.
FREN 211 - (1) (S)
Intermediate French Conversation
Corequisite: FREN 201 and 202, or instructor permission.
Supplementary course in conversation and vocabulary to compliment FREN 201 and FREN 202.
FREN 231 - (1) (S)
Intensive Intermediate French Conversation
Corequisite: FREN 232.
Supplementary course in conversation and vocabulary to complement FREN 232.
FREN 232 - (3) (S)
Intensive Intermediate French
Prerequisite: Appropriate placement score or departmental permission (contact the Language Program Director).
This in-depth, intermediate-level course is recommended for students whose placement scores nearly exempt them from FREN 202, and for any students who wish to refine and expand their mastery of French grammar before taking 300-level courses. Students who have completed FREN 202 may take 232 as an elective to fine-tune their language skills.
FREN 311 - (1) (S)
French Conversation and Vocabulary
Prerequisite: Completion of the foreign language requirement; corequisite:  enrollment in a 300-level French course.
Supplementary course in conversation and vocabulary development. May not be used for major or minor credit or to satisfy the language requirement.
FREN 331 - (3) (S)
Intensive Grammar
Prerequisite: FREN 202, 232, or the equivalent, or appropriate SAT score. Required of majors and strongly recommended to others as preparation for all subsequent courses (except FREN 333 and 339).
Confirms and consolidates the knowledge of basic linguistic patterns. Emphasizes writing and progressive build-up of vocabulary.
FREN 332 - (3) (S)
The Writing and Reading of Texts
Prerequisite: FREN 331.
Develops writing skills and strategies in French, including grammar, vocabulary, organization, and style through the careful reading and analysis of a variety of texts. This course is a prerequisite for all higher-level undergraduate FREN courses, except 333 and 339.
FREN 333 - (3) (S)
Oral and Written Expression in French
Prerequisite: FREN 232 or equivalent; instructor permission for those who completed only FREN 202; students who completed FREN 332 are excluded and must take FREN 334.
Improves student’s command of present-day spoken French. Includes conversation on topics of current interest, advanced vocabulary, some individualized writing practice. Limited enrollment.
FREN 334 - (3) (S)
Advanced Oral and Written Expression in French
Prerequisite: FREN 331 and either completion of FREN 332 or concurrent enrollment in FREN 332.
Improves command of present-day spoken French. Conversation on topics of current interest; advanced vocabulary; some individualized writing practice. Enrollment limited.
FREN 335 - (3) (IR)
Writing Workshop in French
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
Improves skills in analytic and expository writing in French. Intensive exercises in composition and rewriting, including peer editing. Not available for major or minor credit.
FREN 339 - (3) (S)
Prerequisite: FREN 202 or equivalent.
Reviews pronunciation, phonetics, and phonology for undergraduates.
FREN 341 - (3) (S)
Literature of the Middle Ages and Sixteenth Century
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
Examines important trends in medieval and Renaissance literature through close reading of representative works.
FREN 342 - (3) (S)
Literature of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
Studies representative works of the 17th and 18th centuries, emphasizing certain themes common to the two centuries.
FREN 343 - (3) (S)
Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
Explores representative works of the 19th and 20th centuries.
FREN 344 - (3) (Y)
Topics in French Cinema
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
Studies topics relating to concepts of film structure, history, and criticism in French and within the French tradition. Topics offered include Introduction to Cinema and Texte ècrit/texte filmique.
FREN 345 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Cultural Studies
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
Interdisciplinary seminar in French and Francophone culture and society. Topics vary annually and may include literature and history, cinema and society, and cultural anthropology.
FREN 346 - (3) (IR)
African Literatures and Cultures
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
Introduction to African cultural studies. Languages and educational policies. Oral traditions: myths, epic narratives, poetry, folktales in French translation. Modern African-language literatures. Francophone literature. Representations of the postcolonial state in contemporary arts: painting, sculpture, music, and cinema. Museums and the representation of African cultures.
FREN 350 - (3) (IR)
History and Civilization of France: Middle Ages to Revolution
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
The social, political, economic, philosophical, and artistic developments in France from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution.
FREN 351 - (3) (Y)
History and Civilization of France: Revolution to 1945
Prerequisite: FREN 332.
