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Corcoran Department of History
P.O. Box 400180
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4180
Phone: (434) 924-3478
Fax: (434) 924-7891

Overview  The University of Virginia and the study of history are, in some ways, synonymous. Founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819 as a secular institution, the University represents a historical moment in American education. History, however, is more than the study of historical moments and monuments; it is a vital process that helps people develop the ability to think intelligently about the past. History students also hone their writing skills and learn to assess often radically differing views of the same subject.

With one of the largest faculties in the University, the Department of History is able to offer courses in European and American history, the history of China, Japan, India, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. While many of the department's courses deal with public events of political, diplomatic, and constitutional history, a sizable number of faculty members specialize in social, cultural, or economic history and carry their investigations into such topics as the history of villages, cities, witchcraft, gender, literacy, and work. Regardless of their field, all historians seek to explain whether people in the past acted and thought differently from the way we act and think today, and to describe the forces behind change over time. The study of history provides students with an opportunity to understand different cultures and ultimately to understand their own culture more fully.

Faculty  The fifty-six faculty members of the department are nationally recognized for outstanding teaching and scholarship, with several having won major national and international prizes in their fields. Because the department is large, the faculty offers more than 100 courses each year. Many of the faculty have been recipients of University-wide teaching awards. All of the faculty teach and all are firmly committed to undergraduate education, making themselves easily accessible to students.

Students  History is one of the largest departments of the University. Currently there are more than  400  students majoring in history. The department offers courses in eleven general fields of study: African, American, Ancient, East Asian, English, Latin American, Medieval, Middle Eastern, Modern European, Russian, and South Asian. Courses outside these fields, such as comparative and trans-national history, world history, and the histories of science, technology, gender, and war, are also available but do not constitute a specific field within the department. Most students begin the study of history in either an introductory survey course or in an introductory seminar. Introductory surveys are usually large and are designed to cover a broad topic or era (e.g., the age of the Renaissance; Colonial Latin America, 1500-1824). 100-level seminars, limited to fifteen first- and second-year students, focus on the development of skills in reading, writing, and thinking through the study of a defined historical topic (e.g., history, politics, and the novel; revolution, rebellion, and protest in Russian history). Virtually every course in the department, with the exception of discussion sections, is taught by a faculty member. Discussion sections, limited to twenty students per section, supplement all of the large lecture classes and are led by advanced graduate students. Advanced courses generally have enrollments of between thirty and fifty students; fourth-year history seminars, a requirement for the major, are limited to twelve students. These seminars focus on historical research and writing; a substantial thesis is required from each student in the class.

Whatever geographical focus or disciplinary emphasis students choose, they learn to focus clearly and to defendinterpretations supported solidly in fact and theory. These are the skills demanded by employers in government, law, business, and teaching.   Approximately ten percent of History majors go on to do graduate work in history, often at top programs. Students with this major also go to law school, business school, and to graduate programs in other social sciences and humanities. The majority of history graduates go into business, both domestic and international, government agencies, foreign service, non-governmental agencies, public service organizations, journalism, and writing and editing.

The Major in History  A major in history informs students about the past. It also stimulates thoughtful reading, provokes clear thinking, enlivens critical capacities, and promotes good writing. Historical study provides an outstanding preparation for informed citizenship in an increasingly complex and interdependent world and a firm foundation for many career objectives. To these ends, the department encourages students to work closely with faculty to construct challenging, coherent, and integrated programs of study.

The major in history consists of eleven courses. These may be of three or four credits, and up to four courses may be taken by transfer from other American institutions or through recognized foreign study programs. The decision of the director of undergraduate studies is final in matters of transfer credit. Students are expected to declare history majors before the end of their fourth semester at the University and after the completion of at least one history course with a grade of C or better.

To develop breadth and perspective, each student must take one course in each of five areas: European history before 1700; Modern European history; United States history; and two courses from the areas of African, Asian, Latin American and/or Middle Eastern history. These courses may be taken at any level and need not be the first five courses that a student takes.

All students must pursue a particular subject in depth through a seminar or colloquium (HIXX 401 or 402) for which they have been adequately prepared. Preparation normally means at least two courses related to the topic of the seminar or colloquium. Preparatory courses may be taken outside the history department but such courses may not be counted toward the major. Students must attain a grade of C or better in the history seminar or colloquium.

There are a few other basic requirements for the major in history. At least five courses must be numbered 300 or above. No more than six courses (including the seminar or colloquium) may be taken in any single area of history for credit in the major; students may take as many elective courses in history as their schedules and interests permit. History majors must maintain a GPA of 2.0 in their major. The department accepts 1 Advanced Placement course with a score of 4 or 5 toward the eleven courses required for the major. All majors are required to consult with their major advisors at least once per semester.

The Minor in History  The minor in history consist of six courses. These must be distributed in at least three areas of history, and at least two courses must be numbered 300 or above. All courses counted for the minor must be taken in residence at the University.

Distinguished Majors Program in History  Students who seek independent study and directed research may be admitted to the Distinguished Majors Program (DMP). The program consists of a two-year course of study. In the fall of their third year participants take a special colloquium available only to them, and follow this with a regular major seminar or colloquium in the spring. The fourth year is devoted to the preparation of a substantial thesis and to participation in a year-long seminar. Distinguished majors must meet the other requirements for a history major. Applications for admission to the program are normally accepted in April of each year from second-year students who are otherwise eligible to declare history majors. Information on the program can be secured from its directors or from the undergraduate director. Participants are eligible for degrees with distinction, high distinction, and highest distinction. Levels of distinction, are set by a faculty committee based upon the attainment of a minimum GPA of 3.4 for all courses, the quality of the thesis, and the overall quality of a student's academic record.

The American Studies Major  The American Studies Major offers students the opportunity to study the United States in a  multidisciplinary context. History majors focusing on the United States can also major in American Studies readily and efficiently, and this double-major will deepen and enrich their study of United States history in fruitful ways. Students will be admitted to the American Studies Major after a competitive application process that is normally completed at the end of  their second year. Those accepted take, in their third year, two seminars that are available only to American Studies students; a fourth-year seminar in a special topic of American Studies; and seven other courses, to be chosen in consultation with the Director of American Studies, from other departments throughout the college and the university. (History majors may count some of their course work in United States history towards the American Studies major.) For more information, please see the Director of American Studies, Department of English, 441 Bryan Hall.
 
Requirement for Minor in the History of Science and Technology  Please refer to section on the Division of Technology, Culture, and Communication in chapter 10.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the Director of Undergraduate Studies, Corcoran Department of History, Randall Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-7147; Fax: (434) 924-7891; www.virginia.edu/history/.

Course Descriptions

African History

HIAF 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in African History
Introduces the study of history intended for first- or second-year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIAF 201 - (4) (Y)
Early African History
Studies the history of African civilizations from the iron age through the era of the slave trade, ca. 1800. Emphasizes the search for the themes of social, political, economic, and intellectual history which present African civilizations on their own terms.

HIAF 202 - (4) (Y)
Modern African History
Studies the history of Africa and its interaction with the western world from the mid-19th century to the present. Emphasizes continuities in African civilization from imperialism to independence that transcend the colonial interlude of the 20th century.

HIAF 203 - (4) (IR)
The African Diaspora
Studies the history of African peoples and their interaction with the wider world. Emphasizes historical and cultural ties between African diasporic communities and the homeland to the mid-19th century. Cross-listed as AAS 101.

HIAF 301 - (3) (IR)
North African History From Carthage to the Algerian Revolution
Surveys the main outlines of North African political, economic, and cultural history from the rise of Carthage as a Mediterranean power until the conclusion of the Algerian war for independence in 1962, and the creation of a system of nation-states in the region. It places the North African historical experience within the framework of both Mediterranean/European history and African history. Focuses mainly upon the area stretching from Morocco's Atlantic coast to the Nile Delta; also considered are Andalusia and Sicily, and the ties between Northwest Africa and sub-Saharan regions, particularly West Africa.

HIAF 302 - (3) (IR)
History of Southern Africa
Studies the history of Africa generally south of the Zambezi River. Emphasizes African institutions, creation of ethnic and racial identities, industrialization, and rural poverty, from the early formation of historical communities to recent times.

HIAF 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in African History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. Seminar work results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIAF 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in African History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIAF 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in African History
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly. Open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis.

HIAF 404 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in African History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member, any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Open to majors or non-majors.

HIAF 511 - (3) (IR)
Slave Systems in Africa and the Americas
Historical study of the growth and evolution of the systems of "slavery" in Africa, the American south, and Latin America (including the Caribbean).

East Asian History

HIEA 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in East Asian History
Introduces the study of history intended for first- or second-year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIEA 201 - (3) (IR)
Chinese Culture and Institutions
Introduces traditional Chinese social, political, economic and military institutions, major literary, artistic and intellectual movements, and developments in the medical and culinary arts.

HIEA 203 - (3) (Y)
Modern China: The Road to Revolution
Studies the transformation of Chinese politics, thought, institutions, and foreign relations since the Opium War. Emphasizes the development of modern nationalism and Communism.

HIEA 205 - (3) (IR)
Korean Culture and Institutions
Introduces traditional Korean social, political and economic institutions, major literary, artistic, and intellectual movements. Emphasizes Korea as a peninsular expression of East Asian civilization.

HIEA 206 - (3) (IR)
Korean Culture and Institutions: 14th-20th Centuries
This course covers the history of Korea from the late 14th century through the end of the 20th century: the rise of the Yi Dynasty, changes wrought by the full-scale Confucianization of Korean society, the unfolding and ultimate collapse of the unique relationship between the Yi court and Ming/Qing China, challenges to the territorial integrity of Korea in the late 19th century, the rise of Korean nationalism, Japanese colonization, post-World War II social, political and economic developments, and the role of Christianity throughout the 20th century.

HIEA 207 - (3) (IR)
Japan, From Susanno to Sony
Comprehensive introduction to Japan from the earliest times to the present, highlighting the key aspects of its social, economic, and political history, and illuminating the evolution of popular culture and the role of the military.

HIEA 311 - (3) (Y)
The Traditional Chinese Order, Antiquity-Sixth Century A.D.
Surveys the social, political and economic organization of traditional Chinese society, traditional Chinese foreign policy, and major literary, artistic, and intellectual movements.

HIEA 312 - (3) (IR)
The Traditional Chinese Order, Seventh Century-Seventeenth Century
Surveys the social, political and economic organization of traditional Chinese society, traditional Chinese foreign policy, and major literary, artistic, and intellectual movements.

HIEA 314 - (3) (IR)
Political and Social Thought in Modern China
Studies political and social thought from the early 20th century to the present, as reflected in written sources (including fiction), art, and films.

HIEA 315 - (3) (Y)
East Asian-American Relations in the 20th Century
A lecture and discussion course focusing on the changing relationship between East Asian Countries—China, Japan, Vietnam and Korea in particular—and the United States in the 20th century.

HIEA 321 - (3) (IR)
Japan's Economic Miracle
Examines the history of Japan since the early 19th century by exploring the causes and consequences of the economic and social changes that have made Japan one of the most important advanced industrial countries in the contemporary world.

HIEA 322 - (3) (IR)
Japan's Political History
Examines Japanese history since the early 19th century, exploring changes in political ideas, institutions, and behavior among both governing elites and the mass of Japanese citizenry.

HIEA 331 - (3) (Y)
Peasants, Students and Women: Social Movement in Twentieth-Century China
Studies rural revolution, student movements, women's liberation, and the transformation of the social order since the late 19th century.

HIEA 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in East Asian History
A small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIEA 402 - (4) (IR)
Colloquium in East Asia
A small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students prepare about 25 pages of written work. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIEA 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in East Asian History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study.

HIEA 404 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in East Asia
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Open to majors or non-majors.

HIEA 515 - (3) (IR)
Mao and the Chinese Revolution
This course, an advanced reading seminar, provides an in-depth investigation of one of the most significant, yet destructive, revolutions in human history—the Chinese Communist revolution, as well as the person who led the revolution—Mao Zedong.

European History

HIEU 100 - (3) (S)
Introductory Seminar in European History
Intended for first- or second-year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIEU 201 - (4) (Y)
Western Civilization I
Surveys the fundamental institutions and ideas that have shaped the Western world. Topics include great religious and philosophical traditions, political ideas, literary forms, artistic achievements and institutional structures from the world of the ancient Hebrews to the eve of the modern world (ca. 3000 B.C. to 1600 A.D.).

HIEU 202 - (4) (Y)
Western Civilization II
Surveys the political and cultural history of the Western world in modern times. Emphasizes the distinctiveness of Western civilization, on the reasons for the rise of the West to global domination, and the relative decline of the West in recent times.

HIEU 203 - (3) (Y)
Ancient Greece
Studies the political, military, and social history of Ancient Greece from the Homeric age to the death of Alexander the Great, emphasizing the development and interactions of Sparta and Athens.

HIEU 204 - (3) (Y)
Roman Republic and Empire
Surveys the political, social, and institutional growth of the Roman Republic, focusing on its downfall and replacement by an imperial form of government, the subsequent history of that government, and the social and economic life during the Roman Empire, up to its own decline and fall.

HIEU 205 - (3) (IR)
Economic History of Europe
Studies European economic history from the middle ages to the industrial revolution. Emphasizes the emergence of the market and the rise of capitalism in Great Britain. Cross-listed as ECON 205.

HIEU 206 - (3) (Y)
The Birth of Europe
Studies ways of life and thought in the formation of Western Europe from the 4th century A.D. to the 15th. Includes a survey of the development of society and culture in town and countryside, the growth of economic, political, and religious institutions, and the impact of Muslim and Byzantine civilizations.

HIEU 207 - (3) (Y)
Early Modern Europe, 1500-1815
Analyzes the political, social, and economic developments from after the Reformation to the fall of Napoleon.

HIEU 208 - (3) (Y)
Modern European History Since 1815
Analyzes the political, social, and economic developments in Europe from the age of Napoleon to the present.

HIEU 210 - (3) (IR)
Modern Jewish History
Survey of Jewish history from the seventeenth century to the present, primarily in Europe, but with further treatment of Jewish life in the U.S. and Israel. Major topics include Jewish historical consciousness; patterns of emancipation; religious adjustment; the role of women; anti-Semitism; Zionism; the American Jewish experience; the Holocaust; the establishment of Israel; and Jewish life in Europe after the Holocaust.

HIEU 211 - (3) (Y)
History of England to 1688
Studies England and the British Isles from earliest times to the accession of William III.

HIEU 212 - (3) (Y)
The Emergence of Modern Britain, 1688-2000
This lecture course surveys the history of Britain from the Glorious Revolution to our own time. The making and remaking of this nation state over three hundred years will be shown in its connections with the history of Europe, and the wider story of the making of the modern world.

HIEU 215 - (3) (Y)
History of the Russian Empire 1700-1917
Studies the history of Russia from Peter the Great to the Bolshevik Revolution and the establishment of Soviet power.

HIEU 216 - (3) (Y)
History of Russia Since 1917
Explores the collapse of the Russian Empire and the rise of the Communist state. Emphasizes the social revolution, Stalinism and subsequent “"de-Stalinization," national minorities, and the collapse of the Soviet regime.

HIEU 302 - (3) (IR)
Greek and Roman Warfare
Surveys the history of ancient warfare from the Homeric era until the fall of Rome.

HIEU 304 - (3) (IR)
The Fall of the Roman Republic
Surveys the history and culture of the last century of the Roman Republic (133-30 B.C.), emphasizing the political and social reasons for the destruction of the Republican form of government and its replacement by a monarchy.

HIEU 309 - (3) (IR)
Ancient Law and Society
Prerequisite: HIEU 203 or HIEU 204, or permission of the instructor.
Study of the interrationships between law, politics and society in ancient Greece (chiefly Athenian) culture, the Hellenistic kingdoms and Rome (from the XII Tables to the Justinianic Code). Focuses particularly on the development of the idea of law; on the construction of law's authority and legitimacy; on the use of law as one method of social control; and on the development, at Rome, of juristic independence and legal codification.

HIEU 311 - (3) (IR)
Early Medieval Civilization
Studies early medieval civilization from late antiquity to the 11th century. Emphasizes selected themes in cultural history.

HIEU 312 - (3) (IR)
Later Medieval Civilization
Discusses intellectual and cultural history, political and social theories, and religious movements from the 11th to the 16th centuries.

HIEU 313 - (3) (IR)
The World of Charlemagne
Explores the Byzantine, Muslim, and European worlds in the 8th and 9th centuries. Compares political, institutional, and social history, and the Catholic, Orthodox, and Islamic faiths.

HIEU 314 - (3) (IR)
Anglo-Saxon England
Surveys England and its Celtic neighbors in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland from the departure of the Romans in the early 5th century to the Scandinavian conquest in 1016. Emphasizes the human diversity and cultural and institutional creativity of the Anglo-Saxons.

HIEU 315 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Iberia, 411-1469
Surveys Iberian history from the collapse of Roman rules to the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castille in 1469; includes the development of regional identities, the interaction of Christian, Moslem, and Jewish cultures, and Iberia's relations with its European neighbors.

HIEU 316 - (3) (IR)
Byzantine Civilization
Surveys the political and cultural history of the Byzantine Empire and of Orthodox  Christianity from late antiquity to the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

HIEU 317 - (3) (IR)
Eastern Christianity
Surveys the history of Christianity in the Byzantine world and the Middle East from late antiquity (age of emperor Justinian) until the fall of Constantinople. Emphasizes developments in theology, spirituality and art, and the relation of Christianity to Islam. Considers Eastern Christianity in modern times.

HIEU 318 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Christianity
Detailed study of the development of Christianity in the Middle Ages and of how it reflected upon itself in terms of theology, piety, and politics. Cross-listed as RELC 325.

HIEU 321 - (3) (IR)
Medieval and Renaissance Italy
Surveys the development of the Italian city-state between 1050 and 1550, emphasizing the social and political context of Italian culture.

HIEU 322 - (3) (IR)
The Culture of the Renaissance
Surveys the growth and diffusion of educational, literary, and artistic innovations in Europe between 1300 and 1600.

HIEU 323 - (3) (IR)
Europe in the Age of Reformation, 1450-1650
Surveys the social, political, economic, and especially the religious changes that came over Europe during the period 1450 to 1650. Readings regularly include Thomas More, Martin Luther, Michel de Montaigne, and other major figures.

HIEU 324 - (3) (IR)
The Religious Reformations
Studies the disintegration of Medieval Catholicism and the rise of Protestant Christianity in the 16th century with special attention to the interaction of religious, social, and political issues. Cross-listed as RELC 326.

HIEU 325 - (3) (IR)
Imperial Spain and Portugal, 1469-1808
General survey of the Iberian peninsula from Ferdinand and Isabella to Napoleon, including the development of absolutism, the enforcement of religious orthodoxy, the conquest of the New World and the Iberian imperial systems, the price revolution, the “"decline" of Spain and the Bourbon reforms, and the arts and literature of the Golden Age.

HIEU 326 - (3) (IR)
History of Russia to 1700
Topics include the history of the formation of the Kievan State, the Appanage period, Mongol domination and the emergence of the Muscovite state; foundations of the first Russian state, evolution of its institutions, cultural influences from the origin to the decline; and the rise of successor states and particularly the multi-national state of Moscow.

HIEU 327 - (3) (IR)
Age of Russian Absolutism, 1613-1855
Intensive study of Russian history from the reign of the first Romanov tsar to the defeat in the Crimean War. Emphasizes the evolution of absolutism in Russia and the effects of the changes introduced by Peter the Great.

HIEU 328 - (3) (IR)
Tudor England
Studies the history of England (and its foreign relations especially with Scotland, France and Spain) from the reign of King Richard III to the death of Queen Elizabeth I. Topics include the transition from medieval to early modern society and government, the English Reformation and its consequences, the mid- Tudor crisis, social and economic change, and the principal personalities of the period.

HIEU 329 - (3) (IR)
Stuart England
Studies the history of England (and its foreign relations) from 1603 to 1714, with commentary on some major themes of early Hanoverian England to the end of Sir Robert Walpole's ministry. Includes newer interpretations on Stuart monarchy, the background and consequences of the Civil War, restoration ideology and politics in relation to the Cromwellian Interregnum, the Revolution of 1688, social and local history, and the creation of the first British Empire.

HIEU 330 - (3) (IR)
France Under the Old Regime and Revolution
Studies the history of the Old Regime and the revolutionary period, emphasizing political, social, and cultural developments.

HIEU 331 - (3) (IR)
Social History of Early Modern Europe
Surveys social, economic, and demographic structure and change in pre-industrial Europe, focusing on social unrest and rebellions.

HIEU 332 - (3) (IR)
The Scientific Revolution, 1450-1700
Studies the history of modern science in its formative period against the backdrop of classical Greek science and in the context of evolving scientific institutions and changing views of religion, politics, magic, alchemy, and ancient authorities.

HIEU 333 - (3) (IR)
Intellectual History of Early Modern Europe
Analyzes the main currents of European thought in the 17th and 18th centuries. Emphasizes major social movements and cultural changes.

HIEU 334 - (3) (IR)
Society and the Sexes in Europe From Late Antiquity to the Reformation
Explores the changing constructions of gender roles and their concrete consequences for women and men in society; uses primary texts and secondary studies from late antiquity through the Reformation.

HIEU 335 - (3) (IR)
Society and the Sexes in Europe From the Seventeenth Century to the Present
Explores the changing constructions of gender roles and their concrete consequences for women and men in society; uses primary texts and secondary studies from the 17th century to the present.

HIEU 337 - (3) (Y)
The Impact of Printing, 1650-1900
Studies the impact of the printing press on western European culture.

HIEU 338 - (3) (IR)
Revolutionary France, 1770-1815
This course will examine the social, cultural, intellectual and political history of France from the end of the Old Regime through the Napoleonic Empire. The origins, development, and outcome of the French Revolution will be the main focus. Attention will also be paid to the international legacy of various French revolutionary concepts and to the history of the interpretation of this critical period of upheaval.

HIEU 339 - (3) (IR)
Women, Men, and Politics in the Age of Democratic Revolutions, 1760-1848
Prerequisite: A course in history or gender studies.
Surveys the origins, development, and consequences of key revolutionary struggles of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, emphasizing changes in gender relations.

HIEU 340 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth-Century Europe
Surveys the major social, economic, and political trends between the defeat of the Napoleonic Empire and the First World War. Stresses the developments in Western Europe as industrialization, democracy, nationalism, and representative institutions took root.

HIEU 345 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century Europe
Studies the main developments in European history from the turn of the century to the eve of the Second World War.

HIEU 346 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century Europe
Studies the main developments in European history from the outbreak of the Second World War to the present.

HIEU 350 - (3) (IR)
France Since 1815
Studies French politics and society from the defeat of Napoleon to De Gaulle's republic.

HIEU 351 - (3) (IR)
Modern Italy
Studies the history of Italy from the era of the French Revolution to the present.

HIEU 354 - (3) (Y)
Modern German History
Prerequisite: One completed history course.
Introduces the political, social and cultural history of modern Germany from the French Revolution to the present.

HIEU 355 - (3) (Y)
English Legal History to 1776
The development of legal institutions, legal ideas, and legal principles from the medieval period to the 18th century. Emphasizes the impact of transformations in politics, society, and thought on the major categories of English law: property, torts and contracts, corporations, family law, constitutional and administrative law, and crime.

HIEU 356 - (3) (IR)
The Making of Victorian England, 1760-1855
Analyzes England's history from the age of revolutions (American, French, industrial) in the late 18th century to the height of prosperity, power, and influence in the mid-Victorian era.

HIEU 357 - (3) (IR)
The Decline of England, 1855-1945
Analyzes the history of England during one of the most troubled periods in her national experience, from the age of equipoise in the mid-Victorian era to the age of total war in the first half of our own century.

HIEU 361 - (3) (IR)
Age of Reform and Revolution in Russia, 1855-1917
Studies the changes resulting from the wake of reforms following the Crimean War. Explores the social and political effects of efforts to modernize and industrialize Russia, which led to the growth of political and revolutionary opposition and the overthrow of the monarchy.

HIEU 362 - (3) (Y)
Russian Intellectual History in the 19th Century
Studies the background of Westernization, rise of intelligentsia, development of radical and conservative trends, and the impact of intellectual ferment on Russian culture and politics to 1917.

HIEU 363 - (3) (Y)
Russia in the 20th Century
Analyzes the fall of the tsarist regime, the revolutions of 1917, the Leninist-Stalinist tyranny, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Gorbachev, Yeltsin and the Revolution of 1991. Emphasizes national minorities, diplomatic and social history, and Christianity and Islam.

HIEU 364 - (3) (Y)
National Minorities of Russia
Prerequisite: At least three credits of modern Russian, Chinese, South Asian, or Middle Eastern studies.
Studies the ethno-historical origins and development of Soviet minorities of the USSR from the earliest times to the present. Focuses on the Uzbek, Turkmen, Kirgiz, Kazakh, Uigur, and Azeri peoples. Three hours of lectures and discussion per week.

HIEU 365 - (3) (Y)
Russian and Soviet Diplomatic History, 1850-Present
Studies the foreign policy legacy of the Russian Empire to the present. Emphasizes World War I, foreign intervention in Russia, the Comintern, the Second World War and after, the Cold War, the expansion and decline of world communism, the collapse of the Soviet empire, and current Russian prospects.

HIEU 366 - (3) (Y)
Europe From the Atlantic to the Urals Since 1945
Analyzes relations between European states and the movement toward European unity from 1945 to the present; the realignment of nations and ideologies in Eastern Europe and the USSR since 1985; reintegration of Eastern Europe and USSR successor states into Europe; and challenges to and opportunities for free-market democracies, particularly the USA and Japan, arising from European unification.

HIEU 369 - (3) (IR)
Revolutionary Russia
Detailed study of the social, cultural, and political history of the revolutionary movement: the 1905 Revolution, the February Revolution, and the Bolshevik Revolution from Lenin to Stalin.

HIEU 372 - (3) (Y)
Witchcraft
Prerequisite: First-year students not admitted except by instructor permission.
Surveys Western attitudes toward magic and witchcraft from ancient times to the present, with emphasis on the European age of witch hunting, 1450-1750. Cross-listed as RELG 372.

HIEU 373 - (3) (IR)
European Social History, 1770-1890
Studies the evolution of private life from the era of early capitalism to the end of the nineteenth century. Focuses on family life, work experience, material conditions, women's roles, childhood, and youth.

HIEU 374 - (3) (IR)
European Social History, 1890-1980
Studies the evolution of private life from the end of the nineteenth century to the present day. Focuses on family life, work experience, material conditions, women's roles, childhood, and youth.

HIEU 375 - (3) (IR)
Evolution of the International System, 1815-1950
Analyzes the evolution of great-power politics from the post-Napoleonic Congress of Vienna and the systems of Metternich and Bismarck to the great convulsions of the twentieth century and the Russo-American Cold War after World War II.

HIEU 376 - (3) (IR)
Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World
Offers a unique perspective on the emergence of a distinct subculture (more recently of a reform movement) within Western society, and on the response—usually hostile, often savagely repressive—of society at large to that subculture. Emphasizes that tense relationship and the light it throws on many facets of cultural, social, and political history in Europe and the United States.

HIEU 377 - (3) (IR)
Science in the Modern World
Studies the development of scientific thought and institutions since 1700, emphasizing the increasing involvement of science in economic, social, political, and military affairs and its relations with philosophical and religious thought.

HIEU 378 - (3) (SI)
Origins of Modern Thought, 1580-1943
Introduces central themes, theorists, and texts in secular European thought since 1580. Surveys the “"age of reason," the Enlightenment, romanticism, historicism, positivism, existentialism, and related matters. Works by a variety of thinkers are read, explicated, and discussed.

HIEU 379 - (3) (IR)
Intellectual History of Modern Europe
Studies the main currents of European thought in the 19th and 20th centuries. Emphasizes major social movements and cultural changes.

HIEU 380 - (3) (IR)
Origins of Contemporary Thought
Studies selected themes in intellectual history since the mid-19th century, focusing on Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud, Heidegger, and other thinkers, emphasizing the intellectual contexts out of which they came and to which they contributed.