The social, political, economic, philosophical, and artistic developments in France from the Revolution until 1945.
FREN 368 - (3) (IR)
Selected Topics in French Linguistics
Prerequisite: FREN 331 and 339.
This course will include topics such as French outside France; regional French varieties; Romance dialectology; French socio-linguistics.
FREN 401 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Medieval Literature
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and at least one FREN course numbered 341 to 343 (or instructor permission).
Topics may vary and include individual identity, love, war, humor, and their expression through literary techniques. Texts are read in modern French translation. May be repeated for credit for different topics.
FREN 402 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Renaissance Literature
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and at least one FREN course numbered 341 to 343 (or instructor permission).
Examines major works of sixteenth-century French literature situated in the larger historical and cultural context of the Continental Renaissance. Topics vary and may include, for example, early novels and short stories, women writers, and urban culture. Course may be repeated for credit for different topics.
FREN 403 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Eighteenth-Century Literature
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and at least one FREN course numbered 341 to 343 (or instructor permission).
Topics in eighteenth-century French literature. Works of authors such as Beaumarchais, de Charriere, du Deffand, Diderot, Marivaux, Montesquieu, Rousseau, de Stael, Voltaire.
FREN 405 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Nineteenth-Century Literature
Study of the various aspects of the nineteenth-century French literature. Topics vary. May be repeated for credit for different topics.
FREN 406 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Twentieth-Century Literature
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and at least one course in the 340-sequence.
Readings of significant literary works of the twentieth century. The genre, theme and specific chronological concentration will vary. May be repeated for credit.
FREN 408 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Seventeenth-Century Literature
Topics vary; may be repeated for credit. Recent topics have included classical theatre; poetics of the lyric; moralists; and fiction.
FREN 409 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Twentieth-Century Literature
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and at least one FREN course numbered 341 to 343.
Readings of significant literary works on the twentieth century. The genre, theme, and specific chronological concentration will vary. May be repeated for credit.
FREN 410 - (3) (IR)
Aspects of the French Short Story
Studies themes and narrative styles according to various trends, including the witty, erotic, satirical, and didactic; suspense stories; and moral and existential debates. Readings from Perrault, La Fontaine, Voltaire, Diderot, Maupassant, Mérimée, Gide, Sartre, and Camus.
FREN 411 - (3) (Y)
Francophone Literature of Africa
Surveys the literary tradition in French, emphasizing post-World War II poets, novelists, and playwrights. Examines the role of cultural reviews in the development of this literary tradition.
FREN 428 - (3) (Y)
History of the French Language
Prerequisite: FREN 339 or the equivalent or instructor permission.
Surveys the main currents of the French language in its development from the earliest to present times. Taught in French.
FREN 430 - (3) (Y)
Grammaire et Style
Prerequisite: B+ average in FREN 331 and 332.
Grammar review through the traditional method of analyze grammatical; includes free composition.
FREN 435 - (3) (Y)
Tools and Techniques of Translation
Prerequisite: B+ average in FREN 331, 332, 430.
Written and oral translation exercises to and from the target language.
FREN 436 - (3) (Y)
The Culture of Commerce and Industry in France
Americans entering the French business setting must confront specifically French cultural standards, expectations, and practices. Investigates such topics as the organization of industry, banking, marketing, and management, as well as the role of government and the educational system.
FREN 438 - (3) (Y)
French Society and Civilization
Discusses political institutions and social problems based upon readings in recent publications and an analysis of current events.
FREN 443 - (3) (Y)
Africa in Cinema
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and FREN 344 or another 300-level literature course in French.
Study of the representation of Africa in American, Western European and African films. Ideological Constructions of the African as "other". Exoticism in cinema. History of African cinema. Economic issues in African cinema: production, distribution, and the role of African film festivals. The socio-political context. Women in African cinema. Aesthetic problems: themes and narrative styles.
FREN 444 - (3) (Y)
French Literature and Film
Studies the relation between three or four French films and their sources in French literature and culture.
FREN 445 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Cultural Studies
Prerequisite: At least one literature or culture course beyond FREN 332.
Advanced seminar in French and Francophone literature and culture. Topics vary. May be repeated for credit for different topics.
FREN 451 - (3) (O)
French Comedy
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and either FREN 341, 342, or 343.
Studies dramatic comedy in France from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century, with comparison between comedy and other dramatic forms such as “tragi-comedy” and “theatre of the absurd.” Texts by such authors as Corneille, Molière, Regnard, Marivaux, Musset, Feydeau, Jarry, and Beckett.
FREN 452 - (3) (IR)
Topics in French Poetry
Prerequisite: At least one literature or culture course beyond FREN 332.
Aspects of French Poetry. Topics vary and may range from general survey to studies of specific periods or authors; may be repeated for credit for different topics.
FREN 483, 484 - (3) (SI)
Advanced Seminars in Literature
Prerequisite: Completion of a 400-level literature course with a grade of B- or better.
Close study of a specific topic in French literature. Topics vary.
FREN 485 - (3) (IR)
Seminar in French Linguistics
Prerequisite: FREN 331, 339 and one 400-level course in French.
Topics of specific interest to faculty and advanced undergraduate students.
FREN 493, 494 - (3) (SI)
Independent Study-Selected Topics in French Literature and Civilization
Normally, only French majors may enroll in this course and only by written permission from the department chair prior to the end of the first week of classes.
FREN 498 - (3) (SI)
Pre-Thesis Tutorial
Prerequisite: Admission to the Distinguished Majors Program.
Preliminary research for thesis.
FREN 499 - (3) (SI)
Prerequisite: FREN 498 and good standing in the Distinguished Majors Program.
Composition and defense of thesis.

Note  The prerequisite to all 500-level literature courses is two 400-level literature courses with an average grade of B, or the instructor’s permission.
FREN 501 - (3) (IR)
Language Development
Prerequisite: FREN 332. May not be taken by students who have completed FREN 430.
Grammar, stylistics, composition, and translation (thème et version).
FREN 508 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to Reading Old French
Readings from several varieties of Old French, including the Île-de-France, Picard, and Anglo-Norman dialects. Considers the derivation of French from Latin. Taught in English.
FREN 509 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to Old Provencal Language and Literature
Presents Old Provencal (alias Old Occitan) as a grammatical system with some attention to its derivation from Latin. Includes readings of simple prose texts followed by poetic selections of the troubadours. Taught in English.
FREN 510, 511 - (3) (Y)
Medieval Literature in Modern French
Introduces literary forms, habits of style and thought, and conditions of composition from the late eleventh century to the late fifteenth. Includes the Chanson de Roland, Chrétien de Troyes, Roman de la Rose, and Villon. 
FREN 520, 521 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Sixteenth Century
Studies important trends in French Renaissance thought and style as seen in major literary works, including the prose of Rabelais, Marguerite de Navarre, and Montaigne, or the poetry of the Lyon group, the Pléiade, and the baroque periods.
FREN 530, 531 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Seventeenth Century
Studies art forms and society during the baroque and classical periods of French literary history. Readings in theater, fiction, rhetoric and poetry.
FREN 540, 541 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Eighteenth Century
FREN 540: studies religious, moral, and political thinking as reflected in the works of Bayle, Fontenelle, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, and Helvetius.
FREN 541: studies developing trends in traditional genres (drama, novel, poetry) as reflected in the works of Le Sage, Marivaux, Beaumarchais, Diderot, Chénier, Voltaire, Prevost, and Rousseau.
FREN 550, 551 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Nineteenth Century
Studies realism, naturalism, and symbolism. Analyzes representative texts of Mme. de Staël, Chateaubriand, Constant, Lamartine, Hugo, Vigny, Musset, Nerval, Balzac, Flaubert, Stendhal, Zola, Huysmans, Maupassant, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Verlaine, and Mallarmé.
FREN 560, 561 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Twentieth Century
Analyzes principal literary movements and representative authors in the novel, drama, and poetry.
FREN 570 - (3) (IR)
African Literature
Studies the principal movements and representative authors writing in French in Northern, Central, and Western Africa, with special reference to the islands of Madagascar and Mauritius. Explores the literary and social histories of these regions.
FREN 571 - (3) (IR)
New World Literature
Introduces the French-language literatures of Canada and the Caribbean in their historical and esthetic context. Includes drama, fiction and poetry. FREN 571 or 570 are normally a prerequisite to advanced work in Francophone literature at the 800 level.