HIEU 381 - (3) (IR)
Marx
Introduces the social theory of Karl Marx. What Marx said, why he said it, what he meant in saying it, and the significance thereof. Situates Marx's writing in the context of 19th-century intellectual history. Focuses on the coherence and validity of the theory and its subsequent history.

HIEU 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in European History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIEU 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in European History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia prepare about 25 pages of written work. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIEU 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in European History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors.

HIEU 404 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in European History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Open to majors or non-majors.

HIEU 501 - (3) (IR)
Archaic Greece
Prerequisite: HIEU 203 or equivalent.
Studies the rise of Greek civilization. Provides a political and constitutional history of the development of the Greek city-state, emphasizing classic Athens.

HIEU 502 - (3) (IR)
Greece in the Fifth Century
Prerequisite: HIEU 203 or equivalent.
Examines the political, diplomatic, and social history of Greece from the end of the Persian Wars in 479 B.C. to the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404/3 B.C. Investigates the origins, course, and importance of the latter war, a watershed in classical Greek history.

HIEU 503 - (3) (IR)
Greece in the Fourth Century
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent.
Advanced course in Greek history that examines in detail the social and economic history of Greece from the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 B.C. to the defeat of the Greek city-states at Chaeronea in 338.

HIEU 504 - (3) (IR)
Roman Republic
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent.
Studies the expansion of Rome from city-state to world empire to the death of Caesar.

HIEU 505 - (3) (IR)
Roman Empire
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent.
Studies the founding and institutions of the Principate, the Dominate, and the decline of antiquity.

HIEU 506 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperialism
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent.
Examines Roman transmarine expansion to determine how and why it happened and the consequences it had, both in Rome and abroad.

HIEU 507 - (3) (IR)
Modern Theory
Prerequisite: One 300-level course in intellectual history.
For students with previous knowledge of philosophy, political, or sociological theory, or religious studies. Discusses three or four major nineteenth- or twentieth-century theorists in depth.

HIEU 510 - (3) (IR)
Early Christian Thought
Prerequisite: RELC 205 or instructor permission.
Intensive consideration of a selected issue, movement, or figure in Christian thought of the second through fifth centuries.

HIEU 511 - (3) (IR)
Early Medieval England
Documentary history of English society from the late Saxon period to the reign of King John.

HIEU 512 - (3) (IR)
Later Medieval England
Documentary history of English society from the reign of King John to the death of Richard II.

HIEU 513 - (3) (IR)
Medieval France
Studies societies and governments in medieval Francia from the 11th century to the 14th.

HIEU 516 - (3) (IR)
The Medieval Church
Studies the history of the Western church within the development of medieval society, from the time of Constantine through the 13th century, based on analysis of selected texts.

HIEU 517 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Society: Ways of Life and Thought in Western Europe
Introduces the social and intellectual history from Charlemagne to Dante.

HIEU 518 - (3) (IR)
Historians in the Middle Ages
Discusses how prominent Latin writers of the medieval period looked at the past.

HIEU 519 - (3) (IR)
War and Society in the Middle Ages
Documentary history of warfare in Western Europe from the 9th century to the 16th; discusses its effect on the political, economic, social, and religious development of the emerging nation states.

HIEU 520 - (3) (IR)
The Culture of the Renaissance
Prerequisite: Undergraduates require instructor permission.
Surveys the writing of humanists who lived between 1300 and 1600. Includes the contributions of humanists to the history of education, political theory, religion, gender relations, and artistic theory. Studies works by authors such as Petrarch, Machiavelli, Thomas More, and Erasmus.

HIEU 521 - (3) (IR)
Early Modern Germany, 1350-1750
Studies late medieval politics, economy, and culture, including the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, the Wars of Religion, pietism and the baroque.

HIEU 526 - (3) (IR)
Russian History to 1700
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Selected topics in the evolution of the Russian peoples to the reign of Peter the Great.

HIEU 527 - (3) (IR)
The Age of Russian Absolutism, 1613-1855
Intensive study of Russian history from the reign of the first Romanov tsar to the defeat in the Crimean War. Concentrates on the evolution of absolutism in Russia and the effects of the changes introduced by Peter the Great.

HIEU 530 - (3) (IR)
Nationality, Ethnicity, and Race in Modern Europe
Prerequisite: One course in modern European history or instructor permission.
Colloquium on how categories of human identity have been conceived, applied, and experienced in Western and Eastern Europe from 1789 to the present. Topics include the construction of identities, national assimilation, inter-confessional conflict, colonialism, immigration, and the human sciences.

HIEU 545 - (3) (IR)
The History of Twentieth Century Europe, 1900-1941
Intensive study of the monograph literature dealing with the first half of the 20th century, concentrating on major problems which have been the subject of scholarly controversy.

HIEU 546 - (3) (IR)
The History of Twentieth-Century Europe Since 1941
Intensive study of the monographic literature dealing with controversial issues in European history since World War II.

HIEU 555 - (3) (IR)
The German World After 1918
Studies the problems in German Politics and society, including those of Austria, Switzerland, and such border areas as Alsace-Lorraine, Luxemburg and the German regions of Czechoslovakia.

HIEU 556, 557 - (3) (IR)
British History Since 1760
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Readings and discussion on selected topics in British history since the reign of George III.

HIEU 558 - (3) (Y)
The British Empire
This seminar surveys the history of British expansion over four centuries, moving between the history of the imperial center, and the stories of encounter, settlement, violence, resistance, and of the transformation of lifeways and identify, at the American, Asian, African, and Pacific peripheries of British influence. It is, at the same time, a thorough introduction into the historiography of Imperalism, and a space in which advanced undergraduates and graduates may pursue related research.

HIEU 559 - (3) (IR)
The British Economy Since 1850
Studies the structure, performance and policy in the British economy since 1850, focusing on the causes and consequences of Britain's relative economic decline. Cross listed as ECON 507.

HIEU 561 - (3) (IR)
The Age of Reform and Revolution in Russia, 1855-1917
Intensive study of changes brought about in the wake of reforms following the Crimean War. Explores the social and political effects of efforts to modernize and industrialize Russia, which led to the growth of political and revolutionary opposition and the overthrow of the monarchy.

HIEU 562 - (3) (IR)
Russia Since 1917
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Readings and discussion of the causes for the collapse of the Tsarist regime and the triumph of the Bolsheviks. Examines the development of the Soviet state.

HIEU 564 - (3) (IR)
Russian and Soviet Diplomatic History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Examines, through readings and discussion,  aspects of Soviet diplomatic history between the wars, attempts, by the revolutionary regime, to overthrow the capitalist states and to coexist with them, and the road to World War II.

HIEU 566 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth-Century Russian Intellectual History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Readings and discussion of seminal Russian intellectuals and their ideas under the later Romanov Tsars.

HIEU 567 - (3) (IR)
Russian Social History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Readings and discussion on selected topics in Russian social history during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

HIEU 573 - (3) (IR)
European Social History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Reading and discussion of the evolution of private life, emphasizing methodology and the interpretation of sources in social history.

HIEU 575 - (3) (IR)
Evolution of the International System, 1815-1950
Prerequisite: Graduate students and instructor permission.
Studies the evolution of great-power politics from the post-Napoleonic Congress of Vienna and the systems of Metternich and Bismarck to the great convulsions of the twentieth century and the Russo-American Cold War after World War II. Covers same thematic material as HIEU 375 on a more intensive level.

HIEU 577 - (3) (IR)
History of Modern Science
Reading and discussion on selected topics in the history of the natural and social science since 1600.

HIEU 578, 579 - (3) (IR)
European Intellectual History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Reading, discussion, and papers on selected topics in European intellectual history since the 17th century.

HIEU 580 - (3) (IR)
Postmodernism: Contexts and Anticipations
Prerequisite: Some modest prior background in intellectual history, philosophy, literature, art, architecture, or music.
Explores the notions of postmodernism and postmodernity. The names are recent and are much in dispute, but the various phenomena that they designate seem interesting and important. Attempts to play postmodernism off against modernism in its several senses (aesthetic, sociological, philosophical), and to examine earlier anticipations of the recent intellectual conflict.

Latin American History

HILA 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in Latin American History
Intended for first- or second-year students, this course introduces the study of history.  Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major history.

HILA 201 - (3) (Y)
Colonial Latin America, 1500-1824
Introduces major developments and issues in the study of Latin American history from Native American societies on the eve of the Spanish Conquest to the wars of national independence in the early 19th century.

HILA 202 - (3) (IR)
Modern Latin America, 1824 to Present
Introduces the history of Latin America from national independence in the early 19th century to the present.

HILA 301 - (3) (IR)
Spanish Frontiers of the American Southwest
Studies the history of the Spanish and Mexican borderlands of the American Southwest (California to Texas) from the 16th century to 1848. Focuses on the timing and differences in exploration, occupation, settlement patterns, role of the church and the military, and Spanish/Indian and Spanish-Mexican/ English-American relations in various provinces.

HILA 303 - (3) (IR)
Mexico From Conquest to Nation
Studies Mexican history from 1519 to 1854, emphasizing Spanish/Indian relations, problems of periodization in cultural, economic, and social history, the state and the church in public life, the significance of national independence, and regional variation in all of these subjects.

HILA 304 - (3) (IR)
Mexico, Revolution and Evolution, 1854 to Present
Studies Mexican history since the wars of reform in the 1850s. The Revolution, 1910-1920, its origins and meaning for modern Mexico, is the centerpiece. Topics include political ideas, church and state, the growth of nationalism and the state, economic changes, urbanization, land reform, and the intractable problem of inequality in the 20th century.

HILA 305 - (3) (IR)
Modern Central America
Studies the history of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador from 19th century fragmentation, oligarchic, foreign, and military rule, to the emergence of popular nationalisms.

HILA 306 - (3) (IR)
History of Modern Brazil
Explores Brazilian history from Independence to the present day. Through an interdisciplinary and comparative approach, the course examines the legacy of slavery, the importance of popular culture, and debates over national identity in the making of a distinctively ambiguous Brazilian “"modernity," broadly understood.

HILA 311 - (3) (IR)
Public Life in Modern Latin America
Introduces the forces shaping the emerging nations of Latin America since independence, emphasizing the dynamic reproduction of hierarchies that correspond to the patrimonial, aristocratic, and populist legitimization of social, cultural, and political relations in city life.

HILA 320 - (3) (Y)
History of the Caribbean, 1500-2000
The Caribbean is a region of the Atlantic world bounded by Central America and the north of South America, and by an arc of islands which runs from Trinidad in the south, to the Bahamas in the north, and Cuba in the west. This course surveys its history from the pre-Columbian era to the present, with special emphasis on the Anglophone territories. It is at the same time an introduction to the intellectual history of the region, since readings are chosen almost exclusively from within its traditions.

HILA 401 - (4) (IR)
Seminar in Latin American History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. Seminar work results primarily in the preparation of substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HILA 402 - (4) (IR)
Colloquium in Latin American History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HILA 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in Latin American History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly. Open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis.

HILA 404 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in Latin American History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Open to majors or non-majors.

HILA 501 - (3) (IR)
Colonial Latin American History
Prerequisite: Advanced undergraduates with consent of instructor and graduate students with reading knowledge of Spanish.
Intensive reading program in the historiography of major issues of the colonial field, in preparation for graduate-level research.

HILA 502 - (3) (IR)
Modern Latin American History
Prerequisite: Advanced undergraduates with consent of instructor and graduate students with reading knowledge of Spanish.
Intensive reading program in the historiography of major issues of the modern field, in preparation for graduate-level research.

Middle East History

HIME 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in Middle East History
Introduces the study of history intended for first- or second-year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of critical and communication skills. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIME 201 - (4) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 570-ca. 1500
Explores the the historical evolution of the Middle East and North Africa from the birth of Islam to the establishment of the Ottoman state in the early 16th century. Topics include the Fertile Crescent, Egypt,  Mesopotamia, Iran/Persia, and the Arabian Peninsula; Andalusia (Muslim Spain); North Africa, Anatolia; Central Asia; Islam as a religious system, way of life, and world civilization;  and the historical development of cultural, social, legal, and political Islamic institutions.

HIME 202 - (4) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 1500-Present
As a continuation of HIME 201 (which is not a prerequisite), this course surveys the historical evolution of the Middle East and North Africa, i.e., the region stretching from Morocco to Afghanistan, and from the Balkans and Anatolia to the Arabian Peninsula. Topics include the main political configurations of the area from the birth of Islam until the Mongol aftermath; the rise of the gunpowder Empires  of the 16th century; the Ottoman and Safavid (Iran) states; and the modern nation-state systems of the present century, ca. 1980. The dominant political, religious, economic, social, and cultural features of Middle Eastern peoples and societies are examined, as are relationships between the region and other parts of Eurasia, particularly Western Europe.

HIME 319 - (3) (IR)
Christianity and Islam
Studies Christianity in the Middle East in the centuries after the rise of Islam. Cross-listed as RELC 329.

HIME 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in Middle East and North Africa History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIME 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in Middle East History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topics of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIME 403 - (4) (Y)
Topics in Middle Eastern History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors.

HIME 404 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Middle Eastern History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Open to majors or non-majors.

HIME 502 - (3) (IR)
Revolution, Islam, and Gender in the Middle East
Prerequisite: One course in Middle Eastern history or politics, or instructor permission.
Comparative study of revolution in 20th-century Turkey, Egypt, Algeria, and Iran, with particular reference to colonial and post-colonial class, religion, and gender movements.

HIME 503 - (3) (Y)
Multiculturalism in the Ottoman Empire
Study of how a large empire governed a diverse population, between 1453 and 1918, from the perspective of concerns about recent nationalist, racial and ethnic conflicts in modern nation states. Course first examines how the Ottomans managed relations between ethnic and religious groups to 1750. Course then examines reasons for increased communal conflict after 1750, and Ottoman efforts to re-engineer relations among groups along liberal, constitutional lines.

South Asian History

HISA 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in South Asia
Introduction to the study of history intended for first- or second-year students. Seminars involve reading, discussion, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HISA 201 - (3) (IR)
History and Civilization of Classical India
Studies the major elements of South Asian civilization, from the Stone Age to 1200, including the Indus Valley, Vedic literatures, Buddhism, Jainism, Epic traditions, the caste system, Mauryan and Guptan Empires, and devotional Hinduism.

HISA 202 - (3) (IR)
History and Civilization of Medieval India
Studies the social, political, economic and cultural history of South Asia from 1200 to 1800, from the Turkic invasions through the major Islamic dynasties, especially the Mughal Empire, to the establishment of English hegemony in the maritime provinces.

HISA 203 - (3) (IR)
History of Modern India
Surveys 200 years of Indian history from the mid-18th century to the present, focusing on the imperial/colonial encounter with the British Raj before Independence, and the social and political permutations of freedom in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka since.

HISA 301 - (3) (IR)
History of Muslim India
Studies the nature of Islamic political dominance in a non-Muslim society; Turko-Afghan and Mughal political institutions; art, letters and learning under the Delhi Sultanate, regional rulers and Mughals; and religious and cultural life during the Muslim period in South Asia.

HISA 302 - (3) (IR)
India From Akbar to Victoria
Studies the society and politics in the Mughal Empire, the Empire's decline and the rise of successor states, the English as a regional power and their expansion, and social, economic and political change under British paramountcy, including the 1857 Revolt.

HISA 303 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century India
Surveys 100 years of Indian history, defining the qualities of the world's first major anti-colonial movement of nationalism and the changes and cultural continuities of India's democratic policy in the decades since 1947.

HISA 311 - (3) (IR)
Social and Political Movements in Twentieth-Century India
Considers the relationships between land, people, and politics in modern South Asia.

HISA 312 - (3) (IR)
History of Women in South Asia
Surveys the evolving definitions and roles of women in the major social and cultural traditions of South Asia, i.e., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.

HISA 401 - (4) (IR)
Seminar in South Asia
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HISA 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in South Asia
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HISA 403 - (4) (Y)
Topics in South Asian History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors.

HISA 404 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in South Asia
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.

HISA 502 - (3) (IR)
Historiography of Early Modern South Asia
Analyzes historical sources and historians of political systems in Muslim India until the rise of British power.

HISA 510 - (3) (IR)
Economic History of India
Analyzes regional economic systems prior to European penetration; the establishment and growth of European trading companies in the 17th and 18th centuries; commercialization of agriculture, the emergence of a unified Indian economy in the 19th century, and industrialization and economic development in the 20th century.

General History

HIST 100 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Seminar in History
Introduction to the study of history intended for first- and second-year students. Seminars involve reading, discussion, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of  critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIST 301 - (3) (IR)
History of Canada
Studies the development of Canada from the early 16th century to the present. Emphasizes Canadian affairs after 1814, particularly the growth of Canadian political institutions, the interplay of the North Atlantic community countries, and the emergence of Anglo-French dualism in Canadian life.

HIST 302 - (3) (IR)
History of British West Indies
Studies development of the British islands in the West Indies from the period of settlement to the present.

HIST 304 - (3) (IR)
The British Empire in the 18th Century
Surveys the history of the First British Empire to 1815, with concentration on the 18th century and on the loss of the American Colonies as a breaking point. Explores problems inherent in the imperial relationship between Mother Country and colonies and is an introduction to studies in colonialism and imperialism as they relate to the histories of England, early America, the West Indies, and South Asia and Africa.

HIST 320 - (3) (Y)
History, Museums, and Interpretation
Overview of the issues and challenges involved in historical interpretation at public history sites, primarily in the United States. Includes a review of general literature on public history, exploration of diverse sources frequently used, and analysis of some recent public history controversies.

HIST 321 - (3) (IR)
History of Sexuality in the West
Surveys changes in sexual behavior and attitudes in Europe and the United States since ancient times, with particular attention to the moment of major breaks. The politics of forming sexual norms and imposing them on society is also examined.

HIST 352 - (3) (Y)
The Second World War
Discusses the causes and course of the Second World War. The importance of the war to modern history and the shadows it still casts over contemporary politics and culture need no elaboration.

HIST 353 - (3) (Y)
Cold War in World History
Presents an international history of the Cold War, concentrating on the period between 1945 and 1990. Emphasizes American, Russian, and Chinese perspectives and choices.

HIST 401 - (4) (Y)
Major Seminar
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIST 402 - (4) (Y)
Major Colloquium
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquial prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIST 403 - (4) (Y)
Topics in History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors.

HIST 404 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.

HIST 405 - (4) (Y)
Distinguished Majors Program-Special Colloquium
Prerequisite: Open only to students admitted to the Distinguished Majors Program.
Studies historical approaches, techniques, and methodologies introduced through written exercises and intensive class discussion. Normally taken during the third year.

HIST 406 - (3) (Y)
Distinguished Majors Program-Special Seminar
Prerequisite: Open only to students admitted to the Distinguished Majors Program.
Analyzes problems in historical research. Preparation and discussion of fourth-year honors theses. Normally taken during the fourth year.

HIST 407 - (3) (Y)
Political and Social Thought Seminar
Seminar introducing the interdisciplinary study of political and social thought, focusing each year on a different topic.

HIST 501, 502 - (3) (IR)
Documentary Editing Procedures and Practice
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the principles and methods in interpreting and editing historical manuscripts, emphasizing the colonial and early national periods.

HIST 503 - (3) (IR)
Quantitative Analysis of Historical Data
Prerequisite: An introductory course in statistics or instructor permission.
Studies the social scientific approach to historical inquiry, the formulation of theories, and their testing with historical data. Extensive directed readings in quantitative history and training in quantitative methods, including sampling, the organization of a data-set and data analysis.

HIST 504 - (3) (IR)
Monticello Internship
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Directed research, largely in primary source materials, on topics relating to Jefferson's estate, life, and times. Directed by senior members of the Monticello staff. The internships are restricted to graduate students in history and to fourth year undergraduate history majors. A maximum of two students each semester are admitted to the course.

HIST 505 - (3) (IR)
History, Memory, Subjectivity
Considers a portion of the very extensive, and growing, literature on issues of memory, subjectivity, and historical evidence. “"Memory" is taken in a broad sense, to include not only the recall and narrativization of experience but also tradition and commemoration, since in the historical literature these different senses of memory are often mixed together. Students must find their own paper topics, and are encouraged to discuss the course with the instructor in advance.

HIST 506 - (3) (SI)
Philosophy of History
Examines the theoretical presuppositions of historical research and writing.

HIST 507 - (3) (IR)
Internship in History: Interpreting African-American Life at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
This internship program, devised and presented by Monticello staff, and offered in conjunction with the University of Virginia's History Department, is designed for students interested in the interpretation of African-American history to the public. The interns are trained as historical interpreters and present Monticello's Plantation Community tour. This walking tour explores Mulberry Row, the center of plantation activity where enslaved African-American families lived and worked, and examines the philosophical issue of Thomas Jefferson and slavery. Lectures, discussions and readings cover the historical content and interpretive techniques that allow interns to develop their individualized Plantation Community tours.

HIST 513 - (3) (IR)
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Studies the growth and development of the international slave trade from Africa to the New World from the 15th to the 19th centuries.

United States History

HIUS 100 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Seminar in U.S. History
Introduces the study of history intended for first- or second-year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods, and emphasize the enhancement of critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIUS 201 - (4) (Y)
American History to 1865
Studies the development of the colonies and their institutions, the Revolution, the formation and organization of the Republic, and the coming of the Civil War.

HIUS 202 - (4) (Y)
American History Since 1865
Studies the evolution of political, social, and cultural history of the United States from 1865 to the present.

HIUS 205 - (3) (Y)
United States Military History 1600-1900
Military events and developments from the colonial period through the war with Spain in 1898. Major topics include the debate over the role of the military in a free society, the interaction between the military and civilian spheres, and the development of a professional army and navy.

HIUS 206 - (3) (Y)
American Economic History
Studies American economic history from its colonial origins to the present. Cross-listed as ECON 206.

HIUS 240 - (3) (Y)
History of American Catholicism
Historical survey of American Catholicism from its colonial beginnings to the present. Cross-listed as RELC 240.

HIUS 271 - (3) (IR)
American Environmental History
Prerequisite: First-year writing course (e.g., TCC 101, ENWR 110).
Explores the historical relationship between people and the environment in North America from colonial times to the present. Topics include the role of culture, economics, politics, and technology in that relationship. Cross-listed as TCC 206.

HIUS 301 - (3) (Y)
The Colonial Period of American History
Studies the English background and the development of colonial institutions, political, social, economic and ecclesiastical.

HIUS 303 - (3) (Y)
The Era of the American Revolution
Studies the growth of ideas and institutions that led to American independence, the creation of a union, and a distinct culture.

HIUS 305 - (3) (IR)
The Age of Jefferson and Jackson, 1789-1845
Studies the history of the United States during the early national and middle periods, including political, constitutional, social and economic developments as well as the westward movement.

HIUS 307 - (3) (IR)
The Coming of the Civil War
Examines the period from roughly 1815 to 1861 focusing on the interaction between the developing sectional conflict and the evolving political system, with the view of explaining what caused the Civil War.

HIUS 309 - (3) (IR)
The Civil War and Reconstruction
Examines the course of the Civil War and Reconstruction in detail and attempts to assess their impact on 19th century American society, both in the North and in the South.

HIUS 311 - (3) (IR)
The United States in the Gilded Age, 1870-1900
Studies the transformation of American society under the impact of industrialization, from 1870 to 1900. Examines how capitalists, workers, farmers, and the middle class attempted to shape the new industrial society to their own purposes and visions. Focuses on social and cultural experience and politics.

HIUS 313 - (3) (IR)
The Emergence of Modern America, 1870-1930
Analyzes the distinct characteristics of American modernity as they emerge in the period from the end of reconstruction to the Great Depression. Explores the creation of big business and large-scale bureaucratic organizations. Includes the first military-industrial complex of World War I, the invention of R& D, the growth of research universities, and the modern organization of knowledge. Describes the landscape of new large urban hinterlands; analyzes the difficult encounters of class, ethnicity, race, and gender both at home and at work; and studies the changing leisure patterns of a consumer culture.

HIUS 315 - (3) (IR)
United States Society and Politics, 1900-1945
The development of modern America is explored by considering the growing interdependence between its politics, economy, culture, and social structure in the first half of the 20th century.

HIUS 316 - (3) (IR)
Viewing America, 1940 to the Present
Built around news reels, photographs, television, films, and reviews, this course explores how Americans viewed some of the major events and trends in the post-war period.

HIUS 317 - (3) (IR)
United States Society and Politics, 1945-1990
Surveys post World War II U.S. politics uncovering the links between long range social and economic phenomenon (suburbanization, decline of agricultural employment, the rise and fall of the labor movement, black urbanization and proletarianization, economic society and insecurity within the middle class, the changing structure of multinational business) and the more obvious political movements, election results, and state policies of the last half century.

HIUS 321 - (3) (IR)
The History of New England
Studies New England from its founding in the 17th century through its “"Indian Summer" in the late 19th century. Most attention is given to social, intellectual, and cultural development.

HIUS 323 - (3) (IR)
Black and White in the Making of the American South
A history of the American South from the arrival of the first English settlers through the end of Reconstruction in 1877.

HIUS 324 - (3) (IR)
The South in the Twentieth Century
Studies the history of the South from 1900 to the present focusing on class structure, race relations, cultural traditions, and the question of southern identity.

HIUS 326 - (3) (IR)
The Trans-Mississippi West
Studies economic, social, and cultural history of the Far West from the Mexican War to World War II. Focuses on continuity and change in the region's history and the social experience of its peoples from the era of conquest, migration, and settlement to the era of agribusiness, Hollywood, and national park tourism.

HIUS 328 - (3) (IR)
History of Virginia to 1865
Studies the development of colonial institutions as influenced by frontier conditions and British policy and culture. A survey of Virginia history from colonial times to 1865.

HIUS 329 - (3) (IR)
History of Virginia since 1865
Studies the social, economic, and political development of modern Virginia from the Civil War to present. Focuses on Virginia identity and institutions, race relations, and class structures.

HIUS 330 - (3) (IR)
The History of UVA in the Twentieth Century
Studies the local, regional, and national trends effecting higher education, relating these trends specifically to the University of Virginia. Students are active participants in recovering the institution's history through oral interviews with alumni, faculty, and administrators and through serious archival work.

HIUS 340 - (3) (IR)
Development of American Science
Studies the history of the development of American science from the colonial period to the present, emphasizing the process of the professionalization of American science and on the relationships between the emergent scientific community and such concerns as higher education and the government.

HIUS 341 - (3) (IR)
American Business
Surveys the rise of the modern corporate form of American business and an analysis of the underlying factors which shaped that development.

HIUS 345 - (3) (IR)
History of Urban America
Studies the evolution of the American city from colonial times to the end of the nineteenth century. Emphasizes both the physical growth of the system of cities and the development of an urban culture, including comparisons with European and Asian cities.

HIUS 346 - (3) (IR)
History of Urban America
Studies the evolution of the American city from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. Emphasizes both the physical growth of the system of cities and the development of an urban culture, including comparisons with European and Asian cities.

HIUS 347 - (3) (IR)
History of American Labor
Surveys American labor in terms of the changing nature of work and its effect on working men, women, and children. Emphasizes social and cultural responses to such changes, as well as the organized labor movement.

HIUS 348 - (3) (IR)
American Social History to 1870
Topics include demographic change, the emergence of regional social orders, the shaping of American religion, the impact of the industrial revolution, and the development of important elites.

HIUS 349 - (3) (IR)
United States Social History Since 1870
Topics include the development of a predominantly urban society, with particular emphasis on sources of stability, class and stratification, ethnic patterns, religious identities, social elites, and education.

HIUS 351 - (3) (IR)
Diplomatic History of the United States to 1914
Studies American foreign relations from colonial times to 1914.

HIUS 352 - (3) (IR)
Diplomatic History of the United States Since 1914
Studies American foreign relations from 1914 to the present.

HIUS 354 - (3) (Y)
American Legal Thought since 1880
A survey of American legal thought from Holmes to Posner. Emphasizes theories of property, contract, tort, corporations and administrative law in Legal Realism, Legal Process Jurisprudence, Law and Economics, and Critical Legal Studies.