FREN 580 - (3) (Y)
Literature and Society
Studies French cultural manifestations (literature, arts, education, popular culture) from various socio-historical perspectives.
Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures
P.O. Box 400125
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4125
Phone: (434) 924-3530
Fax: (434) 924-6700

Overview  The study of Germanic languages and literatures is a human or cultural science that attempts to apply the concept of “criticism,” in the broadest sense of the term to language, literature, culture, film, intellectual history, philosophy, and theory of the German speaking countries. As this wide range indicates, the field is interdisciplinary in nature. German majors are encouraged, therefore, to take courses in such humanistic disciplines as history, philosophy, other foreign languages, criticism, theory, film studies, feminist theory and criticism, comparative literature, and religious studies.
Although the undergraduate program stresses literary and cultural studies, the department is also actively concerned with assisting students whose interests are non-literary: students who are primarily interested in, for example, the structure and history of the language of film.

Faculty  According to national rankings, the department is one of the nation’s most prestigious. This is in part due to the diverse nature of the interests and expertise of the twelve faculty members who comprise the department. From medieval courtly romance to postmodern literature and literary theory, the department attempts to provide a range of course work that is both challenging and far reaching. Some of the more nationally prominent faculty have published several influential books. Their scholarship explores a wide expanse: 18th- and 19th-century German literature and literary theory, 20th-century German writers and thinkers, Freud, existentialism, German expressionism, the theory and history of drama, postwar German literature, feminist literary theory, narrative theory, lyric poetry, and film studies. Faculty members have also concentrated their work on the lives, philosophies, and literature of several prominent German writers and thinkers: Kafka, Musil, Rilke, Hofmannsthal, and Brecht.

Students  The department has approximately thirty-five majors and twenty minors. Of the thirty-five majors, approximately one-half are double majors. German and English, German and mathematics, German and history, German and foreign affairs, German and French, and German and economics are most popular double majors. Outstanding undergraduates have undertaken graduate study at other leading German departments. Others have chosen law or medical school, or pursued careers in business, economics, and foreign affairs.
Class size typically ranges from ten to sixty students; the larger courses are German in translation courses, popular because of the nationally ranked faculty who teach them. With the exception of introductory and intermediate level language courses, all classes are taught by faculty.

Special Resources 
Study Abroad  The department encourages its students to spend a summer, semester, or a full academic year abroad. The University has a program available to undergraduates at the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena and at the Universität Dortmund.

The German House  The department currently maintains a German House in which twelve students can reside with a native speaker. The house is located near the University Grounds and is a meeting place for undergraduates, graduates, and faculty. It also serves as a site for colloquia and discussion groups.

Requirements for Major  Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts degree in German include ten courses or 30 credits in German at the 300 level or above, including GERM 300, 301, 311 or 312, one 400-level German literature course, and one additional German literature course. Enrollment in any 500-level course requires the instructor’s permission. No more than two GETR courses are accepted.

Distinguished Majors Program in German This program is available to German majors presenting an overall GPA of 3.4 and a letter of recommendation from a department faculty member. The DMP consists of GERM 460 (Senior Seminar), a graduate course (500-level or above), GERM 490 (Thesis) or GERM 491 (Honors Research and Thesis), in addition to the requirements for the German major. Students may elect a full-year program (GERM 491) or semester program (GERM 490) their senior year. In either case, an honors thesis of approximately 25 pages (one semester program) or 40 pages (full-year program) is to be submitted by April 25.

Requirements for Minor  Six courses or 18 credits in German at the 300-level, including GERM 300 and 301. Only one GETR course may be counted toward the minor.

High School Teaching in German  For students interested in pursuing a high school teaching career, there are two options in conjunction with the Curry School of Education: a five-year program, in which the student may earn two degrees, a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Teaching, and a 15-month program, the post-baccalaureate Master of Teaching. For more information, contact Alicia Belozerco, Curry School of Education, Ruffner Hall or Janette Hudson, German Department, Cocke Hall.