HIUS 355 - (3) (IR)
The History of Early American Law
Studies the major developments in American law, politics, and society from the colonial settlements to the Civil War. Focuses on legal change, constitutional law, legislation, and the common law from 1776 to 1860.

HIUS 356 - (3) (IR)
The History of Modern American Law
Studies the major developments in American law, politics, and society from the era of Reconstruction to the recent past. Focuses on legal change as well as constitutional law, legislation, and the common law.

HIUS 357 - (3) (Y)
Intellectual and Cultural History of the United States to 1865
Analyzes the traditions of thought and belief in relation to significant historical events and cultural changes from the 17th century to the Civil War.

HIUS 358 - (3) (Y)
Intellectual and Cultural History of the United States since 1865
Analyzes the main traditions of thought and belief in the relationship to significant historical events and cultural changes from the Civil War to the present.

HIUS 361 - (3) (Y)
History of Women in America, 1600 to 1865
Studies the evolution of women's roles in American society with particular attention to the experiences of women of different races, classes, and ethnic groups.

HIUS 362 - (3) (IR)
History of Women in America, 1865 to Present
Studies the evolution of women's roles in American society with particular attention to the experiences of women of different races, classes, and ethnic groups.

HIUS 365 - (3) (IR)
Afro-American History to 1865
Studies the history of black Americans from the introduction of slavery in America to the end of the Civil War.

HIUS 366 - (3) (IR)
Afro-American History Since 1865
Studies the history of black Americans from the Civil War to the present.

HIUS 367 - (3) (Y)
History of the Civil Rights Movement
Examines the history of the southern Civil Rights movement. Studies the civil rights movement's philosophies, tactics, events, personalities, and consequences, beginning in 1900, but concentrating heavily on the activist years between 1955 and 1968.

HIUS 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in United States History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIUS 402 - (4) (IR)
Colloquium in United States History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the director of undergraduate studies.

HIUS 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in United States History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis.

HIUS 404 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in United States History
In exceptional circumstances and with permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.

HIUS 405 - (4) (IR)
American Studies Colloquium
Introductory colloquium for third-year majors admitted to the American Studies Program. Cross-listed as ENAM 483.

HIUS 406 - (4) (IR)
Research Seminar in American Studies
Research seminar for third-year majors admitted to the American Studies Program who have completed HIUS 405.

HIUS 407 - (4) (IR)
Fourth Year Seminar in American Studies
Seminar for fourth-year majors in the American Studies Program.

Interdisciplinary Major in Human Biology
P.O. Box 400328
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4328
Phone: (434) 982-5803

Overview Studies and advances in biology have had broad societal implications for as long as this discipline has existed. Over the centuries, debates have raged about when human life begins. The elucidation of evolutionary theory in the nineteenth century focused attention on the seminal questions of the origins of life and the human species, and had a profound influence on the way we view the development of society. Recent breakthroughs in contemporary biology including the human genome project, stem-cell research, and mammalian cloning, raise numerous ethical and regulatory questions. The increased longevity resulting from medical advances poses major challenges as our society must allocate increasing resources for an expanding elderly population. The spread of viruses such as HIV and Ebola, the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, and the specter of pathogens being utilized as agents of bioterrorism, raise daunting social and scientific questions. Human-generated pollution contributes to many cancers, ironically just at a time when we have made enormous strides in elucidating the molecular causes of this disease and developing new therapies. Addressing such issues, questions, and challenges requires not only an understanding of biology, but an appreciation of its context within the humanities and the social sciences. To allow students to study the extraordinary interplay between modern biology and society, we have developed a new, interdisciplinary, distinguished, major in Human Biology which will encompass virtually every school at the University. This program will prepare a select group of students to address ethical, legal and policy issues raised by developments in the life sciences. The major requires a solid foundation in biology and interrelated, complementary courses in the social sciences and humanities. Students will integrate their studies through participating in a capstone seminar, co-taught by faculty from several schools and departments, and by writing a thesis that encompasses scientific, ethical, legal, and policy issues relevant to the student's topic of independent study. The human biology major will prepare students for further post-graduate studies or careers in law, medicine, bioethics, public health, national and international health policy, the health evaluation sciences, and the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

Students The major is comprised of outstanding, creative, independent, and enthusiastic students with diverse backgrounds in biology, the social sciences and humanities who wish to pursue an intellectually challenging and genuinely interdisciplinary program. Approximately 20 students will be admitted into the program during the spring semester of their second year. Students are chosen based on their academic record; a statement describing the student's purpose and goals in pursuing this major and how it will prepare them for their immediate post-graduate academic or career plans; and a faculty recommendation. During their fourth year, students will participate in a one semester capstone seminar course and a one semester thesis writing course. These small enrollment courses will facilitate interactions among students and faculty representing diverse interests and areas of expertise.  

Faculty Although the major will be administered through the Department of Biology, other departments and centers including; anthropology, environmental science, philosophy, politics, religious studies, the Institute for Practical Ethics, and the Center for Global Health, will play significant roles. Faculty from several departments will administer and participate in the major. The program director is Michael Wormington, Associate Professor of Biology. Other faculty associated with the program and its advisory committee include: James Childress of religious studies; Ruth Gaare of the institute for practical ethics; Robert Grainger of biology; Richard Guerrant of the center for global health; and Susan McKinnon of anthropology. The interdisciplinary nature of this program will enable numerous faculty throughout the University community to participate in courses and to serve as advisors and mentors.

Requirements for Major The major has six basic components:

Core courses
9 hours
Biology electives
6 hours
Statistics
3 hours
Independent Research or Study
3 hours
Capstone Seminar Course and Thesis
6 hours
Related courses
12 hours

Core Courses Each student must complete the following courses:

RELG 265 Theology, Ethics and Medicine
3 hours
BIOL 300 Core I: Cell and Molecular Biology
3 hours
BIOL 301 Core II: Genetics and Evolution
3 hours

Students considering the human biology major should complete the following prerequisites for BIOL 300 and BIOL 301 during their first two years: BIOL 201, BIOL 202, CHEM 141/141L (or CHEM 181/181L), CHEM 142/142L (or CHEM 182/182L). Advanced placement credit can substitute for one or more of these prerequisites as appropriate.

Biology Electives Each student must complete two additional BIOL courses (6 hours) at the 300 level or higher. Selected topics (BIOL 385 or BIOL 386) or independent research (BIOL 491-498) courses cannot be used to satisfy this requirement. These courses will be chosen based on the student's interests and in consultation with a faculty advisor.

Statistics Each student must complete a 3 hour course in statistics. Any one of the following courses will satisfy this requirement: STAT 110, STAT 112, SOC 311, PSYC 305, PSYC 306, ECON 371, ANTH 589, EVSC 503.

Independent Research or Study Each student must complete 1 course (3 hours) undertaking an independent research project (e.g., BIOL 491) or independent study (e.g., ANTH 496, PLAP 595, RELS 495) under the direction of two faculty advisors, one of which will be from the Biology department. This research or independent study will provide the basis for the student's thesis and will be completed during the fourth year.

Capstone Seminar Course and Thesis Students will complete 6 hours consisting of HBIO 481 and HBIO 482 during their fourth year. The thesis will be a substantial, independent year-long project that builds upon the student's coursework and independent research or study.

Related Courses Each student must complete four upper-level courses (12 hours) that integrate biology with the social sciences and/or humanities. Courses will be chosen by the student in consultation with a faculty advisor and will provide an in depth exposure to a particular area of concentration. It is assumed that each student will develop a unique focus of study, examining their topic of interest from a variety of disciplines. This coursework and independent research or study will be the basis for the student's thesis. Examples of area concentrations that students may select, include, but are not limited to the following:

Research Ethics
NUIP 416 Basic Research Concepts in Health Disciplines
PHIL 245 Scientific Methods
PHIL 359 Research Ethics
RELG 578 Human Genetics, Ethics and Theology
 
Medical Ethics
ANTH 228 Culture, Healing and Health
PHIL 252 Bioethics, A Philosophical Perspective
PHIL 453 Ethics of Human Reproduction
RELJ 334 Jewish Medical Ethics
 
Science and Technology
ANTH 529 Cultural Studies in Science
HIEU 337 Science in the Modern World
PHIL 546 Philosophy of Science
TCC 313 Scientific and Technological Thinking
 
Science and Public Policy
EVSC 465 Environmental Policy Making in the United States
PLAP 424 AIDS: Politics and Epidemiology
PLPC 567 Comparative Science and Technology Policy
TMP 352 Science and Technology Public Policy
 
Health Care and Public Policy
ANTH 535 Folk and Popular Health Systems
ECON 416 Economics of Health
HES 710 Health Care Policy and Management
SWAG 417 Economics, Gender and Family
 
Environmental Policy
ANTH 334 Ecology & Society: An Introduction to the New Ecological Anthropology
ARCH 389 Environmental Choices
ECON 443 Energy and the Environment
EVSC 222 Conservation Ecology

Admission Interested students currently in their fourth semester in the College of Arts and Sciences are invited to apply for admission to the Human Biology major. As this is a distinguished major, the program will admit only 20 new students a year and all applicants must have attained, and majors must maintain, a 3.40 or higher cumulative grade point average. It is highly recommended, but not mandatory, that prospective applicants complete the prerequisites for BIOL 300 and BIOL 301, and to have completed at least one of the core courses by the end of their second year. Students interested in applying to the major should submit:

  1. An official copy of the student's transcript.
  2. A one page statement describing the student's purpose and goals in pursuing this major and how it will prepare them for their immediate post-graduate academic or career plans.
  3. A letter of recommendation from an instructor, faculty advisor or dean.
All application materials should be submitted by March 1, to the Human Biology program coordinator, Dept. of Biology, 229 Gilmer Hall. Applications will be reviewed by the faculty advisory committee. Students accepted into the major will be notified by April 1. This will allow students to declare a major and select courses during the spring semester advising session. The program director holds an informational meeting for prospective majors in early February to answer questions pertaining to the application process and the major.

Additional Information For more information, contact the program director: Michael Wormington, Department of Biology, Gilmer Hall, P.O. Box 400328, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4328, (434)-982-5803; ww2t@virginia.edu; www.virginia.edu/humanbiology/

Course Descriptions

Note These courses are open only to Human Biology majors.

HBIO 481 - (3) (Y)
Capstone Seminar in Human Biology
A weekly seminar co-organized by participating faculty to integrate student's independent research and coursework with contemporary issues of relevance in biology, the humanities and social sciences. Students will have the opportunity to present their ongoing research and meet with outside speakers. This course will be taken in the fourth year.

HBIO 482 - (3) (Y)
Thesis in Human Biology
A weekly discussion and workshop co-organized by participating faculty to provide guidance and advice to students on completing their research or independent study and writing their thesis. This course will be taken in the fourth year.

Program in Jewish Studies
P.O. Box 400126
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4126
Phone: (434) 924-6722

Overview  Jewish Studies allows students to focus on the history, languages, and literature of the Jewish people; the beliefs and practices of Judaism; and the enduring contributions of Jewish wisdom to human civilization. These contributions range from Biblical monotheism and ethics; to Rabbinic traditions of text study and interpretation; to Jewish literary responses to marginality, oppression, and suffering in modern times; and to monuments of the twentieth-century Jewish experience, including the revival of Hebrew as a living language, the establishment of Israel as an independent political state, and the thriving of diverse forms of Jewish community throughout the world. Students can take courses in Biblical and Modern Hebrew, Yiddish, Bible, Rabbinic literature, Jewish ancient and modern history, Jewish literature and culture, Holocaust studies, Jewish theology, and Jewish communities and cultures worldwide. Jewish Studies students are encouraged to study abroad in Israel or in other centers of Jewry beyond America. The U.Va program in Jewish Studies also reflects the unique strengths and interests of the U.Va faculty, generating such areas of interdisciplinary inquiry as "Community Insiders and Outsiders in Jewish Tradition," "Local Jewish Community in Virginia," "Interpretive Practices in Jewish Tradition," "Language, Ethics and Suffering," and "European Twentieth-Century Jewish History and Culture." Additional information may be found on the web site, www.virginia.edu/jewishstudies/

Faculty  The interdisciplinary program includes faculty members drawn from many academic departments: The ever-growing list of faculty members who offer courses that count for the Jewish Studies major and minor or who serve as advising members of the Jewish Studies faculty include: Alon Confino, Gabriel Finder, Phyllis Leffler (Department of History); Elizabeth Shanks Alexander, Harry Gamble, Jennifer Geddes, Judith Kovacs Peter Ochs, Vanessa Ochs, Donald Polasky Robert Wilken (Department of Religious Studies); Jeffrey Grossman (Department of German); Jeffrey Hantman, Daniel Lefkowitz, Rachel Most (Department of Anthropology); William Quandt (Department of Politics); Allison Booth, Eleanor Kaufman, Victor Luftig, James Nohrnberg Caroline Rody (Department of English); Judith Shatin (Department of Music); Johanna Drucker (New Media); Elissa Rosenberg (Landscape Architecture); and Hanna Maschler (Hebrew).

Students  Students who major and minor in Jewish Studies go un to a variety of careers, becoming educators, writers, community leaders, family-educators, healthcare professionals, chaplains, ethicists, rabbis, cantors, clergy, lawyers; some go into media, non-profit organizations, urban planning, museum work, foreign affairs, publishing and social services.

Requirements for the Major

U.Va. undergraduates with a cumulative GPA of at least 2.0 are welcome to declare a Jewish Studies major. The major shall consist of 10 courses plus a minimum of two semesters of Modern or Biblical Hebrew.

HEBREW LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT

The two semesters of Hebrew shall be taken as follows:

If the student has fulfilled the College's foreign language requirement with Hebrew or places out of HEBR 202 no additional Hebrew language is needed.

If the above does not hold, the student must take two semesters of Hebrew. Placement will be assessed by the Hebrew Language faculty. The following sequences are possibilities:

  • HEBR 101 and 102 OR RELJ 111 and RELJ 112
  • HEBR 102 and 201 OR RELJ 112 and RELJ 201
  • HEBR 201 and 202 OR RELJ 201 and RELJ 202
  • HEBR 202 OR RELJ 202 (only one semester needed if student places into a 202-level course)

CORE COURSES (2)

  • RELJ 203: The Judaic Tradition (3 credits)
  • JWST 495: Senior Research Seminar (3 credits)
DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENTS (3)
One (1) course from each of the following three (3) categories as approved by the major advisor:
  1. Language and Literature (Departments of English, German, Hebrew) Note: You can count Biblical Hebrew toward your "Language and Literature" requirement if you have fulfilled your Hebrew requirement with Modern Hebrew. If can count a 300 level Hebrew course toward your "Language and Literature" requirement if you have fulfilled your Hebrew requirement with Biblical Hebrew.
  2. History and Society (Departments of Anthropology, Government and History)
  3. Belief and Thought (Department of Religious Studies)
ELECTIVES (5)
Five (5) additional courses selected as electives in conjunction with the major advisor.

Note: No more than 4 courses toward the major at the 200 level; all others at the 300-level or above.

The Minor in Jewish Studies
The minor shall consist of 6 courses totaling 18 credits.

CORE COURSES (1)

  • RELJ 203: The Judaic Tradition (3 credits)
DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENTS (2)
One course from two of the following three categories: as approved by the minor advisor:
  • Language and Literature (Departments of English, German, Hebrew)
  • History and Society (Departments of Anthropology, Government and History)
  • Belief and Thought (Department of Religious Studies)
ELECTIVES (3)
Three additional courses selected as electives in conjunction with the major advisor.

No more than 3 courses toward the minor at the 200 level; all others at the 300-level or above.

Distinguished Majors Program in Jewish Studies
The Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) in Jewish Studies affords qualified students the opportunity to do advanced research, and to receive, at graduation, the honor of distinction, high distinction or highest distinction.

Entry Into the Program
Students who meet the following criteria are eligible to participate in the Distinguished Majors Program.
  1. Students qualify for the program if they have achieved an average of 3.4 in all university coursework as well as in all major course work prior to application for the program.
  2. Application should be made to the Director of the Jewish Studies Distinguished Majors Program
  3. Admission into the program will be considered by the program's Committee on Curricular Issues, and the Director of the Distinguished Majors Program.

Requirements for Completion of the Program

  1. Completion of the Hebrew language requirement (minimum of two semesters) and all major requirements (30 credits).
  2. Students must enroll in JWST 497 (directed reading; 3 credits) in the fall semester and JWST 498 (writing; 3 credits) in the spring semester. These courses are in addition to the 30 required credits and the Hebrew language requirement.
  3. Students are responsible for selecting two members from the Jewish Studies faculty to serve as committee members; one member shall serve as the primary reader and chair.
  4. The thesis shall be thirty to fifty pages in length.
Courses
The Jewish Studies Program lists the specific courses being offered each semester on the program's website: www.virginia.edu/jewishstudies/

Core Courses

RELJ 203 - (3)
Introduction to Judaic Traditions

JWST 495 - (3)
Senior Majors Seminar in Jewish Studies

Language and Literature
(Departments of Anthropology, English, German, Hebrew and Religious Studies)

AMTH/AMEL 247
Reflections of Exile: Jewish Languages and their Communities

AMTR 311 - (3)
Women and Middle Eastern Literatures

ENTC 481 - (3)
Jewish American Fiction

ENSP 580
The Bible

GETR 347 - (3)
Literary Responses to the Holocaust

GETR 351 - (3)
Topics in Yiddish Literature

RELJ 223 - (3)
Jewish Spiritual Journeys

RELJ 256
Classical Sources in the Jewish Tradition/Judaism in Antiquity

RELG 308
Israeli Fiction in Translation

RELJ 309 - (3)
The Prophets

RELJ 383 - (3)
Talmud

RELJ 391 - (3)
Women and the Bible

RELJ 513 - (3)
Psalms

RELJ 522
Literary Approaches to Rabbinic Literature

RELJ 595 - (3)
Midrashic Imagination

History and Society
(Departments of Anthropology, Government and History)

ANTH 347/747 - (3)
Language and Culture in the Middle East

ANTH 583 - (3)
Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

JWST 352 - (3)
Southern Jewish History and Culture

PLCP 341 - (3)
Politics of Middle East and North Africa

PLCP 541 - (3)
Islam and Democracy in the Middle East

PLIR 365 - (3)
International Relations of the Middle East

HIEU 210
Modern Jewish History

HIEU 213
The Jews of Poland from 1600 to the Present

HIME 201 - (3)
History of the Middle East & North Africa, ca 570-1500

HIME 202 - (3)
History of the Middle East & North Africa since 1500

MEST 496 - (3)
Middle East Studies Seminar

RELJ 204 - (3)
American Judaism

RELJ 224 - (3)
Jewish Ritual

RELJ 322 - (3)
Jews and the Land of Israel

RELJ 337 - (3)
Contemporary Judaisms

Belief and Thought

(Department of Religious Studies)

RELG 101 - (3)
Introduction to Western Religions

RELJ 121 - (3)
Old Testament/Hebrew Scriptures

RELC 122
Early Christianity and the New Testament

RELJ 203 - (3)
Judaic Traditions

RELJ 204 - (3)
American Judaism

RELC 205 - (3)
History of Christianity I

RELJ 221 - (3)
Special Topics

RELJ 224 - (3)
Jewish Ritual

RELJ 235 - (3)
Jewish Ethics

RELJ 303 - (3)
Historical Jesus

RELJ 307 - (3)
Belief and Ethics after the Holocaust

RELJ 310
Medieval Jewish Theology

RELJ 322 - (3)
Jews and the Land of Israel

RELJ 330 - (3)
Jewish Mysticism and Spirituality

RELJ 331 - (3)
Jewish Law

RELJ 332 - (3)
Judaism: Medicine and Healing

RELJ 333 - (3)
Women and Judaism: Tradition and Change

RELJ 336 - (3)
Judaism and Christianity

RELJ 337 - (3)
Contemporary Judaisms/Jewish Theology after the Holocaust

RELJ 339
Jewish Feminism

RELJ 343
Women in Classical Jewish Sources

RELJ 352
Responses to the Holocaust

RELJ 505 - (3)
Judaism in Antiquity

RELJ 522 - (3)
The Shaping of Rabbinic Tradition

RELJ 523 - (3)
Mod. Jewish Thought: From Phenomenology to Scripture

RELJ 529 - (3)
Seminar in Hebrew Bible

RELG 537
Feasting, Fasting and Faith: Food in Jewish and Christian Traditions

RELJ 530 - (3)
Early Christianity and Classical Judaism

Hebrew

HEBR 101
Introduction to Modern Hebrew I

HEBR 102
Introduction to Modern Hebrew II

HEBR 201
Intermediate Modern Hebrew I

HEBR 202
Intermediate Modern Hebrew II

RELJ 111
Introduction to Biblical Hebrew I

RELJ 112
Introduction to Biblical Hebrew II

RELJ 201
Advanced Readings in Biblical Hebrew I

RELJ 202
Advanced Readings in Biblical Hebrew II

Distinguished Majors Thesis

JWST 497 - (3)
Supervised Research

JWST 498 - (3)
Supervised Research

Additional Information
For more information contact Vanessa L. Ochs, Ida and Nathan Kolodiz Director of Jewish Studies, PO BOX 400126, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4126; (434) 924-6722; vanessa@virginia.edu.

 

Latin American Studies
P.O. Box 400777
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4777
Phone: (434) 924-4653

Requirements for Major  The requirements for a major in Latin American studies are as follows: 1) Either SPAN 202 or PORT 212 and 2) 30 credits of courses in the Latin American field offered by the departments of anthropology, economics, English, French, History, Politics, Portuguese, Religion, Sociology and Spanish. No more than 15 credits in any one department may be counted toward the major. Students may transfer credits from programs abroad, either Spain  or Latin America, up to 12 credits per semester, and 15 per two semesters.

Students can enroll exclusively in the courses listed in the Course Offering Directory issued every semester. Students need their advisor's permission to enroll in other courses.

The major's thesis is not required but is offered as an option for students interested in specific topics of research. The Latin American Studies Program also offers a Distinguished Major Program. Students must have an overall GPA of 3.4 to be accepted. A Distinguished Majors thesis is required. Details are available at the program office located in Wilson Hall 110.

Requirements for Minor  The requirements for a minor in Latin American studies are as follow: 1) Either SPAN 202 or PORT 212; and 2) 18 credits of courses in the Latin American field offered by the departments of Anthropology, Economics, French, English, History, Politics, Portuguese, Religion, Sociology, and Spanish. No more than 9 credits in any one department may be counted toward the minor. Students must take courses in at least three departments. Students may transfer up to 9 credits per semester or year from programs abroad.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Dr. Fernando Operé, 110 Wilson Hall; (434) 924-4653.

Courses Approved for Major

The courses listed below have counted for the Latin American Studies major in the past.

ANTH 236 - (3) (Y)
Don Juan and Castaneda

ANTH 352 - (3) (IR)
Amazonian Peoples

ANTH 357 - (3) (E)
People, Cultures, and Societies of the Caribbean

ANTH 565 - (3) (Y)
Creole Narratives

ECON 309 - (3) (Y)
Latin-American Economic Issues

ENTC 315/815 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Americas

FRTR 329 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Carribean Culture

HILA 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar: Public Relationships

HILA 201 - (3) (Y)
Colonial Latin America, 1500-1824

HILA 202 - (3) (Y)
Modern Latin America, 1824 to Present

HILA 220 - (3) (O)
The History of the Caribbean

HILA 305 - (3) (IR)
Modern Central America

HILA 306 - (3) (Y)
History of Modern Brazil

HILA 311 - (3) (IR)
Public Life in Latin America

HILA 402 - (3) (IR)
Race-Mixing in Latin American History

HILA 505 - (3) (IR)
Hierarchy

LAST 491, 492 - (3) (S)
Majors Thesis, Independent Studies

PLCP 424 - (3) (IR)
Democratic Transition and Consolidation in Latin America

PLCP 531 - (3) (E)
Politics of Latin America

PLCP 533 - (3) (O)
Political Parties and Movements in Latin America

PLIR 424 - (3) (IR)
Topics in US/Latin American Relation

PLIR 562 - (3) (Y)
Latin America in World Affairs

PORT 212 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Portuguese

PORT 301 - (3) (Y)
Conversation and Composition

PORT 402 - (3) (IR)
Readings in Literature in Portuguese

PORT 427 - (3) (Y)
The Civilization of Brazil

PORT 461, 462 - (3) (SI)
Studies in Luso-Brazilian Language and Literature

RELA 276 - (3) (IR)
African Religion in the Americas

SOC 341 - (3) (S)
Race and Ethnic Relations

SOC 487 - (3) (Y)
Immigration

SPAN 330 - (3) (Y)
Literary Analysis

SPAN 342 - (3) (Y)
Survey of Latin American Literature to 1900

SPAN 343 - (3) (Y)
Survey of Latin American Literature since 1900

SPAN 423/523 - (3) (O)
The Inquisition in Spain and Latin America

SPAN 425/525 - (3) (Y)
1492 and the Aftermath

SPAN 428/528 - (3) (Y)
Latin American Culture and Civilization

SPAN 480 - (3) (Y)
Latin American Literature from Colonial Period to 1900

SPAN 481 - (3) (IR)
Latin American Theater

SPAN 486 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Latin American Short Fiction

SPAN 487 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Latin American Novel

SPAN 490 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Poetry

Program in Linguistics

Overview  Language is central to virtually all human activity. Indeed, many argue that the emergence of language was the single most important factor in the differentiation of the human species from other hominids. Linguists study language as a specialized communicative system with its own distinctive principles of structure and patterning. Apart from the traditional subfields of phonology (the patterning of speech sounds), morphology (word-building processes), and syntax (rules of phrase and sentence formation), there are the interdisciplinary research areas of semantics and discourse analysis, with connections to philosophy, psychology, anthropology, and literature; sociolinguistics; psycholinguistics; and linguistic anthropology.

Faculty  The linguistics faculty are housed in a handful of University departments, including anthropology, philosophy, psychology, and various language departments. Their research interests span all the subfields mentioned above, and their publications cover a wide number of languages and language families, including Romance, Slavic, Germanic, Sanskrit, Chinese, Arabic, African and Native American languages, and American Sign Language.

Students
  There are usually fewer than ten linguistics majors in a given year. Many combine linguistics with a major in a related field such as a foreign language, psychology, or anthropology. Linguistics classes are generally small, with an emphasis on class participation and problem-solving. All courses in the program are taught by faculty members.

Graduates with a B.A. in Linguistics pursue a variety of careers. Some conduct graduate work in a related field, such as language and literature, language teaching, or speech pathology; others become involved in non-academic pursuits, ranging from law to computer programming. Yet even those who do not continue in linguistics find the analytical skills and knowledge acquired in the major to be relevant and useful.

Interdepartmental Major in Linguistics  A major in linguistics permits a student to explore both the independent and interdisciplinary aspects of human language. Courses focus on both historical and synchronic analysis, and cover several modern approaches to data.

Requirements for Major  The major program consists of 30 credits. The following courses, yielding 12 credits, are required of all majors: LNGS 325; LNGS 326 or ANTH 348; a course in the structure of a language, which must be a linguistics course (e.g., RUSS 521 or 522, ANTH 504); and a course in theoretical linguistics, (e.g., ANTH 542, PHIL 550). A maximum of three credits of study of an ancient (e.g., Sanskrit, Old Icelandic) or a non-Indo-European (e.g., Japanese, American Sign Language) language may be counted toward the major. The program must be chosen in consultation with an advisor (Bonvillian, Contini-Morava, Elson, Rini, Saunders).

Requirements for Minor  The minor is the same as the major with respect to required courses. Two electives are required in addition, for a total of 18 credits.

Distinguished Majors Program in Linguistics  Students with superior academic performance are encouraged to apply to the Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) in which they write a thesis demonstrating original research. Requirements for admission to the DMP are:

  1. an overall GPA of at least 3.4, and a GPA of at least 3.4 in all courses counted toward the major. This GPA must be maintained throughout the fourth year in order for distinction to be awarded;
  2. a thesis proposal, signed and approved by the faculty member in Linguistics who has primary responsibility for supervising the thesis, and by a second faculty member who is the second reader.
After admission, DMP students enroll in LING 498 in the first semester of the fourth year. In the second semester of the fourth year, students sign up for LING 499. The thesis may be based on empirical research conducted by the student or a critical review of theoretical analysis of existing findings in linguistics or a related field. Students must submit the first draft to their advisors by March 1, and the final draft by April 15.

Additional Information  For more information, contact John D. Bonvillian, Chair, Program in Linguistics, Department of Psychology, 315 Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-0646; www.virginia.edu/~linguistics.

Courses Approved for Major

The following courses are approved for the major. Consult the
Graduate Record for descriptions of courses at the 500 level.

Linguistic Courses

LING 496 - (Credit to be arranged) (SI)
Independent Study in Linguistics
Conducted by students under the supervision of an instructor of their choice.

LING 497 - (Credit to be arranged) (SI)
Supervised Research in Linguistics
Conducted by students under the direction of an instructor of their choice.

LING 498 - 499 - (3) (Y)
Distinguished Major Thesis
Prerequisite: Participants in the Distinguished Majors Program in Linguistics.
A two-semester course in which the student prepares a thesis under the supervision of a Linguistics faculty member.

LING 501 - (3) (IR)
Synchronic Linguistics
Prerequisite: LNGS 325 and instructor permission.
Studies the theoretical foundations of major linguistic models with attention to problem solving and descriptive techniques. Emphasizes the American structuralist and transformational-generative models of language.

LING 506 - (3) (IR)
Syntax and Semantics
Prerequisite: LNGS 325 and permission of the instructor.
Analyzes and describes sentence structure and its relationship to meaning.

LING 507 - (3) (SI)
Syntactic Theory
Prerequisite: LNGS 325 and permission of the instructor.
Studies the major schools of syntactic theory.

LING 509 - (3) (Y)
Teaching English as a Second Language
Prerequisite: LNGS 325 and instructor permission.
Studies the theory, problems, and methods in teaching English as a second language, with attention to relevant areas of general linguistics and the structure of English.

LING 525, 526 - (3) (SI)
Romance Linguistics
Studies the vulgar Latin origins and patterns of linguistic change in the principal Romance languages.

ANTH 341 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Sociolinguistics

ANTH 345 - (3) (SI)
American Indian Languages

ANTH 348 - (3) (E)
Language and Prehistory

ANTH 504 - (3) (Y)
Field Methods

ANTH 540 - (3) (Y)
Linguistic Anthropology

ANTH 542 - (3) (IR)
Modern Structural Linguistics

ANTH 545 - (3) (IR)
African Languages and Folklore

ANTH 549 - (Credit to be arranged) (IR)
Selected Topics in Theoretical Linguistics and Linguistic Anthropology

ENLS 303 - (3) (Y)
History of the English Language

ENCR 333 - (3) (Y)
Ethnopoetics

ENMD 501 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Old English

ENMD 505, 506 - (3) (IR)
Old Icelandic

FREN 339 - (3) (S)
French Phonetics and Phonology
Conducted in French.

FREN 428 - (3) (Y)
History of the French Language
Conducted in French.

LNGS 200 - (3) (O)
Grammatical Concepts in Foreign Language Learning
Treats the grammatical concepts traditionally considered relevant in the teaching and study of foreign languages, including the study of English as a second language. Some foreign language experience is strongly recommended.

LNGS 222 - (3) (Y)
Black English
Introduces the history and structure of what has been termed Black English Vernacular or Black Street English. Focuses on the sociolinguistic factors that led to its emergence, its present role in the Black community, and its relevance in education and racial stereotypes.

LNGS 325 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Analysis
Introduces sign systems, language as a sign system, and approaches to linguistics description. Emphasizes the application of descriptive techniques to data.

LNGS 326 - (3) (O)
Introduction to Comparative-Historical Linguistics
Prerequisite: LNGS 325 or instructor permission.
Surveys the elements of comparative-historical linguistics.

LNGS 495 - (1-6) (Y)
Independent Study in General Linguistics

LNGS 496 - (1-6) (Y)
Independent Study in General Linguistics

PHIL 350 - (3) (IR)
Philosophy of Language

PSYC 311 - (3) (IR)
Psychology of Language

PSYC 411 - (3) (Y)
Psycholinguistics

PSYC 555 - (3) (IR)
Developmental Psycholinguistics

RUSS 521 - (3) (SI)
The Structure of Modern Russian: Phonology and Morphology

RUSS 522 - (3) (SI)
The Structure of Modern Russian: Syntax and Semantics

RUSS 524 - (3) (SI)
History of the Russian Language

SANS 501, 502 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Sanskrit

SLAV 525 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to Slavic Linguistics

SPAN 309 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics
Conducted in Spanish.

SPAN 310 - (3) (S)
Phonetics
Conducted in Spanish.

SPAN 420 - (3) (Y)
History of the Language

SPAN 430 - (3) (IR)
Hispanic Dialectology and Bilingualism

SPAN 514 - (3) (E)
Applied Linguistics

Department of Mathematics
P. O. Box 400137
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4137
Phone: (434) 924-4919  
Fax: (434) 982-3084

Overview  In a world of increasing technological complexity, knowledge of mathematics is the gateway to the pursuit of many fields. Mathematics has long been the language of choice for expressing complex relationships and describing complicated patterns and processes. It is now true that many fields, in addition to mathematics and the sciences, rely on this in a fundamental way.

What was formerly "abstract" mathematics to many has become the concrete stuff of everyday life. "The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" manifests itself today in such familiar things as CAT and MRI scans, compact discs, satellite communications, and computer animation. These were all rendered possible by new discoveries made by mathematicians within the last fifty years. Even the efficient operation of our financial markets is based, in part, on relatively recent theorems of mathematical analysis and probability theory.

Mathematics research today is a vibrant and dynamic enterprise. Thousands of mathematicians worldwide are at work on an unimaginably broad range of questions. Exciting recent advances include the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, the classification of the finite simple groups, the proof of the Bieberbach conjecture, and the computer-assisted proof of the four-color theorem. The discipline and creativity required by the study of mathematics can be a formidable preparation for later life. Past students of mathematics have had successful careers in almost every sphere, including all the professions. The scope of mathematics courses offered at the University of Virginia allows majors to tailor their own programs. Students electing to major in mathematics should consult carefully with a faculty advisor to ensure the selection of a program of courses that provides a solid grounding in the fundamentals of higher mathematics and is appropriate to future goals.

Faculty  The faculty of the Department of Mathematics is committed to excellence in teaching and research. Its members carry out high-level research on diverse problems in algebra, analysis, topology, probability, and statistics, mathematical physics, and the history of the discipline. Their research has been widely published in prestigious research journals and is recognized internationally. Members of the department have won Sloan fellowships, Humboldt fellowships, and other scholarly honors, as well as numerous research grants. Many are currently supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies. Most have held visiting professorships abroad. In addition, the department offerings and ambiance are enhanced each year by the presence of several internationally recognized visiting faculty.

Students  There are currently about 75 students majoring in mathematics. Class sizes vary from a few large introductory classes to an average class size of twenty students for upper-level courses. This small class size affords students the opportunity to get individual attention.

Students who graduate with degrees in mathematics successfully pursue a variety of different careers. Many go directly into jobs in industry, insurance (as actuaries), government, finance, and other fields. Employers in the past have included Morgan Stanley, General Motors, MITRE Corp., the Census Bureau, the National Security Agency, and various consulting firms. Many find themselves well-equipped to go on to professional schools in law, medicine, and business. Some go directly into teaching. Others have gone on to graduate programs in mathematics, applied mathematics, statistics, engineering, systems engineering, economics, and computer science. Students who have combined the mathematics major with courses in computer programming, economics, and business have done exceptionally well in the job market.

Requirements for Major  Normally, the calculus sequence MATH 131, 132, and 231 or its equivalent must be completed before a student can declare a major in mathematics. At least a 2.2 average in the calculus sequence and a minimum grade of C in MATH 231 or its equivalent are required. However, the department may grant special permission to declare a major to a student who has only completed MATH 131 and 132, and at least one mathematics course (other than MATH 231 or its equivalent) which could be counted toward the major in mathematics, provided the student completes MATH 231 or its equivalent in the semester following the declaration of a mathematics major.

To graduate with a major in mathematics the student must show computer proficiency by completing CS 101 or 120, or an approved equivalent course. This should be done as early as possible.

To help guide the student through the major, the mathematics department offers six concentrations. Completion of one of these concentrations is required. Each concentration contains a set of nine or ten required courses (approximately 28 credit hours). To graduate, a student must obtain minimum grades of C in seven of these courses and C- in the other two.

Certain substitutions are allowed in all options, for example, MATH 531 for MATH 331 and MATH 551 for MATH 354.

A. The Basic Concentration
This traditional program for the mathematics major provides an overview of key areas:

MATH 325 Ordinary Differential Eq.
4
MATH 351 Elementary Linear Algebra
3
MATH 354 Survey of Algebra
3
Two from the following three:
MATH 310 Introduction to Mathematical Probability
3
MATH 331 Basic Real Analysis
3
MATH 334 Complex Variables with Applications
3
Four electives at the 300 level or higher  
12

Students fulfilling the requirements for this option have a wide range of career opportunities, from law to business to any field that requires deductive, logical reasoning skills.

B. The Graduate Preparatory Concentration
This concentration is for the student who plans to attend graduate school in mathematics or an allied field. The program emphasizes the fundamental ideas of mathematics with substantial work in proving and understanding the basic theorems. It consists of:

MATH 325 Ordinary Differential Eq.
4
MATH 334 Complex Variables with Applications
3
MATH 351 Elementary Linear Algebra
3
MATH 531 Intro. to Real Analysis I
3
MATH 551 Intro. to Abstract Algebra I
3
MATH 552 Intro. to Abstract Algebra II
3

Three electives at the 300 level or higher.(You may wish to take MATH 354 in preparation for MATH 551 and MATH 331 in preparation for MATH 531.)

This constitutes the minimum expected of an incoming graduate student in most programs nationwide. The department strongly recommends MATH 532 (Real Analysis in Several Variables), as well as courses in differential geometry and topology (MATH 572 and 577). Many of our graduate school bound students take additional courses, including 700-level graduate courses.

C. The Probability and Statistics Concentration
This concentration is designed to give the student a good theoretical underpinning in probability and statistics, as well as the opportunity to go deeper in these fields. The program can lead to a Master of Science in Statistics with one additional year of course work, if additional courses in statistics are taken in the fourth year. (Those interested in the M.S. in Statistics should contact the graduate advisor in the Department of Statistics prior to the beginning of their fourth year.) The requirements for the concentration are the following:

MATH 325 Ordinary Differential Eq.
4
MATH 310 Intro. to Mathematical Probability
3
MATH 312 Intro. to Mathematical Statistics
3
MATH 331 Basic Real Analysis or
MATH 334 Complex Variables with Applications
3
MATH 351 Elementary Linear Algebra
3
MATH 354 Survey of Algebra
3
MATH 511 Stochastic Processes
3
STAT 512 Applied Linear Models
3
One additional course chosen from:
MATH 430 Elementary Numerical Analysis
3
MATH 531 Intro. to Real Analysis I
3
STAT 313 Design and Analysis of Sample Surveys
3
STAT 513 Applied Multivariate Statistics
3
STAT 516 Experimental Design
3
STAT 517 Applied Time Series
3
STAT 519 Intro. to Mathematical Statistics
3

D. The Financial Mathematics Concentration
This program provides the student with a broad background of basic mathematics which is essential for an understanding of the mathematical models used in the financial markets. The mathematics of modern finance includes, but is not limited to, probability, statistics, regression, time series, partial differential equations, stochastic processes, stochastic calculus, numerical methods, and analysis. Probability and statistics and some acquaintance with numerical methods are essential as is some knowledge of economics/accounting and some computing experience. Additional background in statistics, optimization, and stochastic processes is also desirable. The program consists of:

MATH 325 Ordinary Differential Eq.
4
MATH 310 Intro. to Mathematical Probability
3
MATH 312 Intro. to Mathematical Statistics
3
MATH 331 Basic Real Analysis or
MATH 334 Complex Variables with Applications
3
MATH 351 Elementary Linear Algebra
3
MATH 354 Survey of Algebra
3
MATH 514 Mathematics of Derivative Securities
3
Two additional courses chosen from:
MATH 408 Operations Research
3
MATH 430 Elementary Numerical Analysis
3
MATH 511 Stochastic Processes
3
STAT 512 Applied Linear Models
3
STAT 517 Applied Time Series
3
Two courses chosen from(1):
ECON 201 Microeconomics
3
ECON 202 Macroeconomics
3
COMM 201 Introduction to Financial Accounting
3
COMM 202 Intro. to Mgmt. Accounting
3

(1) Completing all four courses is recommended.

E. Actuarial Concentration
This concentration offers some of the basic mathematics and statistics necessary for a successful career in actuarial science, and it provides some of the academic background needed to pass the first few actuarial exams.

Actuaries use mathematics, statistics, and financial theory to analyze future events, especially those related to insurance and pension programs. They may work for insurance companies, consulting firms, government, employee benefits departments of large organizations, banks, investment firms, or more generally, businesses that need to assess the financial consequences of risk.

To become an actuary, the student must pass a series of examinations administered by the professional actuarial societies: the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS). The first few exams are jointly administered. Exams which correspond to various courses are indicated below.

The program consists of nine courses as follows:

MATH 325(1) Ordinary Differential Eq.
4
MATH 310(2) Intro. to Mathematical Probability
3
MATH 312(2) Intro. to Mathematical Statistics
3
MATH 331 Basic Real Analysis
3
MATH 351 Elementary Linear Algebra
3
MATH 354 Survey of Algebra
3
and either:
both
MATH 517/STAT 540(3) Actuarial Mathematics/Statistics
and
STAT 541(4) Actuarial Risk Theory
6
and one elective from the list below
3
or:
one of either
MATH 517/STAT 540(3) Actuarial Mathematics/Statistics
or
STAT 541(4) Actuarial Risk Theory
3
and two electives from the list below
6
Electives (all strongly recommended)
MATH 408(5) Operations Research
3
MATH 514 Mathematics of Derivative Securities
3
MATH 430(6) Elementary Numerical Analysis
3
MATH 511 Stochastic Processes
3
STAT 512(7) Applied Linear Models
3
STAT 517(9) Applied Time Series
3

(1) Part of exam 100, offered jointly by the SOA and CAS.

(2) Exam 110, offered jointly by the SOA and CAS.

(3) Required SOA exams 140, 150/CAS exam 4A.

(4) Required SOA exam 151/CAS exam 5A.

(5) Elective SOA exam 130.

(6) Elective SOA exam 135/required CAS exam 3C.

(7) One-third of required SOA exam 120/CAS exam 3A.

(8) One-half of required SOA exam 160.

(9) Two-thirds of required SOA exam 120/ CAS exam 3A.

It is highly advantageous for students interested in this concentration to take both MATH 310 and 312 in their second year. Actuarial Mathematics (MATH 517/STAT 540) and Actuarial Risk Theory (STAT 541) form the core of the actuarial program. Both of these courses are offered every year if there is sufficient student interest, and otherwise in alternate years. With sufficient early course preparation, a summer internship after the third year has been an integral part of the program for those students who wished to intern.

Other courses which are recommended but not required include:

ECON 201 Microeconomics
3
ECON 202 Macroeconomics
3
ECON 301 Intermediate Microecon.
3
ECON 302 Intermediate Macroecon.
3
ECON 434 Theory of Financial Markets
3
ECON 435(9) Corporate Finance
3
STAT 514(10) Survival Analysis and Reliability Theory
3

(9) Required SOA exam 230/required CAS exam 5A.

(10) SOA exam 160.

F. Five-year Teacher Education Program
This option leads to both Bachelor of Arts and Master of Teaching degrees after five years. The program is for both elementary and secondary teachers and is administered by the Curry School of Education. Required courses include:

MATH 325 Ordinary Differential Equations
4
MATH 310 Intro. to Mathematical Probability
3
MATH 312 Intro. to Mathematical Statistics
3
MATH 331 Basic Real Analysis or
MATH 334 Complex Variables with Applications
3
MATH 351 Elementary Linear Algebra
3
MATH 354 Survey of Algebra
3
MATH 501 History of Calculus or
MATH 503 History of Mathematics
3
MATH 570 Introduction to Geometry
3
One elective at the 300 level or higher
3

The Curry School has additional requirements for this program.

Distinguished Majors Program in Mathematics  The department offers a Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) to qualified majors in mathematics. Admission to the program is granted by the departmental committee for the DMP, usually at the end of the student's fourth semester. Criteria for acceptance into the program are based on the GPA in mathematics, letters of recommendation from mathematics instructors, and the cumulative GPA in the College (which should be near 3.4 or higher).

The DMP is the same as the graduate school preparatory concentration, except that in the fourth year the students also take the seminar course MATH 583 in which they give an hour lecture and prepare a written exposition of their work in the seminar under faculty guidance. Note that MATH 531 and 551 are prerequisites for the seminar. As with the concentrations, the DMP must consist of at least nine courses.

Three levels of distinction are possible: distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction. The departmental recommendation for the level of distinction to be awarded is based on the quality of the student's seminar presentations, the overall work in the DMP, and the entire major program, as well as the student's College GPA.

Requirements for Minor in Mathematics  Students who wish to declare a minor in mathematics must complete the calculus sequence through MATH 231 or its equivalent with at least a 2.0 average.

To graduate with a minor in mathematics a student must complete five courses approved by the department of mathematics with minimum grades of C in three of the courses and minimum grades of C- in the other two. An approved course must carry at least three credits. Currently, the approved courses are those from the College department of mathematics with the MATH mnemonic numbered 300 or higher. Courses with the STAT mnemonic or from other departments or institutions can be taken if approved by the undergraduate committee.

Courses that are being counted for a major or another minor cannot also be counted for the minor in mathematics.

Echols Mathematics Club is an undergraduate club for mathematics students that sponsors lectures, mathematics films, problem solving sessions for the Putnam Mathematical Competition and other similar activities.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Charles Dunkl, Lower Division Advisor, Room 223, 924-4939, or Thomas Kriete, Upper Division Advisor, Room 205, 924-4932, Kerchof Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4137; www.math.virginia.edu.

Course Descriptions

Mathematics

The entering College student has a variety of courses in mathematics from which to choose. Among those that may be counted toward the College area requirement in natural science and mathematics, are several options in calculus, elementary (non-calculus based) courses in probability and in statistics, and courses dealing with computer techniques in mathematics.

MATH 103 (precalculus) is available for students who need to improve basic skills that are required in other courses such as calculus, chemistry, psychology, economics, and statistics. However, it may not be counted toward the area requirement in natural science and mathematics. Students planning to major in the social sciences, arts, or humanities who wish to take a mathematics course but omit the study of calculus may choose from MATH 108 (Modes of Mathematical Thinking) or MATH 111 (Elementary Probability Theory). Even though it is not a prerequisite for STAT 112, MATH 111 is frequently taken prior to STAT 112. MATH 115 and 116 are introductory courses that investigate familiar areas of elementary mathematics at a profound level and are intended for first- and second-year non-majors, especially those preparing to teach in elementary and middle schools.

In MATH 114, the students study the mathematics needed to understand and answer a variety of questions that arise in everyday financial dealings. The emphasis in this course will be on applications, including simple and compound interest, valuation of bonds, rates of return on investments, and more. Although the topics in this course are drawn primarily from business and economics, students of all majors are welcome and should find the applications interesting and relevant.

The study of calculus is the foundation of college mathematics for students planning to major in mathematics or the physical sciences or anticipating a career or graduate study in any of the natural sciences, engineering, or applied social sciences (such as economics). There are essentially two programs of study available in calculus:

  1. MATH 121, 122 is a terminal one-year sequence intended for business, biology, and social science majors;
  2. MATH 131, 132, 231 is the traditional calculus sequence intended for students of mathematics and the natural sciences, as well as for students intending to pursue graduate work in the applied social sciences;
The MATH 121, 122 sequence is unacceptable as a prerequisite for mathematics courses numbered 231 and above. Students anticipating the need for higher mathematics courses such as MATH 325 (Differential Equations) or MATH 310, 312 (Probability and Statistics) should instead elect the MATH 131, 132, 231 sequence. Credit is not allowed for both MATH 121 and 131 (or its equivalent).

Students who have previously passed a calculus course in high school may elect MATH 122, 131, 132, or 231 as their first course, depending on placement, preparation, and interest. A strong high school calculus course is generally adequate preparation for MATH 132 as a first calculus course, even if advanced placement credit has not been awarded for MATH 131. Students planning to take any advanced course in mathematics should not take MATH 122, because credit for that course must be forfeited if the student takes MATH 132 (or its equivalent).

MATH 133 and 134 is a two semester calculus workshop sequence taken in conjunction with specific sections of MATH 131 and 132. Participants in the calculus workshop meet for six hours per week to work in small groups on challenging problem sets related to material covered in MATH 131 and 132. They typically enjoy getting to work closely with fellow calculus students, and find that their performance in MATH 131 and 132 is significantly improved. Permission is required to sign up for the calculus workshop. For more information, contact Professor Jeffrey Holt, Calculus Workshop Coordinator; 924-4927;
jjh2b@virginia.edu.

Exceptionally well prepared students (who place out of both MATH 131 and 132) may choose either MATH 231 or 325 (Differential Equations) as their first course.

Advanced placement credit in the calculus sequence is granted on the basis of the College Entrance Examination Board Advanced Placement Test (either AB or BC). A score of 4 or 5 on the AB test or on the AB subscore of the BC test gives the student credit for MATH 131. A score of 4 or 5 on the BC test gives the student credit for both MATH 131 and 132. Students who wish to enter the calculus sequence but who have not received advanced placement credit should consult the
Student Handbook for placement guidelines based on grades and achievement test scores. The Department of Mathematics offers short advisory placement tests during fall orientation.

Pre-commerce students are required to take a statistics course, usually STAT 112, and one other mathematics course, usually MATH 111, 121, 122, or MATH 131.

Warning  
There are numerous instances of equivalent courses offered by the Department of Mathematics as well as by the Department of Applied Mathematics in the School of Engineering and Applied Science. A student may not offer for degree credit two equivalent courses (e.g., MATH 131 and APMA 101, or MATH 131 and MATH 121).

MATH 103 - (3) (Y)
Precalculus
Prerequisite: High school algebra II and geometry.
Studies computational skills, patterns of quantitative problem solving, and mathematical thought. Includes linear and quadratic equations, polynomials, inverse functions, logarithms, arithmetic and geometric sequences, trigonometric functions, and linear systems. (Does not satisfy the College natural science and mathematics requirement.)

MATH 108 - (3) (IR)
Modes of Mathematical Thinking
Studies logic, number systems, functions, analytic geometry, equations, matrices, enumeration, computer algebra systems. Intended for liberal arts students and emphasizes the connection between analytic-algebraic and geometric reasoning in the understanding of mathematics. Facilitated by the use of a modern computer algebra system, such as Maple.

MATH 111 - (3) (S)
Probability/Finite Mathematics
Studies finite probability theory including combinatorics, equiprobable models, conditional probability and Bayes' theorem, expectation and variance, and Markov chains.

MATH 114 - (3) (Y)
Financial Mathematics
The study of the mathematics needed to understand and answer a variety of questions that arise in everyday financial dealings. The emphasis is on applications, including simple and compound interest, valuation of bonds, amortization, sinking funds, and rates of return on investments. A solid understanding of algebra is assumed.

MATH 115 - (3) (IR)
The Shape of Space
Provides an activity and project-based exploration of informal geometry in two and three dimensions. Emphasizes visualization skill, fundamental geometric concepts, and the analysis of shapes and patterns. Topics include concepts of measurement, geometric analysis, transformations, similarity, tessellations, flat and curved spaces, and topology.

MATH 116 - (3) (IR)
Algebra, Number Systems, and Number Theory
Studies basic concepts, operations, and structures occurring in number systems, number theory, and algebra. Inquiry-based student investigations explore historical developments and conceptual transitions in the development of number and algebraic systems.

MATH 121 - (3) (S)
Applied Calculus I
Topics include limits and continuity; differentiation and integration of algebraic and elementary transcendental functions; and applications to maximum-minimum problems, curve sketching and exponential growth. Credit is not given for both MATH 121 and 131.

MATH 121S - (4) (IR)
Introduction to Calculus
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Includes limits and continuity; differentiation and integration of algebraic and elementary transcendental functions; and applications to maximum-minimum problems, curve sketching and exponential growth.

MATH 122 - (3) (S)
Applied Calculus II
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or equivalent.
A second calculus course for business, biology, and social science students. Analyzes functions of several variables, their graphs, partial derivatives and optimization; multiple integrals. Reviews basic single variable calculus and introduces differential equations and infinite series. Credit is not given for both MATH 122 and 132.

MATH 131 - (4) (S)
Calculus I
Prerequisite: Background in algebra, trigonometry, exponentials, logarithms, and analytic geometry.
Introduces calculus with emphasis on techniques and applications. Recommended for natural science majors and students planning additional work in mathematics. The differential and integral calculus for functions of a single variable is developed through the fundamental theorem of calculus. Credit is not given for both MATH 121 and 131.

MATH 132 - (4) (S)
Calculus II
Prerequisite: MATH 131 or equivalent, or instructor permission.
Continuation of 131. Applications of the integral, techniques of integration, infinite series, vectors. Credit is not given for both MATH 122 and 132.

MATH 133 - (2) (Y)
Calculus Workshop I
Prerequisite: Instructor permission; corequisite: MATH 131.
Intensive calculus problem-solving workshop with topics drawn from MATH 131.

MATH 134 - (2) (Y)
Calculus Workshop II
Prerequisite: Instructor permission; corequisite: MATH 132.
Intensive calculus problem-solving workshop with topics drawn from MATH 132.

MATH 231 - (4) (S)
Calculus III
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or its equivalent.
Studies functions of several variables including lines and planes in space, differentiation of functions of several variables, maxima and minima, multiple integration, line integrals, and volume.

MATH 300 - (3) (IR)
Foundations of Analysis
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or equivalent.
Topics from logic and the construction of mathematical proofs, basic set theory, number systems, continuity of functions, and foundations of analysis. Intermediate introduction of the standards of mathematical rigor and abstraction that are encountered in advanced mathematics, based on the material of the calculus and other basic mathematics.

MATH 310 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Mathematical Probability
Prerequisite: MATH 132. A knowledge of double integrals is recommended.
Includes sample spaces, combinatorial analysis, discrete and continuous random variables, classical distributions, expectation, Chebyshev theorem, independence, central limit theorem, conditional probability, and generating functions.

MATH 312 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Mathematical Statistics
Prerequisite: MATH 310.
Includes sampling theory, point estimation, interval estimation, testing hypotheses (including the Neyman-Pearson lemma and likelihood ratio tests), and regression and correlation.

MATH 325 - (4) (S)
Ordinary Differential Equations
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or its equivalent.
Introduces the methods, theory, and applications of differential equations. Includes first-order, second and higher-order linear equations, series solutions, linear systems of first-order differential equations, and the associated matrix theory. May include numerical methods, non-linear systems, boundary value problems, and additional applications.

MATH 325P - (4) (S)
Ordinary Differential Equations
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or its equivalent.
Usually offered in the spring, this course covers the same material as MATH 325 with some additional topics, including an introduction to Sturm-Liouville theory, Fourier series and boundary value problems, and their connection with partial differential equations. Physics majors should enroll in MATH 325P, although no knowledge of physics is assumed.

MATH 331 - (3) (S)
Basic Real Analysis
Prerequisite: MATH 132.
Concentrates on proving the basic theorems of calculus, with due attention to the beginner with little or no experience in the techniques of proof. Includes limits, continuity, differentiability, the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem, Taylor's theorem, integrability of continuous functions, and uniform convergence.

MATH 334/534 - (3) (Y)
Complex Variables With Applications
Prerequisite: MATH 231 and graduate standing for MATH 534.
Topics include analytic functions, Cauchy formulas, power series, residue theorem, conformal mapping, and Laplace transforms.