GERM 111 and 112  These two courses are for beginners. All students with any previous background in German who have not taken  the SAT II Subject Test or the Advanced Placement test must take the German placement test if they plan to take German at any time in their college career. This test is administered during summer and fall orientation only. The sequence of courses is GERM 101, 102, 201, 202. Once a student has placed in the required course sequence, she or he must complete each successive course with a passing grade. A student may not skip, for example, from GERM 102 to GERM 202. Students may not take more than one course in the sequence at a time. Those who place higher than course 202 in a language and have successfully taken an advanced placement examination in that language are relieved of the foreign language requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Arts.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Thomas Best, Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Germanic Languages and Literature, 108 Cocke Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-3530; www.virginia.edu/~german.
Course Descriptions
Note  Unless otherwise stated, GERM courses are conducted in German. GETR courses have readings and discussions in English.
German in Translation
GETR 150 - (3) (IR)
Goethe in Translation
Study of the life and works of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Poetry, prose, some plays, and a careful reading of his masterpiece, Faust.
GETR 170 - (3) (IR)
First Year Seminar
Seminar on some aspect of German culture.
GETR 200 - (3) (Y)
Germany Today
Introduces students to the variety of topics, issues, and current events central to an initial understanding of modern Germany in its European context.
GETR 220 - (3) (E)
20th Century German Literature in Translation
Survey of Germany's major writers from the turn of the 20th century (Kafka, Heym) to the end of the century (Schlink, Grass). Works by Rilke, Hesse, Brecht, Bill, and others are included. The course is taught in English, using translations. Regular attendance and participation required.
GETR 250 - (3) (IR)
Taught in English, this course explores the origins of the Faust myth in the Renaissance and addresses many of its literary, musical, and artistic adaptations to the present. Emphasizes Goethe.
GETR 333 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to German Culture
Studies significant tendencies in major segments of German culture from the enlightenment to the present.
GETR 340 - (3) (O)
German Intellectual History From Leibniz to Hegel
Reading and discussion of central theoretical texts in the German tradition 1700-1810, including works by Leibniz, Herder, Lessing, Kant, Schiller, Fichte, and Hegel.
GETR 341 - (3) (IR)
Nietzsche and Modern Literature
Reading and thorough discussion of the major works of Nietzsche, in English translation, from the Birth of Tragedy to Twilight of the Idols. Emphasizes the impact of Nietzsche on 20th-century literature and thought in such diverse authors as Shaw, Rilke, Thomas Mann, and Kafka. A term paper submitted in two stages and a final examination.
GETR 342 - (3) (IR)
German Intellectual History From Nietzsche to the Present
Readings in philosophical and social history of Germany from the late 19th century onward.
GETR 344 - (3) (IR)
Problems of Identity in Modern German Literature
All classes and reading in English. Explores the themes of self-realization and identity crisis in 20th-century German literature. Includes works by Hesse, Kafka, Mann, Brecht, Boell, and Canetti. Informal lectures, discussion, and videos of several works read.
GETR 345 - (3) (IR)
Children’s Literature
Studies the nature and aims of children’s literature, primarily European and American, from the 17th century onward.
GETR 346 - (3) (IR)
Topics in German Literature (in Translation)
Examines such myths as Faust and Tristan, along with the modernist parody of them.
GETR 347 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the Holocaust
Introduces the most significant texts of Holocaust literature and surveys important philosophical and historical reflections on the meaning of the Holocaust.
GETR 348 - (3) (IR)
German Literature in Translation
Outstanding works of German literature read and discussed in English.
GETR 349 - (3) (IR)
Discusses Ibsen’s major plays, in English translation. No knowledge of a Scandinavian language is needed; does not fulfill the language requirement.
GETR 350 - (3) (E)
German Cinema
Analyzes the aesthetics and semiotics of film, with a focus on German expressionism and New German Cinema.
GETR 370 - (3) (IR)
Feminism and Socialism
Studies feminism in socialist ideology and practice. Focuses on the status of women and feminist literature in the former German Democratic Republic and the former Soviet Union.
GETR 375 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Literature from a German Perspective
Reading and discussion of German texts compared to texts from other literatures (all in English translation), with the aim of illuminating a central theoretical, historical, or social issue that transcends national boundaries.