MATH 351 - (3) (S)
Elementary Linear Algebra
Prerequisite: MATH 132.
Includes matrices, elementary row operations, inverses, vector spaces and bases, inner products and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, orthogonal matrices, linear transformations and change of basis, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and symmetric matrices.

MATH 354 - (3) (Y)
Survey of Algebra
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or equivalent.
Surveys major topics of modern algebra: groups, rings, and fields. Presents applications to areas such as geometry and number theory; explores rational, real, and complex number systems, and the algebra of polynomials.

MATH 404/504 - (3) (E)
Discrete Mathematics
Prerequisite: MATH 354 or instructor permission, and graduate standing for MATH 504.
Includes combinatorial principles, the binomial and multinomial theorems, partitions, discrete probability, algebraic structures, trees, graphs, symmetry groups, Polya's enumeration formula, linear recursions, and generating functions.

MATH 408 - (3) (Y)
Operations Research
Prerequisite: MATH 132 and 351.
Development of mathematical models and their solutions, including linear programming, the simplex algorithm, dual programming, parametric programming, integer programming, transportation models, assignment models, and network analysis.

MATH 430 - (3) (IR)
Elementary Numerical Analysis
Prerequisite: MATH 325 and computer proficiency.
Includes Taylor's theorem, solution of nonlinear equations, interpolation and approximation by polynomials, numerical quadrature. May also cover numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations, Fourier series, or least-square approximation.

MATH 452 - (3) (IR)
Algebraic Coding Theory
Prerequisite: MATH 351 and 354, or instructor permission.
Introduces algebraic techniques for communicating information in the presence of noise. Includes linear codes, bounds for codes, BCH codes and their decoding algorithms. May also include quadratic residue codes, Reed-Muller codes, algebraic geometry codes, and connections with groups, designs, and lattices.

MATH 453 - (3) (O)
Number Theory
Prerequisite: MATH 354 or instructor permission.
Includes congruences, quadratic reciprocity, Diophantine equations, and number-theoretic functions, among others.

MATH 475 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Knot Theory
Prerequisite: MATH 331, 354, or instructor permission.
Examines the knotting and linking of curves in space. Studies equivalence of knots via knot diagrams and Reidemeister moves in order to define certain invariants for distinguishing among knots. Also considers knots as boundaries of surfaces and via algebraic structures arising from knots.

MATH 493 - (3) (IR)
Independent Study
Reading and study programs in areas of interest to individual students. For third- and fourth- years interested in topics not covered in regular courses. Students must obtain a faculty advisor to approve and direct the program.

MATH 495 - (3) (IR)
Undergraduate Research Seminar
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Emphasizes direct contact with advanced mathematical ideas, communication of these ideas, the discovery of new results and connections among them, and the experience of mathematics as a collaborative venture among researchers at all levels. Students work collaboratively and individually on research projects, and present their results to the class.

MATH 501 - (3) (E)
The History of the Calculus
Prerequisite: MATH 231 and 351 or instructor permission.
Studies the evolution of the various mathematical ideas leading up to the development of calculus in the 17th century, and how those ideas were perfected and extended by succeeding generations of mathematicians. Emphasizes primary source materials when possible.

MATH 503 - (3) (O)
The History of Mathematics
Prerequisite: MATH 231 and 351 or instructor permission.
Studies the development of mathematics from classical antiquity to the end of the 19th century, focusing on critical periods in the evolution of geometry, number theory, algebra, probability, and set theory. Emphasizes primary source materials when possible.

MATH 506 - (3) (IR)
Algorithms
Prerequisite: MATH 132 and computer proficiency.
Studies abstract algorithms to solve mathematical problems and their implementation in a high-level language. Includes sorting problems, recursive algorithms, and dynamic data structures.

MATH 510 - (3) (Y)
Mathematical Probability
Prerequisite: Graduate standing and MATH 132, or equivalent. Those who have received credit for MATH 310 may not take 510 for credit.
Studies the development and analysis of probability models through the basic concepts of sample spaces, random variables, probability distributions, expectations, and conditional probability. Also includes distributions of transformed variables, moment generating functions, and the central limit theorem.

MATH 511 - (3) (Y)
Stochastic Processes
Prerequisite: MATH 310 or instructor permission.
Topics in probability theory selected from Random walks, Markov processes, Brownian motion, Poisson processes, branching processes, stationary time series, linear filtering and prediction, queuing process, and renewal theory.

MATH 512 - (3) (Y)
Mathematical Statistics
Prerequisite: MATH 510 and graduate standing.
Topics include methods of estimation, general concepts of hypothesis testing, linear models and estimation by least squares, categorical data, and nonparametric statistics. Those who have received credit for MATH 312 may not take 512 for credit.

MATH 514 - (3) (Y)
Mathematics of Derivative Securities
Prerequisite: MATH 231 or 122 and a knowledge of probability and statistics. MATH 310 or its equivalent is recommended.
Topics include arbitrage arguments, valuation of futures, forwards and swaps, hedging, option-pricing theory, and sensitivity analysis.

MATH 517 - (3) (IR)
Actuarial Mathematics
Prerequisite: MATH 312 or 512, instructor permission.
Covers the main topics required by students preparing for the examinations in actuarial statistics, set by the American Society of Actuaries. Topics include life tables, life insurance and annuities, survival distributions, net premiums and premium reserves, multiple life functions and decrement models, valuation of pension plans, insurance models, benefits, and dividends.

MATH 521 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Calculus with Applied Mathematics
Prerequisite: MATH 231, 325 (351 recommended).
Topics include vector analysis, Green's, Stokes', divergence theorems, conservation of energy, potential energy functions. Emphasis on physical interpretation. Also includes Sturm-Liouville problems, Fourier series, special functions, orthogonal polynomials, and Green's functions.

MATH 522 - (3) (Y)
Partial Differential Equations and Applied Mathematics
Prerequisite: MATH 521.
Introduces complex variables and partial differential equations. Topics include analytic functions, complex integration, power series, residues, conformal mapping; separation of variables, boundary value problems, Laplace's equation, wave equation, and heat equation.

MATH 525 - (3) (IR)
Dynamical Systems
Prerequisite: MATH 231, 325, 351 or instructor permission.
Studies the qualitative geometrical theory of ordinary differential equations. Topics include basic well-posedness (existence, uniqueness, continuation of solutions, dependence on parameters, comparison theory); linear and periodic systems (Floquet theory); stability theory (Lyapunov's method and invariance theory, domain of attraction, comparison principle); perturbation of linear systems; center manifold theorem; periodic solutions and Poincare´-Bendixson theory; Hopf bifurcation; introduction to chaotic dynamics; control theoretic questions; and differential-geometric methods (Lie theory).

MATH 531, 532 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Real Analysis I, II
Prerequisite: MATH 231, 351.
Includes the basic topology of Euclidean spaces, continuity, and differentiation of functions on Euclidean spaces; Riemann-Stieltjes integration, convergence of sequences and series of functions; and equicontinuous families of functions, Weierstrass theorem, inverse function theorem and implicit function theorem, integration of differential forms, and Stokes' Theorem.

MATH 551, 552 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Abstract Algebra I, II
Prerequisite: MATH 351 or instructor permission.
Introduces algebraic systems: groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and their general properties; subsystems, quotient systems, homomorphisms. Includes permutation groups, polynomial rings, and groups and rings of matrices. Additional topics may include applications to linear algebra and number theory.

MATH 554 - (3) (Y)
Survey of Algebra
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or equivalent and graduate standing.
Surveys groups, rings, and fields, and presents applications to other areas of mathematics, such as geometry and number theory. Explores the rational, real, and complex number systems, and the algebra of polynomials.

MATH 555 - (3) (IR)
Algebraic Automata Theory
Prerequisite: MATH 351.
Introduces the theory of sequential machines, including an introduction to the theory of finite permutation groups and transformation semigroups. Includes examples from biological and electronic systems as well as computer science, the Krohn-Rhodes decomposition of a state machine, and Mealy machines.

MATH 570 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Geometry
Prerequisite: MATH 231 and 351 or instructor permission.
Topics selected from analytic geometry, affine geometry, projective geometry, hyperbolic and non-Euclidean geometry.

MATH 572 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Differential Geometry
Prerequisite: MATH 231.
Topics selected by the instructor from the theory of curves and surfaces in Euclidean space and the theory of manifolds.

MATH 577 - (3) (Y)
General Topology
Prerequisite: MATH 231; corequisite: MATH 551 or equivalent.
Includes topological spaces and continuous functions; product and quotient topologies; compactness and connectedness; separation and metrication; and the fundamental group and covering spaces.

MATH 583 - (3) (IR)
Seminar
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Presentation of selected topics in mathematics usually for DMP students.

MATH 596 - (3) (S)
Supervised Study in Mathematics
Prerequisite: Instructor permission and graduate standing.
In exceptional circumstances, a student may undertake a rigorous program of supervised study designed to expose the student to a particular area of mathematics. Regular homework assignments and scheduled examinations are required.

Program in Media Studies

Overview  Media Studies is an interdisciplinary program focused on the forms and effects of media (radio, film, television, photography, print, digital, and electronic media), including the study of aesthetics and form, individual perception, and the history of media (primarily mass-circulation prints, journals, and newspapers, recorded media, communications and broadcast media, and electronic modes). Also of concern is the ethics and effects of media in the arena of policy studies, the social impact of media on public opinion, and the relations between media and the law with regard to free speech issues, as well as the commerce and regulation of media in the public sphere. The program is critically engaged with creative analysis, production, and research into traditional and emerging forms of media. It emphasizes digital media through approaches to its history, theory, and technology, and their impact upon contemporary life.

Media studies considers the transformation of the public sphere and individual imagination through the effects of media upon social practices. It also takes, as a prime topic, the concept of mediation, or the production of social relations, cultural values, and political forces. In doing so, the program provides intellectual tools for understanding the rhetoric and influence of media in their construction of illusion and reality. It draws on methodologies across the humanistic disciplines of sociology, history, critical theory, philosophy, art history and visual studies, the creative arts (video, photography, music, print, film, and digital media), anthropology, technology, political science, computer science, commerce, and law.

Internships and courses in media production provide opportunities for first hand experience in journalism, video, digital arts, business, and other areas. Media studies is a single, synthetic major constituted by the substantive examination of media in their aesthetic, historical, and cultural dimensions. The program is not a vocational, pre-professional training course in journalism, broadcast, or communications. Rather, the major has a strong commitment to emphasizing the fundamental values and skills of critical thinking, research, writing, and intellectual inquiry essential to a liberal arts education.

Faculty  There is currently one faculty member (the director) with a joint appointment in Media Studies and English (Drucker); in addition there are numerous faculty from other disciplines (Korte, Horne, Voris, Balogh, Freedman, Sapir, Wicke, McGann, VanderMeulen, Belanger, Carlson, Jost, Seneviratne, Drame, Herskowitz, Pfaffenberger, Kinney, Unsworth) whose courses are cross-listed with media studies; these represent a range of scholarly and teaching interests that explore the forms and effects of media from various disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives.

Students from across the University are encouraged to explore the offerings in Media Studies as part of their undergraduate experience. Those wishing to focus on production or creative arts, law, commerce, policy, research at an advanced level, or in development and research applications of digital technology, should use media studies as the first step toward a master's or doctorate degree in their fields. Graduates can expect to find work in publishing, radio, television, digital media, and the business environments of traditional and new media.

Special Resources  The University of Virginia has a number of special resources that enrich the Media Studies Program. The newly constructed Robertson Media Center in Clemons Library is equipped with viewing stations, study rooms for group viewing and discussion, and classrooms with film, video, and computer equipment. The Digital Media lab in Clemons Library provides drop-in work stations for image capture and editing, and video cameras are available for student use upon certification. A widely distributed system of labs, workstations, and digital classrooms are also available for student use. The electronic centers of the University Library (the E-text center, Special Collections, and the Geospatial and Statistical Data Center) offer considerable resources in digital formats. Moreover, the University has been a leader in digital technology and the humanities at the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities and the Virginia Center for Digital History. Both engage students in their activities on a project by project basis. The Bayly Museum of Art, the Virginia Foundation for Humanities, the Women's Center, the various on-Grounds publications, and other institutions affiliated with the University or part of the Charlottesville community offer possibilities for internships and work experience in media production.

Requirements for the Major

Prerequisites
  Before being accepted into the major, students must take MDST 110 and 201 (exceptions are made only at the discretion of the Media Studies director). In addition, during the first or second year of study, students should take introductory courses in the fields relevant to their broader interests in media (e.g., government, sociology, history of film, anthropology). Students are accepted into the major only upon review of their applications. This is a competitive process that takes into account the applicant's GPA and application essay, as well as other factors.

Application Information  Applications should be completed in the spring semester (normally that which coincides with the student's fourth semester). Deadlines will be posted in the Media Studies program office and on the Website (www.virginia.edu/mediastudies); the deadline will be on or about March 31. In exceptional cases, students who have not taken MDST 110 and 201 may apply for the major by petition to the program director. If admitted, they are required to take MDST 110 and 201. With the director's approval, third-year students who have not yet taken MDST110 and 201 may transfer into the major on a space available basis. However, the requirements for completion of the major may preclude this approval except in very special cases. Students are expected to have a GPA of 3.4 at the time of application.

The application consists of a description of courses taken, with grades; a one-paragraph statement of purpose delineating career plans and goals; and a plan of study briefly describing the student's objectives for the major. This should not be a list of courses to be taken, but an outline of intellectual goals to be achieved through course work in the field of media studies. A statement such as "I like to watch films" is insufficient; however the following formulations, accompanied by a description of the means to achieve these goals, would be sufficient: "I'm interested in the evolution of the studio system," or "I want to trace the relationship between notions of intellectual property and Internet law."

Requirements include a total of 9 courses (approximately 27 credits) comprised of three upper-level core courses (MDST 301, 350, and 401). In addition, five courses must be taken to fulfill breadth requirements. Of these five, at least three must be from the group of primary electives and at least three taken at the 300 level or above (exceptions may be made with the advisor's approval). The balance of courses may be fulfilled with either primary or adjunct electives. A list of these electives (which change each semester) is available through the Media Studies Program office and is meant as a guide only. Finally, students must either take one course in the practice of media (from offerings suggested below) or a 3-credit internship, which may be completed in the summer by arrangement with the program director. Only in rare instances, and at the discretion of the Director of Media Studies, will more than one course in the practice of media count toward the major.

Core courses include MDST110 (Information Technology and Digital Media); MDST 201 (Introduction to Media Studies); MDST 301 (Theory and Criticism of Media); MDST 350 (History of Media); and MDST 401 (Fourth-Year Seminar).

Media Studies students are strongly urged to choose electives according to an individual plan of study. Students should consider the broad range of topics relevant to a full understanding of media studies: media aesthetics (rhetoric and the shape of argument in media, formal analysis, media criticism, and theory of a specific medium); the history of media (film, photography, television, digital and print media); the individual experience of media (psychology and sociology); the social experience and effects of media (political science and government, law, or public policy, anthropology, and sociology); and the economics and business of media.

Students may also choose to create a more specialized focus (e.g., the history and theory of film, the study of media as a force in public opinion and policy, or any other focused topic). Specific courses cross-listed with media studies may not always be available on a regular basis. The plan of study should be founded on intellectual goals and be flexible with respect to fulfilling them through course requirements. In all cases, students must develop their program of study in consultation with a faculty advisor. Media Studies' majors should not plan to be absent for study abroad unless such study is relevant to the major and has been approved in advance by an advisor.

There is no minor in Media Studies.

Course Descriptions

MDST 110 - (4) (S)
Information Technology and Digital Media
The history, theory, practice, and understanding of digital media. Provides a foundation for interrogating the relation of digital media to contemporary culture and understanding the function, design, and use of computers. Introduces students to the fundamentals of quantitative analysis and qualitative use of computing in the humanities, information search, retrieval, and design.

MDST 201 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Media Studies
Introduces students to the topics, themes, and areas of study that are central to an understanding of media in contemporary society. Focuses on the forms, institutions, functions, and impact of media on local, national, and global communities.

MDST 301 - (3) (Y)
Theory and Criticism of Media
Prerequisite: MDST 201 and MDST 110.
This course introduces students at the beginning of the major to theoretical and critical literature in the field. Topics range from the psychological and sociological experience of media, interpretation and analysis of media forms and aesthetics, theories of audience and reception, anthropological approaches to media as a cultural force, and contemporary theories of media from humanities and social sciences perspectives. The goal of the course is to provide a foundation for thinking critically about media and to give them a sense of media studies as a critical and theoretical field.

MDST 350 - (3) (Y)
History of Media
Prerequisite: MDST 201 and MDST 110 or permission of instructor.
This is a survey, lecture-format, course on the history of media forms, institutions, and technology from the origins of writing, invention of print technology, through the development of digital media. Attention to the specific characteristics of individual media, the changing role of media as a force in culture, and the continually transforming institutions and business of media will all be touched on. The role of media forms in the creation of pubic discourse and the social controls on media through censorship, legal constraints, and economic policies will also be examined, largely from within the context of the United States. Students will create a case study of a media work or artifact from a historical perspective.

MDST 401 - (3) (Y)
Fourth-year seminar in Media Studies
Prerequisite: MDST 301, MDST 201 and MDST 110.
This course serves as a capstone experience for students in the fourth year, final semester, of the major. The course requires synthetic, collaborative work and will draw on the students' acquired experience in the electives and core courses they have completed for the major. Students will read some classic works in media theory and history as well as recent publications in the field of media studies from a variety of perspectives (academic and scholarly press, popular work, and mainstream journalism among others). They will be involved in covering an ongoing event and looking critically at its coverage in the media during the semester of the class. Assignments will have a production component and each student will play a crucial role in the creation of team-based work as well as completing individual assignments in writing and editing some form of media.

MDST 361 - (3) (Y)
Film and Television in the 1960s
Prerequisite: MDST 201 or permission of instructor.
This is a course on film and television in the United States in the 1960s meant to introduce students to the specific problems attached to understanding media as force for social change within a particular decade of American life. The course has a strong emphasis on cultural history and theory as well as on the close reading of media artifacts in film and television from the 1960s. The course requires considerable commitment to viewing time as well as readings, writing, and research.

MDST 381 - (3) (IR)
Guided Independent Study in Media Studies
This course is designed to allow students to pursue guided independent study of a topic that is not contained within the course offerings of Media Studies. Students wishing to pursue a guided study must prepare a syllabus and reading list in consultation with a faculty member or the Director of the program. They should be very explicit about the milestones for assessment during the semester's work. The reading list and assignments should be comparable to those in any other 300-level course for Media Studies and terms for midterm and final grade evaluation on the basis of papers and final projects should be formalized at the time the student begins the course. Intermediate and advanced students have found this a particularly useful way to study an area in depth that cannot be accommodated in the course offerings of the program. In general, the more focused the proposal, the greater the likelihood of approval. Students may not use this course to substitute for core courses in the major, though in some cases this may count as a primary elective for credit towards the major requirements, on approval of the Director of the program.

MDST 496 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Independent Projects in Media Studies
This rubric is intended to provide an opportunity for students to get credit for advanced, independent projects and field work, including extra-mural sponsored projects and internships, in the area of media studies. Students must put a proposal together for the project with a faculty sponsor (or the Director of Media Studies) and the project must be approved before the end of the add/drop period for the semester in which the credit is taken. Application forms and guidelines for MDST 496 may be obtained in the Media Studies office.

Program in Medieval Studies

Overview  Every period in history is better illuminated and understood by using evidence from research in different fields rather than studying it solely from the point of view of a single discipline. People of the past, after all, did not live their lives according to the departmental divisions of a modern university. Medieval studies, particularly in the last half century, have benefited enormously from this interdisciplinary approach. Work, for example, in family history, genealogy, gender studies, folklore, anthropology, archaeology, religious and intellectual history, textual criticism, iconography, linguistic analysis, and statistical research has advanced and deepened our knowledge of the highways and byways of the period.

Faculty  At the University of Virginia, a strong program in teaching and research is supported by more than thirty-five faculty members who offer upwards of eighty courses on medieval topics in the departments of history, classics, religious studies, philosophy, English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, art history, music, and government. The University libraries have significant holdings of printed works in the primary and secondary sources; and the Medieval Circle at the University, founded in 1968 as a forum for the discussion of current topics and research in progress, is flourishing in its thirtieth year.

Students  For the able and interested student, the major provides a way of pursuing medieval studies free of existing departmental requirements, a program of language study within the field, a sound training for graduate work, and a chance to share knowledge and opinions with other scholars on the incunabulum period of Western civilization. Moreover, by its comprehensive structure, it promotes cordiality, collegiality, and an exchange of views across departmental lines.

The major in medieval studies, because it helps to develop and refine powers of criticism and imagination, and because it encourages, through practice, the ability to think and write with clarity and precision, furnishes the skills necessary to succeed in a wide variety of vocational fields. The administrative responsibility of the major rests with an interdepartmental committee appointed by the dean of the College and chaired by Professor Everett U. Crosby in the Department of History.

Requirements for Major  The major is open to all qualified students in the College. Students should be competent in a modern foreign language at the second-year course level or better, and they must complete:

  1. 30 credits in courses approved by the student's advisor with passing grades and at least a 2.0 GPA, distributed over the following fields of study:
    History (9 credits)
    Language (6 credits, at the 200-level or above, other than Latin 201- 202)
    Literature (9 credits)
    Art or Music (3 credits)
    Philosophy, Religious Studies or Political Thought (3 credits);

  2. the satisfactory completion of Latin 201-202, or the equivalent.

  3. a senior essay on an approved subject and written under the supervision of a member of the faculty to be submitted to the chair of the committee in the spring of the final year (6 credits).
The problems inherent in an interdisciplinary major—sources and methods in different fields and developing a program of study from a vast array of courses—can be dealt with to a large extent by fitting the program to each student's abilities and needs through individual consultation, seminar work, and careful supervision of the senior essay, which is designed to furnish a measure of coherence in the student's view of the period.

The major may be combined with another departmental program as a double major, or it may be taken as a minor subject provided at least 18 credits are in medieval courses approved by the student's advisor.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Everett Crosby, Program Chair, Department of History, 220 Randall Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-6407.

Courses Approved for Major

MSP 308 - (3) (Y)
Colloquium in Medieval Studies
Discussion and criticism of selected works of and on the period. Taught by different members of the medieval faculty.

MSP 480 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in Medieval Studies
For advanced students dealing with methods of research in the field. Taught by different members of the medieval faculty.

Basic Courses

AR H 101 - (3) (Y)
Ancient and Medieval Architecture

ARTH 221 - (3) (Y)
Early Christian and Byzantine Art

ARTH 222 - (3) (Y)
Medieval Art in Western Europe

ARTH 231 - (3) (Y)
Italian Renaissance Art

CLAS 202 - (3) (Y)
Roman Civilization

HIEU 206 - (3) (Y)
The Birth of Europe

HIEU 211 - (3) (Y)
England to 1688

HIME 201 - (3) (Y)
History of the Islamic Middle East, 570-1300

HISA 202 - (3) (IR)
History and Civilization of Medieval India

ITTR 226 - (3) (S)
Dante in Translation

ITTR 227 - (3) (IR)
Petrarch in Translation

ITTR 228 - (3) (E)
Boccaccio in Translation

PHIL 111 - (3) (Y)
Ancient and Medieval Philosophy

RELC 205, 206 - (3) (Y)
History of Christianity

RELC 233 - (3) (E)
Christian Social and Political Thought I

RELC 246 - (3) (Y)
Aspects of Catholic Tradition

RELI 207 - (3) (Y)
Classical Islam

Advanced Courses

ARTH 316 - (3) (IR)
Roman Architecture

ARTH 333 - (3) (IR)
Renaissance Art and Literature

ARTH 516 - (3) (IR)
Roman Architecture

ARTH 518 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperial Art and Architecture I

ARTH 519 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperial Art and Architecture II

ARTH 522 - (3) (IR)
Byzantine Art

ARTH 533 - (3) (IR)
Italian Fifteenth Century Painting I

ARTH 537 - (3) (IR)
Italian Renaissance Sculpture I

ARTH 541 - (3) (IR)
Northern Art of the Fifteenth Century

CLAS 314 - (3) (E)
Age of Augustine

ENMD 311, 312 - (3) (Y)
Medieval European Literature in Translation

ENMD 325, 326 - (3) (Y)
Chaucer I, II

ENMD 481, 482 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Studies in Medieval Literature I, II

ENMD 501 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Old English

ENMD 505, 506 - (3) (IR)
Old Icelandic

ENMD 520 - (3) (Y)
Beowulf

FREN 341 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Middle Ages and 16th Century

FREN 401 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Middle Ages

FREN 402 - (3) (IR)
Renaissance Literature

FREN 508 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to Reading Old French

FREN 509 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to Old Provencal Language and Literature

FREN 510 - (3) (Y)
Medieval Literature in Modern French

FREN 520, 521 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the 16th Century

GERM 510 - (3) (IR)
Middle High German

GERM 512 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Lyric Poetry

GERM 514 - (3) (IR)
Arthurian Romance

PLPT 301 - (3) (Y)
Ancient and Medieval Political Thought

HIEU 311 - (3) (IR)
Early Medieval Civilization

HIEU 312 - (3) (IR)
Later Medieval Civilization

HIEU 313 - (3) (E)
The World of Charlemagne

HIEU 314 - (3) (IR)
Anglo-Saxon England

HIEU 315 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Iberia

HIEU 316 - (3) (IR)
Byzantine Civilization

HIEU 317 - (3) (IR)
Eastern Christianity

HIEU 318 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Christianity

HIEU 321 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Italy

HIEU 322 - (3) (IR)
Renaissance Culture

HIEU 323 - (3) (IR)
Age of Reformation: 1450-1650

HIEU 324 - (3) (IR)
The Religious Reformation

HIEU 328 - (3) (IR)
Tudor England

HIEU 332 - (3) (IR)
Scientific Revolution

HIEU 379 - (3) (IR)
History of Russia to 1700

HIEU 505 - (3) (IR)
History of the Roman Empire

HIEU 506 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperialism

HIEU 510 - (3) (IR)
Early Christian Thought

HIEU 511 - (3) (O)
Medieval England: 1042-1216

HIEU 512 - (3) (O)
Medieval England: 1216-1399

HIEU 513 - (3) (IR)
Medieval France

HIEU 516 - (3) (E)
The Medieval Church

HIEU 517 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Society

HIEU 518 - (3) (IR)
Historians in the Middle Ages

HIEU 519 - (3) (IR)
War and Society in the Middle Ages

HIEU 521 - (3) (IR)
Early Modern Germany

HIEU 526 - (3) (IR)
Russian History to 1700

HIEU 527 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Society

HIEU 551 - (3) (IR)
Seminar on Early Christian Thought

ITAL 311 - (3) (S)
Renaissance Literature

ITAL 410 - (3) (E)
Medioevo (Italian Culture and Literature in the Middle Ages)

ITAL 420 - (3) (SI)
Umanesimo (Italian Culture and Literature in the Humanistic Period)

LATI 309 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Latin

LATI 310 - (3) (IR)
Vergil

LATI 311 - (3) (IR)
Ovid

LATI 502 - (3) (SI)
Latin Writings of the Roman Empire

LATI 503 - (6) (SI)
History of Medieval Latin Literature

LATI 505 - (6) (SI)
Latin Paleography

LATI 509 - (3) (SI)
Roman Literary Criticism

LATI 516 - (3) (SI)
Vergil's Aeneid

LATI 520 - (3) (SI)
Ovid's Metamorphoses

LATI 522 - (3) (SI)
Tacitus

LATI 528 - (3) (SI)
Christian Latin Writings of the Empire

MUSI 101 - (3) (Y)
History of Music I, 1100-1750

MUSI 400 - (3) (E)
European Music to 1500

MUSI 500 - (3) (E)
Music History to 1500

PHIL 311 - (3) (E)
Plato

PHIL 312 - (3) (O)
Aristotle

PHIL 314 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Philosophy

PHIL 513 - (3) (O)
Topics in Medieval Philosophy

RELC 323 - (3) (IR)
Images of Christianity

RELC 324 - (3) (O)
Medieval Mysticism

RELC 325 - (3) (E)
Medieval Christianity

RELC 326 - (3) (Y)
The Reformation

RELC 538 - (3) (SI)
Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent

RELC 551 - (3) (E)
Seminar in Early Christian Thought

RELG 305 - (3) (E)
Religions of Western Antiquity

RELI 311 - (3) (E)
Muhammad and the Qur an

RELI 312 - (3) (O)
Sufism

SPAN 340 - (3) (Y)
Spanish Literature to 1700

SPAN 450 - (3) (E-O)
Spanish Literature From Middle Ages to Renaissance

Program in Middle East Studies

Overview  Due to the rise in commercial and cultural interaction with Middle Eastern countries, interest in the Middle East its languages, literature, culture, religions, histories, and peoples is ever increasing. In order to meet these growing needs, the Program in Middle East Studies, with its interdisciplinary approach, provides a unique opportunity to learn about the languages, peoples, literatures, cultures, religions, and histories of the region from the Maghrib in the west to Iran in the east. The program encompasses the study of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic civilizations from antiquity to the modern era as they seek to maintain their traditional strengths while coping with regional conflicts and the challenges of modernity.