GETR 393 - (3) (Y)
Nazi Germany
Detailed survey of Hitler’s life and its political, social, and cultural consequences. Documentary videos are included. Taught in English.
Courses Given in German
GERM 101, 102 - (4) (S)
Elementary German
Introduces the essentials of German structure and syntax; emphasizes oral and written proficiency in German. Five class sessions. Language laboratory required. Followed by GERM 201, 202.
GERM 111, 112 - (4) (S)
Intensive Elementary German
Introductory language course emphasizing the skill of reading, not a traditional reading course. Original German texts are used for practice of all skills. Counts toward fulfillment of the language requirement. Followed by GERM 201, 202.
GERM 101G, 102G - (3) (SS)
Reading Course in German
For Graduate of Arts and Sciences students who want a reading knowledge of German for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Open to undergraduates, but does not count toward fulfillment of the language requirement.
GERM 190, 290 - (7) (S)
Intensive German
Prerequisite: Approval of the department.
Intensive, accelerated language course that covers two years of German in one year. Includes essentials of German structure and syntax; emphasizes comprehension of spoken and written German, speaking and writing.
GERM 201, 202 - (3) (S)
Intermediate German
Prerequisite: GERM 101, 102 or equivalent.
Readings in German prose and poetry, and review of German structure and syntax. Language laboratory required.
GERM 300 - (3) (S)
Intensive Grammar
Prerequisite: GERM 202 or equivalent.
Systematic review of German grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. May be taken concurrently with GERM 202H.
GERM 301 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Literature
Prerequisite: GERM 300 or instructor permission.
Analysis of major literary works for a better understanding of literature in general.
GERM 311 - (3) (Y)
Survey of Literature II
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
German literature from 1890 to the present.
GERM 312 - (3) (Y)
Survey of Literature I
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
German literature from 1750 to 1890.
GERM 322 - (1-3) (Y)
German Drama: Stage Production
Prerequisite: GERM 202 or comparable language proficiency.
Interprets and stages a representative play in German with students as actors and producers. May be taken more than once for credit, but only once for major credit.
GERM 323 - (3) (S)
Composition and Conversation
Prerequisite: GERM 300.
Practice in writing and speaking German.
GERM 324 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Composition and Conversation
Prerequisite: GERM 323.
Further practice in writing and speaking German.
GERM 325 - (3) (IR)
Commercial German I
Prerequisite: GERM 323.
Introduces the specialized language of the business world and German business practices.
GERM 326 - (3) (IR)
Commercial German II
Prerequisite: GERM 325.
Continuation of GERM 325.
GERM 329 - (1) (Y)
May be taken more than once for credit, but only once for major credit.
GERM 330 - (1) (Y)
May be taken more than once for credit, but only once for major credit.
GERM 331 - (3) (IR)
Topics in German Culture
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323.
Studies selected aspects of German culture, such as opera. May be repeated for credit.
GERM 334 - (3) (IR)
German and Austrian Culture, ca. 1900
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323.
Studies literature, the arts, politics, and social developments between 1870 and 1918.
GERM 335 - (3) (IR)
Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323.
Studies German life between 1918 and 1945.
GERM 336 - (3) (IR)
Postwar German Culture
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323.
Readings in the cultural, social, and political histories of the German-speaking countries since 1945.
GERM 351 - (3) (IR)
Lyric Poetry
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
Major forms and themes in German lyric poetry.
GERM 352 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
Analyzes and discusses representative German novelle from Kleist to the present.
GERM 353 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
Investigates dramatic theory and practice emphasizing major German authors and movements.
GERM 355 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
Studies major works by Goethe and Schiller, as well as authors who shared their classical values.
GERM 356 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
German literature from 1800 to 1830 and its influence.
GERM 357 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
Major German authors from 1890 to 1945.
GERM 358 - (3) (IR)
Postwar Literature
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
Representative German authors since 1945.
GERM 361 - (3) (IR)
Topics in German Literature
Prerequisite: GERM 301.
Seminar in German literature. May be repeated for credit.
GERM 370 - (3) (IR)
Bertolt Brecht
Studies Brecht’s life and works, including plays, poems, and theoretical writings.
GERM 420 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Translation
Prerequisite: GERM 300.