Middle East studies courses are offered in the departments of anthropology, art, Asian and Middle Eastern languages and cultures, French, history, politics, and religious studies. Moreover, Middle East studies are of growing interest to students in the School of Law, the McIntire School of Commerce, the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, the School of Medicine, and the School of Nursing. There are four core fields of study in the Middle East studies program: language(s) and literature(s); history; politics; and religious studies.

Language courses are available in Arabic, Biblical and Modern Hebrew, Persian, and occasionally Turkish. Non-language courses cover the history, literatures, religions, and civilizations of the area extending from Morocco to Iran; the politics of the region; the history of Islam; Islamic thought and culture; Middle Eastern literatures in translation; women's studies; mysticism; Judaism; and relations between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Faculty  The faculty of the Program in Middle East Studies are recognized scholars, researchers, and teachers with national and international reputations in their respective fields. Many hold positions in regional and national organizations in Middle East studies. The faculty members are dedicated to their fields and to their students, making themselves easily accessible for consultation outside of the classroom.

Students  Students have the choice of majoring in Middle East studies, minoring in it, or including it as a dual major. The major is directed at preparing students for graduate study or professional fields involving Middle Eastern relations. Our undergraduates go on to graduate or professional schools or work in governmental, federal, and congressional agencies. Some have joined the Peace Corps in Middle Eastern and North African countries and are now serving as rural community development specialists, teachers in schools for the blind, and teachers of English as a Second Language.

Special Resources
Media Center/Language Laboratory  The language laboratory is used extensively to help students practice and reinforce their speaking and listening skills. The language laboratory is also available for student use outside of class time.

Study Abroad  Students of Arabic may choose to apply for admission to the University of Virginia-Yarmouk University Summer Arabic Program in Irbid, Jordan. The program provides an opportunity to intensively study Arabic at the intermediate and advanced levels, and to partake of a unique cultural experience. The program periodically receives grants from which it can offer fellowships to participants.

Requirements for Major  The major is open to all qualified students with a GPA of 2.5 or higher. Admission to the program is determined by the chair and coordinator of the major on the basis of an interview and after review of the applicant's undergraduate record. One year of language instruction in any of the Middle Eastern languages (Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish) is a corequisite for the major. Language courses completed beyond the first-year requirement may be counted toward the major.

A total of 36 credits is required distributed in the following manner:

  1. At least six courses (3 credits or more each) at the 200-level or higher in three of the four core fields of study: language(s) and literature(s), history, politics, religious studies.
  2. Five courses (15 credits) at the 200-level or higher in areas related to the Middle East, but not necessarily in the core areas.
  3. Of the above requirements, at least three courses (9 credits or more) must be at the 300-level or higher.
  4. MEST 496 (Majors Seminar).
Students in the major are expected to maintain a GPA of at least 2.5. Up to 12 credits toward the major are accepted as transfer credit from other accredited institutions. Each individual case is examined and approved by the director of the program in consultation with other faculty members in Middle East studies.

Distinguished Majors Program  The Middle East studies program offers a DMP for qualified majors with the opportunity to pursue in-depth analyzes of issues and topics related to the major. Students seeking admission to the DMP should have major and University GPA of 3.4 or above. Applicants make their application to the DMP in the second semester of the second year, at the same time they are declaring their majors. Notification of acceptance is made in the fall of their third year. Students in the DMP are required to satisfy the general major distribution rules for Middle East studies; take at least 12 credits at the 400- and 500-levels; and write a thesis during the fourth year while enrolled in MEST 498 and 499 (6 credits).

Students who successfully complete the requirements of the DMP are given an evaluation of distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction. Evaluations are based upon quality of the thesis, overall work in major field of study, and overall College record.

Requirements for Minor  The requirements consist of 20 credits pertaining to the Middle East. The courses may include: (1) no more than nine credits pertaining to the Middle East in one discipline; (2) two semesters of Middle Eastern language not exceeding eight credits; and (3) at least three credits in a course at the 300-level or above.

Additional Information  For more information, contact William B. Quandt, Director of the Middle East Studies Program, 223 Minor Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-3033; Fax: (434) 924-7867; wbq8f@Virginia.edu.

Courses Approved for Major

Note
  The following list includes courses which have content in Middle East Studies. Other courses may be substituted with the permission of the program director.

Middle East Studies

MEST 496 - (3) (Y)
Majors Seminar
Intended for majors in their final year. Introduces the study of Middle East as an interdisciplinary subject, utilizing methods in history and political science, anthropology and sociology, religion, and literature.

MEST 498, 499 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Research

Languages

AMEL 493, 494 - (1-3) (SI)
Independent Study in Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures

AMTR 301 - (3) (IR)
Men and Women of Asia and the Middle East

AMTR 311/511 - (3) (IR)
Women and Middle Eastern Literatures

ARAB 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary Arabic

ARAB 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Intermediate Arabic

ARAB 225, 226 - (3) (IR)
Conversational Arabic

ARAB 227 - (3) (Y)
Culture and Society of the Contemporary Arab Middle East

ARAB 301/501, 302/502 - (3) (Y)
Readings in Literary Arabic

ARAB 323/523 - (3) (Y)
Arabic Conversation and Composition (in Arabic)

ARAB 324/524 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition (in Arabic)

ARAB 493, 494 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Arabic

ARAB 528 - (3) (SI)
The History of the Arabic Language

ARAB 583, 584 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Arabic Prose

ARAB 585 - (3) (Y)
Media Arabic (in Arabic)

ARAB 586 - (3) (Y)
Nineteenth Century Arabic Prose

ARAB 701 - (3) (Y)
Modern Arabic Fiction (in Arabic)

ARAB 702 - (3) (Y)
Modern Arabic Drama (in Arabic)

ARAB 703 - (3) (Y)
Modern Arabic Poetry (in Arabic)

ARAB 783 - (3) (Y)
Readings in Arabic/Islamic Texts (in Arabic)

ARAB 801, 802 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in Arabic

ARTR 329/529 - (3) (Y)
Modern Arabic Literature in Translation

ARTR 339 - (3) (Y)
Love, Alienation and Politics in the Contemporary Arabic Novel

HEBR 101, 102 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Modern Hebrew

HEBR 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Intermediate Modern Hebrew

PERS 101, 102 - (4) (E)
Introductory Persian

PERS 201, 202 - (4) (E)
Intermediate Persian

PERS 301/501, 302/502 - (3) (IR)
Readings in Modern Persian Poetry- Prose/Fiction

PERS 323 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Classical Persian Literature

PERS 324 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Modern Persian Literature

PERS 493, 494 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Persian

PERS 801, 802 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Persian

PETR 321, 521 - (3) (IR)
Classical Persian Literature in Translation

PETR 322, 522 - (3) (IR)
20th Century Persian Literature in Translation

RELJ 111, 112 - (4) (O)
Introduction to Biblical Hebrew

TURK 521, 522 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Turkish

History

HIEU 317 - (3) (IR)
Eastern Christianity

HIME 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in Middle East History

HIME 201 - (4) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 570-ca. 1500

HIME 202 - (4) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 1550-Present

HIME 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in Middle East and North Africa History

HIME 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in Middle East History

HIME 403 - (4) (Y)
Topics in Middle Eastern History

Religious Studies

RELC 328 - (3) (Y)
Eastern Christianity

RELI 207 - (3) (Y)
Classical Islam

RELI 208 - (3) (Y)
Islam in the Modern World

RELI 311 - (3) (E)
Muhammad and the Qur'an

RELI 312 - (3) (O)
Sufism

RELI 367 - (3) (E)
Religion and Politics in Islam

RELI 540 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in Islamic Theology

RELI 540C - (3) (IR)
War and Peace in Islamic Tradition: A Comparative Ethics Approach

RELI 540D - (3) (IR)
Islamic Fundamentalism

RELJ 111, 112 - (4) (O)
Introduction to Biblical Hebrew

RELJ 121 - (3) (Y)
Hebrew Scriptures

RELJ 201, 202 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Readings in Biblical Hebrew

RELJ 203 - (3) (Y)
The Judaic Tradition

RELJ 301 - (3) (SI)
Modern Jewish Thought

RELJ 307 - (3) (E)
Modern Jewish Thought

RELJ 309 - (3) (E)
Israelite Prophecy

RELJ 322 - (3) (Y)
Judaism and Zionism

RELJ 330 - (3) (Y)
The Jewish Mystical Tradition

RELJ 331 - (3) (Y)
Jewish Law

RELJ 335 - (3) (Y)
Jewish Social Ethics

RELJ 336 - (3) (Y)
Judaism and Christianity 

RELJ 337 - (3) (Y)
Modern Movements in Judaism 

RELJ 505 - (3) (SI)
Judaism in Antiquity

RELJ 529 - (3) (SI)
Seminar in Old Testament Studies

Women's Studies

SWAG 405/705 - (3) (IR)
Gendered Body Cross Culturally

SWAG 312 - (3) (Y)
Women and Islam

Politics

PLCP 341 - (3) (Y)
Comparative Politics in the Middle East and North Africa

PLCP 541 - (3) (Y)
Islam and Democracy in the Middle East

PLCP 741 - (3) (O)
Readings in Middle East Politics

PLIR 365 - (3) (Y)
International Relations in the Middle East

PLIR 765 - (3) (Y)
Middle East in World Affairs

Anthropology

ANTH 282 - (3) (Y)
Rise of Civilizations

ANTH 384 - (3) (Y)
Near Eastern Archaeology

ANTH 583 - (3) (Y)
Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

History of Art

ARTH 221 - (3) (Y)
Early Christian and Byzantine Art

ARTH 263 - (3) (IR)
Art of the Islamic World

ARTH 491 - (3) (IR)
Antioch and the Roman East

ARTH 522 - (3) (IR)
Byzantine Art

McIntire Department of Music
P.O. Box 400176
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4176
Phone: (434) 924-3052
Fax: (434) 924-6033

Overview  The Department of Music serves students who are interested in many kinds of music. Academic courses and performance instruction are available, from introductory courses, requiring no previous musical study, to advanced work for ambitious majors.

The academic faculty includes historians, ethnomusicologists, theorists, and composers. Academic courses address the historical development of music, relations between music and cultural contexts, and the concepts and materials of music. The department offers opportunities for study in Western European art music, acoustic composition, computer music, jazz, popular music, African music, and other traditions of world music.

The performance faculty includes an orchestral conductor, a choral conductor, the director of the African Drum and Dance Ensemble, and several jazz musicians, along with instructors for strings, brass, winds, percussion, piano, harp, guitar and voice. In addition to private lessons, we offer some small ensembles and often have specialized courses such as jazz improvisation.

The department offers courses for non-majors ranging from an introduction to music, basic music theory, and keyboard skills, to special topics such as the history of jazz, black popular performance, orchestral music, Bach, Beethoven, opera and composition. Courses for majors cover a wide range of topics in ethnomusicology, music history, theory, and composition, including the use of new technologies. We also offer courses in special topics such as performance practice, music of the black Atlantic, women and music, the ethnography of performance, musical aesthetics and multimedia composition. Many courses have no prerequisites; courses at the 300 level and above require knowledge of music notation or have other prerequisites.

Individual performance instruction for credit is available for many instruments and voice. Students receive academic credit for participation in faculty-directed ensembles, which include the Symphony orchestra, University Singers, African Drum and Dance Ensemble, Wind Ensemble, Jazz Ensemble, Early Music Ensemble, New Music Ensemble, and various other ensembles. In addition there are numerous student-directed and community performance groups, including  singing groups such as the Glee Club, Women's Chorus, and Black Voices.

Faculty  The department has outstanding faculty in music composition, receiving numerous commissions and awards, including those from the National Endowment for the Arts. The department has an exceptionally strong faculty of innovative scholars. Members of the history, ethnomusicology, and theory faculty have published influential articles in anthologies and in prominent journals such as the Journal of the American Musicological Society, Ethnomusicology, Music Theory Spectrum, and Cambridge Opera Journal.

The department's scholars cover a broad range of approaches, including Renaissance and baroque music, Italian opera, jazz, African music and ethnomusicology, recent American music, aesthetics, performance theory, feminist criticism, and gender studies. Composers offer courses in music composition, theory, new technologies, and analysis, while full-time conductors offer conducting as well as other courses.

The department also has over thirty experienced performance instructors. They have made commercial recordings and offer an exciting series of both traditional and new works on the annual McIntire Chamber Series. They also contribute to the vitality of the musical life both at UVA and in the larger community.


Students  There are about seventy-five music majors. Some continue professionally in music, though many have careers in other areas such as law or medicine. Many students combine a major in music with a major or minor in another department.

Music majors have extensive contact with faculty. Classes for the major are small, ranging from five to thirty-five students, and all are taught by faculty members. Consultation with department faculty is readily available to students.

Although the department has no formal performance requirement for majors, almost all music majors choose to supplement their academic studies with musical performance in ensembles and/or individual instruction, for which some scholarship assistance is  available through audition.

Special Resources 
The Music Library  The largest in the commonwealth, the Music Library contains over 50,000 books and scores and 32,000 sound recordings. The collection has traditionally focused on classical music, jazz, and folk music; recently it added an excellent collection of opera videos, and has begun to build up its popular music collection. Students may borrow recordings and videos as well as books and scores.

The Virginia Center for Computer Music Founded in 1988, the center serves undergraduates, graduates, and faculty, and offers an exceptionally wide range of musical possibilities. The facilities provide a wide assortment of music software and a rich development environment. It is also one of  very few music centers where software developed in-house  is used for compositional work. A CD of works produced at the center by faculty and graduate students was released in 1999 on the Centaur CDCM series.

The VCCM offers multiple workstations for music composition and research application. Macintosh computers are used for both digital audio and MIDI-based work. Linux-based workstations support advanced audio processing and direct digital synthesis. Different types of MIDI controllers (e.g., guitar and percussion controllers, and a Disklavier grand piano) are available. A variety of program environments are available. Students interested in combining sound and video may work with video images in the VCCM and at the University's New Media Center.

Requirements for Major  This program presents the study of music as one of the liberal arts. Students develop their understanding of music through critical and comparative studies; theory and analysis; composition; and development of skills in musicianship and performance.

In order to fulfill the requirements for a major in music, a student must complete at least 29 credits of academic course work, including the following:

A. Introductory course—3 credits. MUSI 305 (Music in the Twentieth Century)
B. Research skills—1 credit. MUSI 311(Introduction to Music Research)
C. Critical and comparative studies in music 6 credits. Two courses, including one course chosen from MUSI 300 (Studies in Pre-Modern Music[to 1500]), MUSI 301 (Studies in Early Modern Music [1500-1700]), MUSI 302 (Studies in Eighteenth-Century Music), MUSI 303 (Studies in Nineteenth-Century Music); and another course chosen from MUSI 307 (Worlds of Music), MUSI 308 (American Music), MUSI 309 (Performance in Africa), MUSI 312 (Jazz Studies).
D. Basic theory—4 credits. MUSI 331 (Theory I). This course requires fluency in music notation. Students not meeting this prerequisite may improve their skills by taking MUSI 131 (Basic Musicianship) or MUSI 231 (Introduction to Musical Theory), but these courses do not count toward the 29 credits required for the major.
E. Composition—3 or 4 credits. One course chosen form MUSI 336 (Tonal Composition, 3 credits), MUSI 339 (Introduction to Music and Computers, 3 credits), MUSI 431 (Theory III, 4 credits).
F. Electives—12-14 credits. Four courses (3 or 4 credits each) numbered 300 level or above. Students seeking a broad survey of music should include among their electives at least two further courses in critical and comparative studies numbered 300 or above, of which at least one must be a seminar numbered 400 or above, and should also continue study of music theory at least through MUSI 332. Individual interests and goals may justify departure from this plan, as determined in discussion with the faculty advisor. In every case, the selection of electives must have the approval of the advisor.
G. Musicianship and performance. Students must demonstrate performance skills relevant to their academic music studies. For instance, students involved with "classical" music must demonstrate basic performance and sight-reading ability on keyboard. To satisfy this requirement, students pass a brief performance test. Students unable to pass the test may prepare through appropriate course work such as MUSI 230 (Keyboard Skills), but such courses do not count toward the 29 credits required for the major.

Although the major can be completed in two years, students are strongly encouraged to complete MUSI 305, MUSI 311, and at least one course in critical and comparative studies by the end of their second year. Student planning to take MUSI 332 and 431 should normally begin their study of theory in the first or second year.

Students planning careers in music should complete at least 12 hours of advanced departmental course work beyond the minimum major requirements, choosing these courses in careful consultation with the faculty advisor, In addition, advanced performing students should perform a full recital in their fourth year.

Students who major in music and who have had instrumental or vocal training are encouraged to continue their performance studies and, as appropriate, to register for MUSI 351 through MUSI 358 (Performance). Majors are also encouraged to participate in a curricular performing group, MUSI 360 through MUSI 369. However, performance courses do not count toward the 29 credits required for the major, and no more than eight hours of performance may be counted toward the 120 credits required for graduation from the College.

Distinguished Majors Program in Music  Superior students with a GPA of at least 3.4 who seek independent study culminating in a thesis, a composition, or the performance of a full recital should apply for admission to the program no later than April 1 of the sixth semester. At that time the student should be nearing completion of requirements for the major. After a preliminary discussion with the undergraduate advisor, the student must submit a formal proposal to the departmental chair, to the advisor, and to the faculty member who has agreed to supervise the project. The Distinguished Majors Committee will inform the applicant of the decision by April 15. To complete the program, the student must complete all 29 credits required for the music major plus six additional credits of independent study, MUSI 493-494, resulting in an extended essay on some historical or theoretical topic, in a substantial musical composition, or in a recital performance. Three weeks prior to the last day of classes in the semester, the student submits the project for examination. After the committee has evaluated the quality of the project, the student's work in the program, in the major courses, and his or her overall scholastic accomplishment, it recommends the degree with either no distinction, distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction. Recommendations for all forms of distinction are then passed on to the Committee on Special Programs.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Laura Butterbaugh, McIntire Department of Music, 112 Old Cabell Hall, P.O. Box 400176, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4176; (434) 924-3052; www.virginia.edu/~music.

Course Descriptions

MUSI 101 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Musical Literature
Surveys the musical literatures that make up the common listening experience of contemporary Americans, emphasizing such “"classical" repertories as symphony, opera, "early music," "new music," blues, and jazz. Teaches effective ways of listening to and thinking critically about each repertoire. Considers how musical choices reflect or create cultural identities, including attitudes toward gender, ethnicity, social relationships, and ideas of the sacred.

MUSI 131 - (3) (S)
Basic Musical Skills
No previous knowledge of music is required. Not open to students already qualified to elect MUSI 231 or 331. Study of the rudiments of music and training in the ability to read music.

MUSI 151-158 - (1) (S)
Performance

MUSI 193, 194 - (1-3) (SI)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.

MUSI 202 - (3) (IR)
Opera
No previous knowledge of music required.
Study of musical, literary, and dramatic aspects of representative operatic works.

MUSI 203 - (3) (IR)
Poetry and Song
No previous knowledge of music required.
Formal and expressive correlation of text and music in selected vocal works.

MUSI 204 - (3) (IR)
Symphonic Masterworks
No previous knowledge of music required.
Study of symphonic music, including the concerto, from 1700 to the present.

MUSI 205 - (3) (IR)
Keyboard Music
No previous knowledge of music required.
Study of harpsichord, organ, and piano music after 1600.

MUSI 206 - (3) (IR)
Musical Criticism
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
An inquiry into meaning in music.

MUSI 208 - (3) (Y)
Black Popular Performance
Explores the polyphonic relationships and meanings of hip-hop through the culturally relative musical ideals found in everyday and ritualistic performance and the study of cultural history in the twentieth century. Critical thinking is developed through musical participation, reading, listening, and discussion.

MUSI 209 - (3) (IR)
History of Slavic Music I
No previous knowledge of music required.
Study of the history of music in Russia, its stylistic orientation, and its relation to Western European musical culture.

MUSI 210 - (3) (IR)
History of Slavic Music II
No previous knowledge of music required.
Study of the history of music in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia, and its relation to Western European musical culture.

MUSI 212 - (3) (Y)
History of Jazz Music
No previous knowledge of music required.
Survey of jazz music from before 1900 through the stylistic changes and trends of the twentieth century; important instrumental performers, composers, arrangers, and vocalists.

MUSI 221, 222 - (3) (Y)
Composers
Study of the lives and works of individuals (e.g., Bach, Beethoven, Cage, Ellington, Smyth) whose participation in musical culture has led them to focus on the creation of musical “"works." Topics announced in advance.

MUSI 230A - (2) (S)
Keyboard Skills (Beginning)
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.
Introductory keyboard skills; includes sight-reading, improvisation, and accompaniment at the keyboard in a variety of styles. No previous knowledge of music required.

MUSI 230B - (2) (S)
Keyboard Skills (Intermediate)
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.
Intermediate keyboard skills for students with some previous musical experience. Includes sight-reading, improvisation, and accompaniment at the keyboard in a variety of styles. Prepares music majors for their keyboard proficiency requirement.

MUSI 231 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Musical Theory
Prerequisite: Ability to read music and instructor permission.
Not open to students already qualified to elect MUSI 331. Topics include the material of music: rhythm, melody, timbre, and harmony; the elements of musical composition.

MUSI 271, 272 - (1-3) (IR)
Music Seminar
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Readings, discussion and individual projects in the literature and theory of music.

MUSI 293, 294 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.

MUSI 300 - (3) (E)
Studies in Pre-Modern Music (to 1500)
Prerequisite: Ability to read music. MUSI 331 highly recommended.
Introduction to the variety of repertories and music cultures known to have thrived in pre-modern Europe, and the ways such music has been assimilated into 20th-century American ideas about “"music history." Specific topics announced in advance, such as: the music of 12th-century France; music in monastic life, 800 to 1500; music and mystical vision, the cosmology of Hildegard von Bingen; music, cultural exchange, and power, Burgundy and Italy in the 15th century.

MUSI 301 - (3) (E)
Studies in Early Modern Music (1500-1700)
Prerequisite: The ability to read music. MUSI 331 highly recommended.
Introduction to crucial shifts in musical culture that signaled the emergence of a self-consciously “"modern," self-consciously "European" musicality over the period 1500-1700; and to the ways such early modern genres as the polyphonic Mass, the madrigal, opera, oratorio, cantata, sonata, suite, and congregational hymnody have been assimilated into 20th-century American ideas about "musicality." Specific topics announced in advance.

MUSI 302 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Music
Prerequisite: MUSI 331 and 305; or instructor permission.
Encompasses the music of the high Baroque from its roots in the 17th century through Bach, Handel, and Vivaldi; classical music from the Gallant through Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven; and the rise of Romanticism. Music is considered from both a historical and a theoretical point of view, and within the context of 18th-century social, cultural, political, and philosophical life and thought.

MUSI 303 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Nineteenth-Century Music
Prerequisite: MUSI 331; or instructor permission.

MUSI 305 - (3) (S)
Music in the Twentieth Century
Prerequisite: The ability to read music, or any three-credit course in music, or instructor permission.
Studies the range of music that has flourished in the twentieth century, including modernist and post-modern art music, popular music, and world music, through historical, critical, and ethnographic approaches.

MUSI 307 - (3) (IR)
Worlds of Music
Exploration of world musical cultures through music-making, movement, listening, and case studies. Issues include how musical and social aesthetics are intertwined, the connections between style, community, and identity, and the concept of colonialism as it forms the relatively new category “"world music."

MUSI 308 - (3) (IR)
American Music
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Historical and/or ethnomusicological perspectives on folk, popular, and “"art" music in the Americas, with a particular emphasis on 19th-and 20th-century African-American traditions including spirituals, work songs, minstrelsy, blues, R&B, soul, and hip-hop.

MUSI 309 - (3) (IR)
Performance in Africa
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Explores music/dance performance in Africa through reading, hands-on workshops, discussion, and audio and video examples. The course covers both "traditional" and "popular" styles, leading us to question those categories. Class meetings focus not only on musical repertoire, sociomusical circumstances, and processes, but also on the problems and politics of translating performance practice from one cultural context to another.

MUSI 311 - (1) (Y)
Introduction to Music Research
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies the print and electronic resources available for the study of music and the principles for evaluating music research materials.

MUSI 312 - (3) (E)
Jazz Studies
Prerequisite: MUSI 331 or comparable fluency in music notation, and instructor permission.
Introduction to jazz as an advanced field of study, with equal attention given to historical and theoretical approaches.

MUSI 331 - (3) (Y)
Theory I
Prerequisite: Ability to read music, and familiarity with basic concepts of pitch intervals and scales; corequisite: MUSI 333, 334, or 335, except for students who have already passed the exit test for MUSI 335.
Studies the pitch and rhythmic aspects of several musical styles, including European art music, blues, African drumming, and popular music. Focuses on concepts and notation related to scales and modes, harmony, meter, form, counterpoint, and style.

MUSI 332 - (3) (Y)
Theory II
Prerequisite: MUSI 331 or instructor permission; corequisite: MUSI 333, 334, or 335, except for students who have already passed the exit test for MUSI 335.
Studies pitch and formal organization in European concert music of the 18th and 19th centuries. Includes four-part vocal writing, 18th-century style keyboard accompaniment, key relations, and form. Students compose numerous short passages of music and study significant compositions by period composers.

MUSI 333A, 333B, 333C - (1) (S)
Musicianship I, II, III
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Lab course providing practical experience with many aspects of musical perception and performance, such as accurate vocal production of pitch, musical memory, identification of intervals and rhythmic patterns, and uses of notation in dictation and sight-singing. Students entering this sequence take a test to determine the appropriate level of their first course. At the end of each course in the sequence, students take a test to determine whether they may enter a higher-level course: enrollment in MUSI 334 requires a passing score on the exit test for 333; enrollment in MUSI 335 requires a passing score on the exit test for 334. Courses may be repeated for credit, but each course may be counted toward the major only once. Students enrolled in MUSI 331, 332, or 431, have priority; course open to other students as space permits.

MUSI 336 - (3) (S)
Tonal Composition
Develops the craft of musical composition through polyphonic writing, canon and imitative counterpoint, and homophonic writing, emphasizing phrase structure and small forms. Compositions are performed and criticized in class, with the aim of making manifest and adding to ideas covered in MUSI 331 (Theory I) through actual writing. This course is essential for those who will pursue creative writing in music.

MUSI 339 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Music and Computers
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Students gain hands-on experience with synthesizers, music notation software, and the control of MIDI instruments via computer.

MUSI 351-358 - (1-2) (S)
Advanced Performance
Prerequisite: Music majors with permission of department chair by auditions; all other students must register for applied music through the music department office.