Focuses on the skills and techniques of literary translation from English to German and German to English. Emphasizes translation as a distinct creative endeavor and works from extended texts to develop accuracy and stylistic competence in the art of translating.
GERM 450 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisite: GERM 324.
Refinement of German prose style.
GERM 460 - (3) (Y)
Fourth-Year Seminar
Prerequisite: GERM 301 and other literature courses.
Literary analysis for advanced students.
GERM 470 - (1-3) (S)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Approval by a supervising faculty member.
GERM 490 - (3) (S)
Honors Thesis
Prerequisite: Admission to the DMP, permission of undergraduate advisor and a supervising faculty member.
Directed research for, and composition of, an extended essay.
GERM 491 - (6) (S)
Honors Research and Thesis
Prerequisite: Admission to the DMP, permission of undergraduate advisor and a supervising faculty member.
GERM 500 - (3) (IR)
Critical Writing and Bibliography
Supervised practice in the organization and writing of articles for scholarly journals. Includes introduction to bibliography.
GERM 505 - (3) (IR)
Special Topics
Major figures, genres, or literary problems serve as the focus for an intensive course within any literary period.
GERM 510 - (3) (IR)
Middle High German
Introduces Middle High German grammar and includes readings in Middle High German literature.
GERM 512 - (3) (IR)
Medieval German Lyric Poetry
Prerequisite: Knowledge of Middle High German.
Selections from the Minnesang in the context of the development of Middle High German poetry.
GERM 514 - (3) (IR)
Arthurian Romance
Prerequisite: Knowledge of Middle High German.
Theory and analysis of the chief German Arthurian romances: Erec, Parzival, Iwain, and Tristan.
GERM 521 - (3) (IR)
Reformation to Baroque, 1700
German literature from 1500 to 1680.
GERM 523 - (3) (IR)
Weise to Wieland
German literature from 1680 to 1750.
GERM 525 - (3) (IR)
Age of Goethe I
Studies German Storm and Stress and Classicism, focusing on Goethe and Schiller.
GERM 526 - (3) (IR)
Age of Goethe II
Examines Weimar classicism.
GERM 530 - (3) (IR)
German literature and intellectual history from 1795 to 1830.
GERM 537 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth Century
Studies major writers and works from 1830 to 1890, including Grillparzer, Stifter, Heine, Hebbel, Keller, Storm, Fontane.
GERM 547 - (3) (IR)
Turn of the Century
Discusses the major literary movements at the turn of the century with analysis of representative works by Hofmannsthal, Schnitzler, George, Rilke, Thomas Mann, Musil, Kafka, and others.
GERM 548 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century
Introduces the main currents of German literature since 1920, emphasizing major authors and traditions.
GERM 550 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Lyric Poetry
Investigates the theory and practice of lyric poetry in Germany, emphasizing major authors and traditions.
GERM 551 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Prose Fiction
Studies representative works of fiction—either novels or shorter forms—with special attention to formal and thematic developments, and representative theories of fiction.
GERM 552 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Drama
Investigates dramatic theory and practice in Germany, emphasizing major authors and traditions.
GERM 560 - (3) (IR)
Old Icelandic
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing or instructor permission.
An introduction to the language and literature of the Vikings, with exercises in the grammar and basic vocabulary of Icelandic. We use the modern pronunciation and spelling modern of Icelandic to practice reading aloud, and there is frequent practice in translating from Icelandic into English. The course will include readings of passages from the classical literature and the whole of Gisla Saga. Texts: Chapman, Kenneth G. Graded Readings and Exercises in Old Iceland, revised by Kellogg and Plail, 1997; Kellogg, Readings in Old Icelandic; Adilsteinn Eythorsson and Bergljot Krisjansdottir, ed. Gisla Saga. Mal og menning, 1999.
GERM 584 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Literary Theory
Examines current theories of literature, including Marxist, psychoanalytic, formalist, structuralist, and hermeneutic approaches.
GERM 588 - (3) (IR)
Linguistic Approaches to Literature
Investigates aspects of literary style in the light of modern linguistics.
SCAN 350 - (3) (IR)
Discusses Ibsen’s major plays, in English translation. No knowledge of a Scandinavian language is needed; does not fulfill the language requirement.

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