MUSI 351: Voice
MUSI 352: Piano
MUSI 353: Organ, Harpsichord
MUSI 354: Strings
MUSI 355: Woodwinds
MUSI 356: Brass
MUSI 357: Percussion
MUSI 358: Harp, Guitar

Because the subject matter changes each semester, courses numbered MUSI 351-358 may be repeated as often as desired, but no more than eight performance credits may be applied toward the baccalaureate degree in the College. These courses may not be applied toward the major.

MUSI 360 - (2) (S)
Jazz Ensemble
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.

MUSI 361 - (2) (S)
Orchestra
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.

MUSI 362 - (2) (S)
Wind Ensemble
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.

MUSI 363 - (1-2) (S)
Chamber Ensemble
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.

MUSI 364 - (2) (S)
Coro Virginia
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.

MUSI 365 - (2) (S)
University Singers
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.

MUSI 366 - (1) (S)
Opera Workshop
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.
Students prepare scenes from operas for modest stage presentation. Roles are assigned according to vocal skills and maturity. Scenes may include solo, ensemble, and chorus singing. Students receive coaching in interpretation and stage actions. Scenes are selected from three centuries of opera repertory and sung in German, Italian, French, and English.

MUSI 367 - (1) (S)
Early Music Ensemble
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.
Performance of music written before 1750 on instruments appropriate to the period.

MUSI 368 - (1) (S)
New Music Ensemble
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.
Performance of vocal and instrumental music of the twentieth century.

MUSI 369 - (2) (S)
African Drumming and Dance Ensemble
Prerequisite: Instructor permission by audition.
Practical, hands-on course focusing on several music/dance forms from West Africa (Ghana, Togo) and Central Africa (BaAka pygmies). No previous experience with music or dance is necessary. Special attention is given to developing tight ensemble dynamics, aural musicianship, and a polymetric sensibility.

Note  Because the subject matter changes each semester, courses numbered 360-369 may be repeated as often as desired, but no more than eight performance credits may be applied toward the baccalaureate degree in the College. These courses may not be applied toward the major.

MUSI 393, 394 - (1-3) (SI)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.

MUSI 405 - (3) (IR)
Vocal Music
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or the equivalent and instructor permission.
Topics, announced in advance, selected from opera, oratorio, choral music, or song.

MUSI 406 - (3) (IR)
Instrumental Music
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or the equivalent and instructor permission.
Topics, announced in advance, are selected from the orchestral, chamber music or solo repertories.

MUSI 407 - (3) (IR)
Composers
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or the equivalent and instructor permission.
Study of the life and works of a composer (or school of composers); topic announced in advance.

MUSI 408 - (3) (IR)
Topics in American Music
Prerequisite: MUSI 308 or instructor permission.
Topics, announced in advance, about folk, popular, jazz or art music traditions in American culture.

MUSI 409, 410 - (3) (IR)
Cultural and Historical Studies of Music
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Selected topics, announced in advance, exploring the study of music within cultural and historical frameworks.

MUSI 412 - (3) (SI)
Studies in Jazz Literature
Prerequisite: MUSI 312 or instructor permission.
Topics, announced in advance, exploring the world of jazz music.

MUSI 419, 420 - (3) (IR)
Critical Studies of Music
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Selected topics, announced in advance, exploring the study of music within critical frameworks.

MUSI 421 - (3) (O)
Music and Sound in Film
Prerequisite: Some music background, such as prior music study or MUSI 101. Open only to undergraduates; not open to anyone who has taken MUSI 521.
Considers the contributions sound and music make to the film experience. Individual film analysis, readings from theoretical and critical writings on sound, film, and film sound.

MUSI 422 - (3) (IR)
Music and the Black Atlantic
Prerequisite: Instructor permission; informal or formal musical experience preferred.
Investigates black and African ways of performing music and related traditions in the African diaspora during the post-colonial era in the US, Caribbean, Brazil, and Britain.

MUSI 423 - (3) (IR)
Issues in Ethnomusicology
Prerequisite: MUSI 307 or instructor permission.
An intensive experience with ethnomusicology and performance studies, this seminar explores musical ethnography (descriptive writing), experiential research, sociomusical processes, and other interdisciplinary approaches to musical performance. Addresses issues involving race, class, gender, and identity politics in light of particular topics and areas studies.

MUSI 424 - (3) (IR)
Field Research and Ethnography of Performance
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Addresses ideas about ethnography and performance. Students explore epistemological, ethical, and aesthetic issues as they relate to field research and push the envelope of "creative non-fiction" in the ethnographic realm of their writing.

MUSI 425, 426 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Ethnomusicology
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Addresses specific issues and cultural areas according to the interests of the students and instructor.

MUSI 431 - (3) (Y)
Theory III
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or instructor permission; corequisite: MUSI 333, 334, or 335, except for students who have already passed the exit test for MUSI 335.
Studies in 18th-, 19th-, and 20th-century techniques and styles through analysis and composition.

MUSI 432 - (3) (Y)
Musical Analysis
Prerequisite: MUSI 431 or instructor permission.
Various approaches to musical analysis; readings from theoretical literature; and practical exercises in analysis of music from all periods.

MUSI 433 - (2) (IR)
Advanced Musicianship
Prerequisite: Passing score on the exit test for MUSI 335.
Includes advanced ear-training, sight-singing and keyboard harmony.

MUSI 434 - (3) (IR)
Tonal Counterpoint
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or the equivalent.
Written and aural exercises based on analysis of the contrapuntal style of J.S. Bach and his successors.

MUSI 440 - (3) (Y)
Computer Sound Generation and Spatial Processing
Prerequisite: MUSI 339 or instructor permission.
Studies in sound processing, digital synthesis and multichannel audio using RTCmix running under Linux. Students learn techniques of computer music through composition, analysis of representative works, and programming.

MUSI 443 - (3) (Y)
Sound Studio
Prerequisite: MUSI 339 or instructor permission.
Studies in computer music studio techniques, sound synthesis using a variety of software packages based on the Macintosh platform, and the creation of original music using new technologies.

MUSI 445 - (3) (Y)
Computer Applications in Music
Prerequisite: Instructor permission or MUSI 339.
Topics involving the composition, performance, and programming of interactive computer music systems.

MUSI 447
- (3) (Y)
Materials of Contemporary Music
Prerequisite: MUSI332 or instructor permission.
Topics in contemporary music that will focus on different areas in rotation. Each will involve focused readings, analysis of selected works, and the creation of original compositions that reflect the issues under discussion.

MUSI 463, 464 - (1-3) (IR)
Solo and Ensemble Repertory
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Analyzes selected scores for instrumental and vocal solo and ensemble; and the practical and aesthetic demands of the performance style of the period. Class demonstrations.

MUSI 471, 472 - (3) (Y)
Instrumental Conducting I, II
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 and instructor permission.
Studies the theory and practice of conducting, score analysis, and rehearsal technique.

MUSI 474 - (3) (IR)
Music in Performance
Prerequisite: Previous musical experience, broadly defined.
Studies how musical performances implicitly or explicitly enact and (re)negotiate their historical, cultural, and ideological circumstances through activities that focus on a range of musical cultures.

MUSI 475, 476 - (3) (S)
Choral Conducting I, II
Prerequisite for 475: basic ear training, sight-reading. Previous experience in a choral or instrumental ensemble is preferred. Interested students should consult with the instructor before registering. Instructor permission is required.
Studies in the basic technique and art of conducting, with weekly experience conducting repertoire with a small choral ensemble.  

MUSI 481, 482 - (3) (Y)
Composition
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.

MUSI 483, 484 - (1-3) (IR)
Music Seminar
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Readings, discussions, and individual projects in the literature and theory of music.

MUSI 493, 494 - (1-3) (SI)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.

MUSI 508 - (3) (IR)
American Music
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or equivalent and instructor permission.
Topics are announced in advance and include popular, jazz, or art music.

MUSI 531 - (3) (Y)
Theory Review
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Studies in tonal and twentieth-century practices.

MUSI 533 - (3) (IR)
Modal Counterpoint
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Written and aural exercises based on analysis of the contrapuntal style of Palestrina and his contemporaries.

MUSI 534 - (3) (IR)
Tonal Counterpoint
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or the equivalent.
Written and aural exercises based on analysis of the contrapuntal style of J.S. Bach and his successors.

MUSI 535 - (3) (O)
Instrumentation
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Study of the characteristics of orchestral instruments.

MUSI 536 - (3) (O)
Orchestration
Prerequisite: MUSI 535.
Composing and arranging music for orchestral instruments in various combinations.

MUSI 538 - (3) (IR)
Canon and Fugue
Prerequisite: MUSI 431 and instructor permission.
Studies the composition and analysis of canons and fugues focusing on works of J.S. Bach.

MUSI 541, 542 - (3) (Y)
Conducting I, II
Prerequisite: MUSI 332 or equivalent and instructor permission.
Studies the theory and practice of conducting rehearsal technique.

MUSI 551-558 - (2) (S)
Graduate Performance
Prerequisite: Graduate students in music with permission of department chair by audition.

MUSI 560-570 - (1-2) (S)
Performing Ensembles
Prerequisite: Graduate student in music with instructor permission by audition.

MUSI 581, 582 - (3) (Y)
Composition
Prerequisite: MUSI 431 and instructor permission.

MUSI 593, 594 - (1-3) (SI)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Independent study dealing with a specific topic. Primary emphasis is not on research.

Personal Skills

PLSK 101, 102 - (1-3) (S)
Personal Skills
Courses aimed at the communication of practical skills, such as career planning. Students may count no more than two credits in such courses toward the degree. The College of Arts and Sciences is responsible for deciding which courses should use the PLSK designation.

Corcoran Department of Philosophy
P.O. Box 400780
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4780
Phone: (434) 924-7701
Fax: (434) 924-6927

Overview  The main areas of study in philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and the history of philosophy. In addition to these areas of study, the department also offers courses in aesthetics, philosophy of science, philosophy of religion, political philosophy, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language, biomedical ethics, and philosophy of law.

Some courses in these areas aim to acquaint the students with the most important intellectual traditions of our civilization, while others emphasize the characteristically philosophical activity of exposing and analyzing the arguments for and against the positions under discussion. Quite often, these two approaches are combined in the presentation of the material. Students of philosophy should have the desire to investigate some of the most fundamental and perplexing problems in the history of thought. The abilities and skills inculcated by the philosophical training are of lasting intellectual and personal value, for the ability to form one's own views in a reasoned and rigorous manner forms the foundation of our democratic society, and the critical and analytical skills fostered by philosophy are valuable across a wide variety of other subjects. As part of a complete education, every student should take at least one philosophy course.

Faculty  The interests of the faculty members cover all the principal areas of philosophy noted above. The department has a long tradition of commitment to undergraduate teaching, and a number of the faculty have achieved national and international prominence in their fields. All faculty in the department, including its most senior members, regularly teach undergraduate courses and seminars, including the large introductory lecture courses.

Students  More than one hundred students are currently pursuing a major in are usually designed as broad surveys of intellectual thought; these survey courses usually have enrollments of between fifty and two hundred students. Introductory seminar courses, on the other hand, are limited to between fifteen to twenty students and focus on much more specific topics. Upper-level courses typically enroll thirty to forty students. Majors seminars and honors seminars are also offered; enrollment in these courses is limited to twenty. Some advanced students may prefer to pursue philosophy. Students can choose from many courses. Introductory lecture courses independent study with a faculty member. Because philosophy is not usually taught in high schools, students would do well to begin with a 100-level or 200-level course before trying a 300-level or higher course.

Students who graduate with a philosophy major do so with the knowledge that they are well prepared for graduate work (more than 50 percent go on to graduate work) or the job market. Many attend law school. According to a recent study by the University's Office of Career Planning and Placement, the average LSAT score for a philosophy major was nearly fifteen points higher than the average score for any other major. It is also worth noting that, according to a study recently completed by the American Medical Association, philosophy majors have the third highest acceptance rate into American medical schools. Those who do not attend graduate school often go into corporate work, with investment banking being the most popular career choice. Students who have studied philosophy are characterized by an independence and rigor of thought which serves them well in a wide variety of careers.

Requirements for Major  The major in philosophy is designed to sharpen the student's analytical and creative skills, and to enhance clarity of exposition. It also acquaints the student with some of the most important themes in the history of Western thought. In order to fulfill the requirements for a major in philosophy, a student must complete at least three credits of course work in each of the three areas of metaphysics and epistemology, logic, ethics, and at least six credits of course work in the history of philosophy, with the courses to be selected from among those listed below.

A. Metaphysics and Epistemology PHIL 331 (Metaphysics), PHIL 334 (Philosophy of Mind), PHIL 332 (Epistemology)
B. Logic PHIL 242 (Symbolic Logic), PHIL 542 (Symbolic Logic), PHIL 141 (Forms of Reasoning), PHIL 142 (Basic Logic)
C. Ethics PHIL 351 (Ethics), PHIL 352 (Contemporary Ethics), PHIL 356 (Classics in Political Philosophy), PHIL 257 (Political Philosophy).
D. History All majors must take either PHIL 211 (History of Philosophy: Ancient and Medieval) or PHIL 212 (History of Philosophy: Modern). Those who take PHIL 211 must also take at least one of the following: PHIL 315 (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz), PHIL 316 (Locke, Berkeley, Hume), or PHIL 317 (Kant). Those who take PHIL 212 must also take at least one of the following: PHIL 311 (Plato), PHIL 312 (Aristotle), PHIL 314 (History of Medieval Philosophy), PHIL 513 (Topics in Medieval Philosophy).

A philosophy major requires a total of 30 credits of courses number 200 or higher. Students who double-major may, in consultation with their major advisor or the director of undergraduate studies, count up to six credits from their second major towards their philosophy major. If a student elects to satisfy the logic requirement by taking PHIL 141 or 142, those credits do not count towards the 30 credit requirement.

Distinguished Majors Program in Philosophy  The Distinguished Majors Program (DMP) is designed for students who wish to pursue their studies in philosophy beyond the requirements of the regular major. It requires both the study of a broad range of philosophical areas and a more concentrated examination of a single topic in the form of a senior thesis.

Students may apply to the DMP as early as the fifth semester before graduation and as late as the third semester before graduation. They must have completed at least two philosophy courses, and they must have and maintain a GPA of at least 3.4 in all philosophy courses taken. (In addition, they should have an overall GPA close enough to 3.4 to make it likely that they will be able to satisfy the College requirement of a final cumulative GPA of 3.4 for graduation with distinction.)

DMP students must complete 36 credits of course work in philosophy, no more than 15 of which are at the 200-level. 100-level courses cannot be counted towards DMP requirements. The 36 credits must include at least 3 credits each of:

  1. logic, chosen from PHIL 242, 542 or 543;
  2. ethics or social philosophy, chosen from PHIL 351, 352, 356 or 257;
  3. metaphysics or epistemology, chosen from PHIL 331, 332 or 334.
  4. seminars for majors (PHIL 401, 402 or other designated courses).
DMP students must also take six courses in the history of philosophy, in accordance with the requirements laid out above for ordinary majors. In addition, six of the required 36 credits must be used for the thesis and allocated as follows: PHIL 493 (Directed Readings) to be used as a pre-thesis research course (the student must submit a thesis proposal to the undergraduate committee upon completion of this course); and PHIL 498 (Senior Thesis). The seminar for majors and PHIL 493 will satisfy the general DMP requirement for 6 credits of advanced course work.

Academic Standards  Majors must maintain an average GPA of at least 2.0 in all their philosophy courses. Failure to do so will result in the students being placed on probation for the following semester. At the end of a probationary semester, if the students' average is still below 2.0, the student may be asked to declare a different major. Majors are expected to obtain grades of C- or better on all their philosophy courses. If majors receive a grade of C- in two philosophy courses they are place on probation. If students receive a grade under C- in a third course they may be asked to declare a different major.

The Philosophy Honors Program  In addition to the major programs listed above, the department offers a program of two years of tutorial study leading to the B.A. degree with honors in philosophy. Candidates are required to pass an examination in logic by the end of their first year in the program. At the end of their final year candidates are required to take written examinations in epistemology, metaphysics and the philosophy of mind, and ethics. In addition, a candidate must either submit a thesis upon a topic of his or her choice, or take a written examination in one of the following: political philosophy, formal logic, philosophy of science, aesthetics, the writings of a major philosopher. An oral examination is held following the written examinations. Students should register for PHIL 490: Honors (15).

Requirements for Minor  The minor in philosophy consists of 15 credits of which no more than three credits may be below the 200 level. The program of study should be developed in consultation with a departmental advisor.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Talbot Brewer, Undergraduate Advisor, 508 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-7701; www.virginia.edu/~philos.

Requirements for a Minor in Bioethics  21 credits including one course at the introductory level either RELG 265 (Theology, Ethics, Medicine) or PHIL 252 (Bioethics: A Philosophical Perspective); BIOL 121 (Human Biology) or BIOL 201-202; 6 credits at the 300-level or higher in ethical and/or political theory, 3 credits of which must be in ethics; and 9 credits at the 300-level or higher in bioethics electives or closely related courses, 6 of which must be in regular bioethics courses.

In order to fulfill the bioethics electives requirement of 9 credits, students may opt to take one course that, while not specifically focused on bioethics, still relates in a substantial way to the issues or methods of bioethics—e.g., BIOL 425 (Human Genetics), PLAP 471 (Values, Resources, and Public Policy), ANTH 329 (Marriage, Mortality, and Fertility), SOC 426 (Health Care Systems). Students may not take all the electives from the same department. A list of electives is maintained by Professor John Arras, the program director.

While most such electives should be at the 300-level or higher, some exceptions are approved (e.g., ANTH 234, Race, Gender, and Medical Science) at the discretion of the program director.

Students may take up to 3 credits for an appropriately structured internship in partial fulfillment of the bioethics electives requirement.

No more than 12 credits may be counted toward both the student's major and this minor. The type and number of courses that are eligible for double counting is handled on an individual basis by the program director in collaboration with the student and her or his academic advisor. The director of the bioethics minor works with closely related departments (e.g., philosophy and religious studies) to ensure that appropriate limits are set on the number of bioethics electives that may count toward the respective majors.

Additional Information  For more information contact John Arras, Program Director, 524 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-7868.

Course Descriptions

PHIL 100 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Philosophy
Introduces a broad spectrum of philosophical problems and approaches. Topics include basic questions concerning morality, skepticism and the foundations of knowledge, the mind and its relation to the body, and the existence of God. Readings are drawn from classics in the history of philosophy and/or contemporary sources.

PHIL 132 - (3) (IR)
Minds and Bodies
Do we really know what we think we know about our world and the other people in it? Discounting familiar sources of error, which we can obviate, the epistemological skeptic argues that there are other sources of error that may well infect our beliefs however careful we may be. Can he be answered? This aside, if we know anything at all, we would seem to know ourselves; are we essentially physical, or could we exist independently of physical bodies? Through reflecting on these and related questions, the course constitutes an introduction to basic problems in the theory of knowledge and in metaphysics.

PHIL 141 - (3) (S)
Forms of Reasoning
Analyzes the structure of informal arguments and fallacies that are commonly committed in everyday reasoning. The course will not cover symbolic logic in any detail.

PHIL 142 - (3) (IR)
Basic Logic
Introduces topics in traditional and symbolic logic, including the syllogism, Venn diagrams, paradoxes, and propositional logic.

PHIL 151 - (3) (IR)
Human Nature
Examines the major theories of human nature and the relation between human beings and the natural world. Includes the views of Plato, the Christian view, existentialism and Marxism, and. Recent psychological theories like Freud's and Skinner's, as well as theories drawing from contemporary biology. Examines the question of nature versus nurture in determining human conduct.

PHIL 153 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Moral and Political Philosophy
Examines some of the central problems of moral philosophy and their sources in human life and thought.

PHIL 154 - (3) (Y)
Issues of Life and Death
Studies the fundamental principles underlying contemporary and historical discussions of such issues as abortion, euthanasia, suicide, pacifism, and political terror. Examines Utilitarian and anti-Utilitarian modes of thought about human life and the significance of death.

PHIL 161, 169 - (3) (S)
Introductory Philosophy Seminars
Discussion groups devoted to some philosophical writing or topic. Information on the specific topic can be obtained from the philosophy department at course enrollment time.

PHIL 201, 205 - (3) (S)
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminars aimed at showing how philosophical problems arise in connection with subjects of general interest.

PHIL 206 - (3) (Y)
Philosophical Problems in Law
Examines and evaluates some basic practices and principles of Anglo-American law. Discusses the justification of punishment, the death penalty, legal responsibility, strict liability, "Good Samaritan laws," reverse discrimination, and plea bargaining.

PHIL 211 - (3) (Y)
History of Philosophy: Ancient and Medieval
Survey of the history of philosophy from the Pre-Socratic period through the Middle Ages.

PHIL 212 - (3) (Y)
History of Philosophy: Modern
Surveys the history of modern philosophy, beginning with Descartes and extending up to the nineteenth century.

PHIL 233 - (3) (E)
Computers, Minds and Brains
Do computers think? Can a persuasive case be made for the claim that the human mind is essentially a sophisticated computing device? These and related questions will be examined through readings in computer science, the philosophy of mind, logic, and linguistics.

PHIL 242 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Symbolic Logic
Introduces the concepts and techniques of modern formal logic, including both sentential and quantifier logic, as well as proof, interpretation, translation, and validity.

PHIL 245 - (3) (E)
Scientific Methods
Introduces the philosophy of science. Topics include experiment, casual inference, models, scientific explanation, theory structure, hypothesis testing, realism and anti-realism, the relations between science and technology, science versus non-science, and the philosophical assumptions of various sciences. Illustrations are drawn from the natural, biological, and social sciences, but no background in any particular science is presupposed.

PHIL 252 - (3) (Y)
Bioethics: A Philosophical Perspective
Surveys biomedical ethics, emphasizing philosophical issues and methods. Includes moral foundations of the physician/patient relation, defining death, forgoing life-sustaining treatments, euthanasia, abortion, prenatal diagnosis, new reproductive technologies, human genetics, human experimentation, and the allocation and rationing of health care resources. Reflects on the various ethical theories and methods of reasoning that might be brought to bear on practical moral problems. Not open to those who have taken RELG 265.

PHIL 257 - (3) (Y)
Political Philosophy
Studies problems involved in understanding the relation between public power and private right.

PHIL 265 - (3) (Y)
Free Will and Responsibility
Examines whether our actions and choices are free and whether or to what extent we can be held responsible for them. Includes the threat to freedom posed by the possibility of scientific explanations of our behavior and by psychoanalysis, the concept of compulsion, moral and legal responsibility, and the nature of human action. 

PHIL 266 - (3) (Y)
Philosophy of Religion
Considers the problems raised by arguments for and against the existence of God; discussion of such related topics as evil, evidence for miracles, and the relation between philosophy and theology.

PHIL 311 - (3) (E)
Plato
Introduces the philosophy of Plato, beginning with several pre-Socratic philosophers. Focuses on carefully examining selected Platonic dialogues.

PHIL 312 - (3) (O)
Aristotle and Hellenistic Philosophy
Introduces the philosophy of Aristotle and the major Hellenistic schools (the Stoics, Epicureans and Skeptics). Emphasizes philosophy rather than history, with readings mainly in the fields of metaphysics, philosophy of nature, philosophy of knowledge, and ethics.

PHIL 314 - (3) (IR)
History of Medieval Philosophy
Examines the continued development of philosophy from after Aristotle to the end of the Middle Ages.

PHIL 315 - (3) (O)
Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz
Studies the central philosophers in the rationalist tradition.

PHIL 316 - (3) (O)
Locke, Berkeley and Hume
Studies the central philosophers in the empiricist tradition.

PHIL 317 - (3) (E)
Kant and Nineteenth-Century German Philosophy
Primarily a study of Kant's metaphysics and epistemology, followed by a brief look at the views of some of Idealist successors.

PHIL 329 - (3) (E)
Contemporary Philosophy
Studies some recent contemporary philosophical movement, writing, or topic.

PHIL 331 - (3) (Y)
Metaphysics
Examines central metaphysical issues such as time, the existence of God, causality and determinism, universals, possibility and necessity, identity, and the nature of metaphysics.

PHIL 332 - (3) (Y)
Epistemology
Studies problems concerned with the foundations of knowledge, perception, and rational belief.

PHIL 334 - (3) (E)
Philosophy of Mind
Recommended preparation: PHIL 132.
Studies some basic problems of philosophical psychology.

PHIL 350 - (3) (Y)
Philosophy of Language
Prerequisite: At least on course in philosophy at the 100 level or above, or instructor permission.
Examines central conceptual problems raised by linguistic activity. Among topics considered are the relation between thought and language; the possibility of an essentially private discursive realm; the view that one's linguistic framework somehow "structures" reality; and the method of solving or dissolving philosophical problems by scrutiny of the language in which they are couched.

PHIL 351 - (3) (Y)
Ethics
History of modern ethical theory (Hobbes to Mill) with especial emphasis on the texts of Hume, Treatise, Book III, and of Kant, Grundlegung, which will be studied carefully and critically. Among the topics to be considered: Is morality based on reason? Is it necessarily irrational not to act morally? Are moral standards objective?  Are they conventional? Is it a matter of luck whether we are morally virtuous? Is the morally responsible will a free will? Are all reasons for acting dependent on desires?

PHIL 352 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Ethics
Studies Anglo-American ethics since 1900. While there are selected readings from G.E. Moore, W.D. Ross, A.J. Ayer, C.L. Stevenson and R.M. Hare, emphasis is on more recent work. Among the topics to be considered: Are there moral facts? Are moral values relative? Are moral judgements universalizable? Are they prescriptive? Are they cognitive? What is to be said for utilitarianism as a moral theory? What against it? And what are the alternatives?

PHIL 356 - (3) (IR)
Classical Political Philosophy
Considers some of the perennial questions in political philosophy through an examination of classical works in the field, including some or all of the following: Aristotle's Politics, Hobbes's Leviathan, Locke's Second Treatise of Government, and Rousseau's Social Contract.

PHIL 359 - (3) (IR)
Research Ethics
Prerequisite: One course in ethics or bioethics, or instructor permission.
Canvasses the history of research scandals (e.g., Nuremberg, Tuskegee) resulting in federal regulation of human subjects research. Critically assesses the randomized clinical trial (including informed consent, risk/benefit ratio, randomization, placebos). Examines the ethics of research with special populations, such as the cognitively impaired, prisoners, children, embryos and fetuses, and animals.

PHIL 361 - (3) (Y)
Aesthetics
Critically investigates central philosophical issues raised by artistic activity: To count as an artwork must a thing have a modicum of aesthetic value, or is it enough that it be deemed art by the community? Is aesthetic value entirely in the eye of the beholder or is there such a thing as being wrong in one's judgment concerning an artwork?

PHIL 363 - (3) (O)
Freud and Philosophy
Philosophical questions arising from Freud's work. First studies Freud's more general writings and examines some case histories; then critically reviews writings about Freud by philosophers, including Wittgenstein, Sartre, and Pears.

PHIL 365 - (3) (Y)
Justice and Health Care
Prerequisite: PHIL 252 or RELG 265.
Philosophical account of health care practices and institutions viewed against the backdrop of leading theories of justice (e.g., utilitarianism, Rawlsian contractarianism, communitarianism, libertarianism). Topics include the nature, justifications, and limits of a right to health care; the value conflicts posed by cost containment, implicit and explicit rationing, and reform of the health care system; the physician-patient relationship in an era of managed care; and the procurement and allocation of scarce life-saving resources, such as expensive drugs and transplantable organs.

PHIL 367 - (3) (IR)
Law and Society
Examines competing theories of law; the role of law in society; the legitimacy of restrictions on individual liberties; legal rights and conflicts of rights; and the relationships between law and such social values as freedom, equality, and justice.

PHIL 368 - (3) (IR)
Crime and Punishment
Critically examines the social force of legally proscribing certain conduct, and of convicting and punishing those who engage in it; the accepted notions of actus reus and mens rea, of action, intention, fault and responsibility;  the nature and scope of excusing conditions, such as ignorance and mental incapacity; and theories of the nature and justification of criminal punishment.

PHIL 369 - (3) (IR)
Justice, Law, and Morality
Prerequisite: One PHIL course or instructor permission.
Examines contemporary liberal theories of justice and of communitarian, Marxist, libertarian, utilitarian, and feminist criticisms of these theories. Uses landmark Supreme Court decisions to illuminate central theoretical disputes.

PHIL 401, 402 - (3) (Y)
Seminar for Majors
Prerequisite:  enrollment restricted to philosophy majors.
Topic changes from year to year.

PHIL 427 - (3) (IR)
Wittgenstein
Prerequisite:  two PHIL courses or instructor permission; PHIL 242 recommended.
Study of Wittgenstein's major works.

PHIL 490 - (15) (S)
Honors Program
Prerequisite: Enrollment in the departmental honors program.

PHIL 493, 494 - (1-3) (S)
Directed Reading and Research
Independent study under the direction of a faculty member.

PHIL 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis

PHIL 504 - (3) (Y)
Bioethics Seminar
Prerequisite: Fourth-year bioethics minor or interdisciplinary bioethics major.
The topic varies from year to year. Previous topics include Methods of Practical Ethics and Reproductive Ethics.

PHIL 505, 506 - (3) (IR)
Seminar on a Philosophical Topic

PHIL 510 - (3) (IR)
The Historiography of Philosophy
Examines the issues arising from the study of the history of philosophy. Authors include Aristotle, Hegel, Russell, Collingwood, and Rorty.

PHIL 513 - (3) (O)
Topics in Medieval Philosophy
Seminar on St. Augustine, St. Bonaventure, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Duns Scotus. Topics include the existence of God, accounts of necessity and possibility, the justification and acquisition of concepts, and the interaction between Platonism and Aristotelianism in Christian thought.

PHIL 542 - (3) (E)
Symbolic Logic
Prerequisite: PHIL 242 or equivalent.
Examines various results in metalogic, including completeness, compactness, and undecidability. Effective computability, theories of truth, and identity may also be covered.

PHIL 543 - (3) (SI)
Advanced Logic
Prerequisite: PHIL 542 or instructor permission.
Continues the study of the metatheory of first order logic, introduced in PHIL 542. Includes the significance of the Lowenheim-Skolem theorem and of Godel's incompleteness theorems for first order arithmetic; the limitations of higher order logic; and topics from specialized areas in logic: set theory, recursion theory, and model theory.

PHIL 546 - (3) (E)
Philosophy of Science
Logical analysis of the structure of theories, probability, causality, and testing of theories.

PHIL 547 - (3) (IR)
Philosophy of Mathematics
Prerequisite: Some familiarity with quantifier logic or instructor permission.
Comparison of various schools in the philosophy of mathematics (including logicism, formalism, and conceptualism) and their answers to such questions as " Do numbers exist?" and "How is mathematical knowledge possible?"

PHIL 548 - (3) (IR)
Philosophy of the Social Sciences
Prerequisite: Six credits of philosophy or instructor permission.
Problems studied include explanation in the social sciences; the place of theory; objectivity; the relation between social science and natural science, philosophy, and literature.

Department of Physics
P.O. Box 400714
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4714
Phone: (434) 924-3781
Fax: (434) 924-4576

Overview  Physics is concerned with the most basic principles that underlie all phenomena in the universe. Physicists search for the most elementary particles, seek understanding of the behavior of collections of particles ranging from quarks in nuclei and electrons in atoms to stars in galaxies, and strive for insights into the nature of space and time. On a more human scale, physicists explore the behavior of matter and energy including all the devices of modern electronics, complex biological molecules, the atmosphere, and all forms of energy and its uses. The principles of physics are the basis for much of engineering and technology. Studying physics can prepare students to push back the boundaries of knowledge in this most fundamental of the natural sciences; it can provide invaluable training in the concepts and methods of science for application in many professional areas; it can develop one's capacity for clear analytical thought that is crucial in many fields, or it can simply increase one's knowledge and appreciation of the wonders of the world around us.

The department has research programs in high energy and nuclear physics, atomic and laser physics, condensed matter physics, biophysics, and gravitational physics. It currently receives approximately $5 million each year in research grants. The state-funded Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics includes a number of faculty members with research related to the electron accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. This accelerator was originally conceived and successfully proposed by physics department faculty members who are now affiliated with this institute.

Faculty  The faculty seeks to offer an outstanding undergraduate program, with opportunities for both majors and non-majors, in the context of a vigorous research department. Students have the opportunity to take a wide variety of courses with many different professors.

Among the many awards and honors the faculty has received in recent years are four Outstanding Scientist in Virginia awards, an Outstanding Faculty Award—the state's highest honor for teaching faculty, the Davisson-Germer Prize of the American Physical Society for research in atomic physics, a Packard Foundation fellowship, six  Sloan fellowships and six Young Investigator Awards (four from the National Science Foundation, two from the Office of Naval Research). The faculty has also been recognized for its teaching. One professor has received an award for innovations in continuing education, four are authors of major textbooks in physics, three have earned University Outstanding Teacher awards, and two have received the Pegram Award of the Southeastern Section of the American Physical Society for excellence in teaching

Students  Physics majors make up a small but outstanding, enthusiastic, and diverse group. Approximately thirty students graduate each year with bachelor's degrees in physics. Beginning in the first year, there are special courses for physics majors. All of the courses are taught by faculty members. The third and fourth-year classes are small, and students have much interaction with the faculty. Physics majors participate in independent study projects, working on a tutorial basis with faculty members and often working with a research group. Since the department has extensive research activities, there are many opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research on the frontiers of physics.

The department has programs designed to serve students with a wide variety of objectives. More than half of those graduating with bachelor's degrees in physics go on to graduate or professional school at top-ranked universities. Many graduates have taken positions in industry or government immediately after graduating with a bachelor's degree. In addition to those who go to graduate school in physics and physics-related fields, each year several go to professional schools in medicine, education, business, or law. Others graduate with physics as a concentration in a broad liberal arts program without a specific scientific career objective.

Special Resources Creating new knowledge is a primary role of a university. This process involves undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty working together at a research frontier and it can provide some of the most stimulating and rewarding educational experiences. The extensive research laboratories and computer facilities in the physics department provide opportunities for students to participate in research in nuclear and particle physics, atomic and laser physics, and condensed matter physics. In addition to the facilities in the Jesse Beams Laboratory of Physics and the High Energy Physics Building on the University Grounds, research groups from the department have active programs at various particle accelerator facilities, including the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia; the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California; the Fermi Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois; and several accelerators in Europe. Undergraduates are involved with research groups through independent study projects, informal affiliations, and working as research assistants during the academic year and in the summer.

One valued privilege for physics majors is having keys that give them access at any time day or night to the departmental library and the departmental computer laboratory as well as conference rooms in which they can meet to work together.

Requirements for Major  The Department of Physics offers both Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degrees. In addition, there is a joint astronomy/physics B.A. The basic B.A. is designed for students interested in physics and planning to enter other fields including medicine, education, business, and law, and for liberal arts students seeking a strong background in physics. Students planning graduate study in physics or physics-related areas should elect the B.S., the B.A. with a Distinguished Major course sequence, or the astronomy/physics B.A. Two special concentrations can be pursued by students in either the B.A. or the B.S. progams: A Computational Physics Concentration (PHYS 553 & 554 Computational Physics I & II); An Optics Concentration (PHYS 531-533 Optics & Optics Laboratory and PHYS 532-534 Fundamentals of Photonics & Photonics Laboratory). Students are urged to contact a physics undergraduate advisor as early as possible to design a program to fit their specific needs.

There are several course sequences leading to the physics major. For all of them it is highly desirable to complete MATH 131, 132 or equivalent courses in calculus by the end of the first year. However, it is possible to begin calculus in the second year and complete the requirements for the B.A.

Requirements for the B.A. in Physics  There are two options leading to the B.A. in physics, each having three components:

Option I

  1. Prerequisites - MATH 131, 132 and PHYS 151, 152.
  2. MATH 231 and PHYS 221, 222, 251, 252.
  3. Three courses chosen from PHYS 254 and/or 300-level physics courses.

Option II

  1. Prerequisites - MATH 131, 132.
  2. MATH 231 and PHYS 231, 232, 201L, 202L, 252.
  3. Four courses chosen from PHYS 254 and/or 300-level physics courses.
For either of the options, a year of chemistry may be substituted for one of the 300-level physics courses in component (3). MATH 325 is not required for the B.A. degree, however, it is a prerequisite for many of the courses at 300 level and above. Students choosing Option II who want more extensive preparation in basic physics and those planning to take physics courses numbered 315 and higher should replace PHYS 201L, 202L in component (2) with the higher level laboratory sequence, PHYS 221, 222, to be taken after completing PHYS 231, 232. It is also possible to enter the physics sequence through PHYS 142E. Students wishing to use this route should consult one of the physics undergraduate advisors.

Bachelor of Arts with Distinguished Major Course Sequence  This sequence may be entered using components (1) and (2) of either option I or II above. Component (3) is replaced by the following requirements: MATH 325, PHYS 254, 317, 321, 331, 342, 355, 356, 393 and one 300-500-level physics elective.

Requirements for the B.S. in Physics  The requirements for the B.S. in Physics are the completion of the Distinguished Major course sequence plus Math 521, 522 (or equivalent APMA courses) and PHYS 343. Except for Echols scholars, the requirements for the B.S. in Physics include completion of the standard College of Arts and Sciences competency and area requirements.

A minimum cumulative 2.0 GPA in all required courses must be achieved for graduation as a physics major.

Distinguished Major Program  The Distinguished Major Program provides recognition of outstanding academic performance in a challenging sequence of physics courses including an independent study project. Students who complete the distinguished majors course sequence or the B.S. requirements with final grade point averages exceeding 3.4, 3.6, or 3.8, are given departmental recommendation to receive their degrees (B.A. or B.S.) with distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction, respectively.

Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts in Astronomy-Physics  This program is offered jointly by the Astronomy and Physics departments and prepares students for graduate study in astronomy, physics, computer science, and related fields. The students take MATH 131, 132, 231, 325,521,522; CS 182 or 101; PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252, 221, 222, 321, 331, 342, 343, 355; and ASTR 211, 212, 313, 395, 498 (Senior Thesis), and six additional credits of 300-500 level astronomy courses. Prospective astronomy-physics major are strongly urged to consult with a physics undergraduate advisor during registration week of their first semester. Students in this program have advisors in both departments.

Requirements for Minor  A minor in physics can be earned through one of the following course sequences: (1) PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252 and either 221 or any 300-level physics course; (2) PHYS 231, 232, 201L, 202L, 252 and any 300-level physics course; (3) PHYS 142E, 241E, 241L, 252 and any 300-level physics course.

Additional Information  For more information, contact Bascom Deaver, Chair of the Undergraduate Program Committee, Physics Department Office, Jesse W. Beams Laboratory of Physics, 382 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400714, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4714, (434) 924-3781; Fax: (434) 924-4576; bsd@virginia.edu; www.phys.virginia.edu. A detailed departmental brochure is available.

Course Descriptions

Note
  There are several introductory course sequences that cover essentially the same topics but in two, three, or four semesters, fulfilling different student needs. Students may offer for degree credit only one of PHYS 142E, 151, and 231; only one of PHYS 232, 241E, and 251.

PHYS 101, 102 - (3) (Y)
Concepts of Physics
For non-science majors. Topics vary from year to year. 101 covers classical physics, such as Newton's laws, science fiction, weight room physics, and weather. 102 covers modern physics, such as relativity, atomic structure, quantum physics, and the atomic and hydrogen bombs. Premedical and predental students should take PHYS 201, 202 rather than 101, 102. They may be taken in either order.

PHYS 105, 106 - (3) (Y)
How Things Work
For non-science majors. Introduces physics and science in everyday life, considering objects from our daily environment and focusing on their principles of operation, histories, and relationships to one another. 105 is concerned primarily with mechanical and thermal objects, while 106 emphasizes objects involving electromagnetism, light, special materials, and nuclear energy. They may be taken in either order.

PHYS 109 - (3) (Y)
Galileo and Einstein
For non-science majors. Examines how new understandings of the natural world develop, taking two famous scientists as case studies. Galileo was the first to appreciate the importance of experiment, while Einstein was the first to realize time is not absolute and that mass can be converted to energy.

PHYS 111 - (3) (Y)
Energy on this World and Elsewhere
Prerequisite: Physics and math at high school level.
The subject of energy will be considered from the perspective of a physicist. Students will learn to use quantitative reasoning and the recognition of simple physics restraints to examine issues related to energy that are of relevance to society and the future evolution of our civilization.

PHYS 115 - (4) (Y)
Powerful Ideas in Physical Science
Covers several main ideas in physical science including matter, sound, heat and energy, force and motion, electricity and magnetism, and light and optics, using a hands-on conceptual learning approach. Students work in cooperative learning groups during both the lab and lecture components. Suitable for preservice education students and other nonscience majors.

PHYS 121 - (3) (IR)
The Science of Sound and Music
Studies the basic physical concepts needed to understand sound. Aspects of perception, the human voice, the measurement of sound, and the acoustics of musical instruments are developed and illustrated.

PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252 - (4) (Y)
Introductory Physics I, II, III, IV
Corequisite: MATH 131, 132, or 231, 325, respectively, or equivalent. The courses should be taken in sequence.
This series of courses, intended for prospective physics majors and other science majors who wish to begin the study of physics in their first semester, prepares students for the physics courses numbered 300 and above. Three lecture hours, one problem hour.

I.
Kinematics and Newton's laws with vector calculus; frames of reference; energy and momentum conservation; rotational motion; special relativity.
II.
Gravitation and Kepler's laws; harmonic motion; thermodynamics; wave motion; sound; optics.
III.
Electrostatics, circuits, electric and magnetic fields; electromagnetic waves.
IV.
Quantum physics; atomic structure; nuclear and elementary particle physics; solid state physics.

PHYS 177 - (3) (IR)
Science and Technology Issues
Introduces the scientific basis and prospects of modern technologies at a level suitable for motivated non-science majors. Discusses the use of lasers, microwaves, and superconductors in health care and communications. Environmental and strategic defense problems are debated via case studies by student teams. A high school math background should suffice.

PHYS 201, 202 - (4) (Y, SS)
Principles of Physics I, II
A terminal course covering the principles of mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism, optics, atomic, solid state, nuclear, and particle physics. A working knowledge of arithmetic, elementary algebra, and trigonometry is essential. PHYS 201, 202 does not normally serve as prerequisite for the courses numbered 315 and above. Students who plan to take more physics should elect PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252, 221, 222 instead. PHYS 201, 202, in conjunction with the laboratory, PHYS 201L, 202L, satisfies the physics requirement of medical and dental schools. PHYS 201 is prerequisite for 202. Three lecture hours; two hours of recitation and problem work.

PHYS 201L, 202L - (1
1/2) (Y,SS)
Basic Physics Laboratory I, II
Corequisite: PHYS 201, 202, or 231, 232. Premedical and predental students should elect this course along with PHYS 201, 202; it is an option for others. PHYS 201L is prerequisite for 202L.
Selected experiments in the different branches of physics are carried out and written up by the student. One three-hour exercise per week.

PHYS 221, 222 - (3) (Y)
Elementary Laboratory I, II
Prerequisite: PHYS151, 152; corequisite: PHYS 251 and PHYS 252, respectively or prerequisite: PHYS 231, 232; corequisite: PHYS 252 for PHYS 222.
Selected experiments in mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours per week.

PHYS 231, 232 - (4) (Y)
Classical and Modern Physics I, II
Prerequisite: MATH 132 or instructor permission.
A two-semester introduction to classical and modern physics for science majors. A calculus-based treatment of the principles of mechanics, electricity and magnetism, physical optics, elementary quantum theory, and  atomic and nuclear physics. This sequence can be used by prospective physics majors and by other students planning to take physics courses numbered 300 and higher; however, the four-semester sequence PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252 is recommended. PHYS 231, 232 in conjunction with the laboratory, PHYS 201L, 202L satisfies the requirements for the B.S. in Chemistry, and can be used in place of PHYS 201, 202, 201L, 202L to satisfy the requirements of medical and dental schools. PHYS 231 is prerequisite for 232. Three lecture hours and one problem session per week.

PHYS 254 - (3) (Y)
Fundamentals of Scientific Computing
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus and one semester of introductory physics (PHYS 151, 231, 142E or 201) or permission of instructor.
Applications of computers to solving basic problems in physical science. Introduction to programming, use of external libraries, and implementation of basic algorithms with focus on numerical methods, error analysis and data fitting. No previous computer experience is required. One lecture and 2 two-hour lab sessions each week.

PHYS 304 - (3) (IR)
Physics of the Human Body
Prerequisite: PHYS 201, MATH 122; corequisite: PHYS 202 or instructor permission.
Application of basic physical principles to functions of the human body; studies selected aspects of hearing, vision, cardiovascular system, biomechanics, urinary system, and information handling.

PHYS 311, 312 - (4) (Y)
Widely Applied Physics I, II
Prerequisite: PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252 or PHYS 231, 232, and MATH 131, 132, 231.
Applications of physical principles to a diverse set of phenomena. Topics include materials science and engineering, computers and electronics, nuclear physics and energy, astrophysics, aeronautics and space flight, communications technology, meteorology, and medical physics and imaging. Emphasis on conceptual issues, order of magnitude estimates, and dimensional analysis. PHYS311 is a prerequisite for PHYS312. Three lecture hours and a discussion session each week.

PHYS 315 - (3) (Y)
Electronics Laboratory
Prerequisite: PHYS 222 or 201L.
Analogue and digital electronics for scientific applications, including the use of transistors, FET's, operational amplifiers, TTL, and CMOS integrated circuits. Six laboratory hours.

PHYS 317 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Laboratory I
Prerequisite: PHYS 222 or instructor permission.
Approximately five experiments drawn from the major fields of physics. Introduces precision apparatus, experimental techniques, and methods of evaluating experimental results. Outside report preparation is required. Six laboratory hours.

PHYS 318 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Laboratory II
Prerequisite: PHYS 222 or instructor permission.
Approximately three to five experiments, selected in consultation with the instructor, emphasizing modern aspects. Outside library research and report preparation are required. Six laboratory hours.

PHYS 319 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Laboratory
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Normally a single, semester-long experiment chosen in consultation with the instructor.

PHYS 321 - (3) (Y)
Classical Mechanics
Prerequisite: MATH 325 and PHYS 152 or 231 or instructor permission.
Statics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies treated with extensive use of vector calculus; includes the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics.

PHYS 331 - (3) (Y)
Statistical Physics
Prerequisite: PHYS 252 and MATH 325, or instructor permission.
Includes temperature and the laws of thermodynamics; introductory treatments of kinetic theory and statistical mechanics; and applications of Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, and Fermi-Dirac distributions.

PHYS 342 - (3) (Y)
Electricity and Magnetism I
Prerequisite: MATH 325 and PHYS 251 or 232 or instructor permission.
Systematic treatment of electromagnetic phenomena with extensive use of vector calculus, including Maxwell's equations.

PHYS 343 - (3) (Y)
Electricity and Magnetism II
Prerequisite: PHYS 342.
Includes Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves and their interaction with matter; interference, diffraction, polarization; waveguides; and antennas.

PHYS 355 - (3) (Y)
Quantum Physics I
Prerequisite: MATH 325; corequisite: PHYS 321 or instructor permission.
Includes quantum phenomena and an introduction to wave mechanics; the hydrogen atom and atomic spectra.

PHYS 356 - (3) (Y)
Quantum Physics II
Prerequisite: PHYS 355.
Continuation of PHYS 355. Intermediate quantum mechanics including perturbation theory; application to systems of current interest.

PHYS 381, 382 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Physics-Related Research Areas
PHYS 381 is not prerequisite to PHYS 382.
Applies the principles and techniques of physics to related areas of physical or life sciences or technology with an emphasis on current research problems.

PHYS 393 - (3) (S-SS)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: PHYS342 and 355, or instructor permission.
For physics majors in their final year of candidacy. A program of independent study carried out under the supervision of a faculty member and culminating in a written report or essay. May be taken more than once.

PHYS 519 - (3) (Y)
Electronics
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Practical electronics for scientists, from resistors to microprocessors.

PHYS 521 - (3) (Y)
Theoretical Mechanics
Studies the statics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies. Discusses the methods of generalized coordinates, the Langrangian, Hamilton-Jacobi equations, action-angle variables, and the relation to quantum theory.

PHYS 524 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to the Theory of General Relativity
Prerequisite: Advanced calculus through partial differentiation and multiple integration; vector analysis in three dimensions.
Reviews special relativity and coordinate transformations. Includes the principle of equivalence; effects of gravitation on other systems and fields; general tensor analysis in curved spaces and gravitational field equations; Mach's principle; tests of gravitational theories; Perihelion precession, red shift, bending of light, gyroscopic precession, radar echo delay; gravitational radiation; relativistic stellar structure and cosmography; and a short survey of cosmological models.

PHYS 531 - (3) (Y)
Optics
Prerequisite: Knowledge of vector calculus and previous exposure to Maxwell's equations.
Includes reflection and refraction at interfaces, geometrical optics, interference phenomena, diffraction, Gaussian optics, and polarization.

PHYS 532 - (3) (Y)
Fundamentals of Photonics
Prerequisite: PHYS 531 or permission of instructor.
This course is designed to provide an understanding of the physics that underlies technologies such as lasers, optical time/frequency standards, laser gyros, and optical telecommunication. Covers the basic physics of lasers and laser beams, nonlinear optics, optical fibers, modulators and optical signal processing, detectors and measurements systems, and optical networks.

PHYS 533 - (2) (Y)
Optics Laboratory
Corequisite: PHYS 531 or permission of instructor.
Experiments include ray optics, aberrations, Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment, diffraction gratings and atomic spectroscopy. Michelson interferometer and coherence, diffraction, polarization and interference. One four-hour lab per week.

PHYS 534 - (2) (Y)
Photonics Laboratory
Corequisite: PHYS 532 or permission of instructor.
Experimental topics include lasers, laser beams, diode lasers, frequency modulation, acousto-optic modulation, electrooptic modulation, and second harmonic generation. One our-hour lab per week.

PHYS 547 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Molecular Biophysics
Prerequisite: PHYS 331 or CHEM 361, PHYS 355 or CHEM 362, MATH 521, or instructor permission.
Quantitative introduction to the physics of molecular structures and processes in living systems. Includes molecular structure analysis by X-ray (and neutron) diffraction; electronic configuration of atoms, groups, and small molecules of critical importance in biology; physical methods of macromolecular structure determination in solution and in the solid state; thermodynamic and electronic factors underlying group interactions, proton dissociation, and charge distribution in macromolecules; solvent-macromolecule interactions; action spectroscopy; and rate processes in series and parallel.

PHYS 551, 552 - (3) (IR)
Special Topics in Classical and Modern Physics
Prerequisite: PHYS 342, or instructor permission.
Lectures on topics of current interest in physics research and pedagogy. May be taken more than once.

PHYS 553 - (3) (Y)
Computational Physics I
Prerequisite: PHYS 254. Pre- or Co-requisite: PHYS 321 and PHYS 355, or permission of instructor.
A review of computational methods for differentiation, integration, interpolation, finding zeroes, extrema, etc. proceeding to a concentration on numerical solutions of differential equations, basic spectral analysis, numerical methods for matrices and Monte Carlo simulation applied to problems in classical and modern physics.

PHYS 554 - (3) (Y)
Computational Physics II
Prerequisite: PHYS 553, or permission of instructor.
Advanced topics in computational physics including numerical methods for partial differential equations, Monte Carlo modeling, advanced methods for linear systems, and special topics in computational physics.

PHYS 562 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Solid State Physics
Studies crystal structures, lattice vibrations and electronic properties of insulators, metals, and semiconductors; and superconductivity.

PHYS 572 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics
Studies subatomic structure; basic constituents and their mutual interactions.

PHYS 577 - (3) (O)
Introduction to High Energy Physics
Prerequisite: MATH 231 and PHYS 355, or instructor permission.
Studies the experimental basis of high energy principles. Topics include the behavior of strong, electromagnetic, and weak forces and their symmetries; electroweak standard model; interactions of particles; and present and planned high energy accelerators.

PHYS 593 - (1-3) (S)
Independent Study
A program of independent study carried out under the supervision of a faculty member, culminating in a written report, essay, or examination. May be taken more than once.

Note  Service courses offered by the Department of Physics for the School of Architecture (PHYS 203A) and for the School of Engineering and Applied Science (PHYS 142E, 241E) are open to students in the College of Arts and Sciences. These courses count against the degree credits a student may earn for courses taken outside the College. They are described in the course listings in chapters 7 and 10 respectively.

Advanced graduate courses in the Department of Physics are described in the
Graduate Record.

Program in Political Philosophy, Policy and Law
The major in Political Philosophy, Policy and Law (PPL) provides undergraduate students with an opportunity to pursue intensive study of the connections between political philosophy and legal theory, legal thought and historical change, law and public policy. The major is based firmly on the view that the study of law has a rich humanistic tradition and that its pursuit encourages sustained reflection on fundamental values. Because the domain of law, policy and political philosophy is huge, a principal objective of the major is the integration of diverse disciplinary perspectives. But interdisciplinary dialogue on political and legal ideas, processes, doctrine, and policies can be fruitful only if the participants engage one another from a position of disciplinary strength. The requirements for the major in PPL are grounded on this presumption.

Political Philosophy, Policy and Law is a major with four components. Majors must take prerequisite courses, required courses, interdisciplinary-core courses, and related courses in a foundational discipline.

There are three prerequisite courses for majors in PPL. Prospective majors must have completed, or be currently enrolled in,
two of them upon applying for admission to the major program. The prerequisite courses are ECON 201 (Microeconomics), one course in the history of political thought, and one course in legal history and public policy. The latter two courses must be selected from the following menus:

History of Political Thought (one course)
PHIL 356 Classical Political Philosophy
PLPT 301 Ancient and Medieval Political Theory
PLPT 302 Modern Political Thought
 
Legal History and Public Policy (one course)
HIUS 355 Early American Law
HIUS 356 Modern American Law
PLAP 381 Constitutional Interpretation

Courses taken as prerequisites cannot be counted in fulfillment of the interdisciplinary-core requirement for the major (see II below). However, courses taken as prerequisites may be counted in fulfillment of the requirement for related courses in the foundational discipline (see III below).

There are two required courses for PPL majors (See I below). PPL 201 (Morality, Law and the State) must be taken by the spring semester of the third year, and PPL 401 (Research Seminar) must be taken during the fourth year.

Majors in Political Philosophy, Policy and Law must complete eight courses in the interdisciplinary core. (See II below). Four courses shall be selected from a menu of courses in Political Theory and Legal Theory; four courses shall be selected from a menu of courses in Legal History and Public Policy.

Majors in Political Philosophy, Policy and Law must take four related courses to establish a foundational discipline in Economics, History, Philosophy, or Politics upon declaring the major (See III below). Advanced Placement credits may not be used to fulfill this requirement. Two of the four related courses in the foundational discipline may be selected from the PPL prerequisite courses, from the PPL required courses, or from the PPL interdisciplinary-core courses; both will be counted in fulfillment of each requirement for the major. PPL majors are strongly encouraged to complete a minor in their foundational discipline but are not permitted to undertake a second major.

Completion of the major, then, requires 9 credits in prerequisite courses, 30 credits in the major subject (the required and interdisciplinary core courses), and 6 additional credits in related courses. With the advice and consent of the academic advisor, majors having a foundational discipline in Politics or Philosophy will also earn a minor in the related field by completing the PPL major requirements. Majors with a foundational discipline in Economics or History may earn a minor in the related field by taking one course beyond the PPL major requirements.

I.  Required Core (2 courses)

PPL 201 (Morality, Law and the State)  This course examines the importance of moral philosophy to the study of the legal and political institutions of the modern state. In addition to exploring the nature of morality and moral reasoning, the course deals with basic questions about the concept of law and the justification of the state. Possible topics include inalienable rights, distributive justice, civil disobedience, secession, and the priority of liberty.

PPL 401 (Research Seminar)  This seminar, designed to facilitate the production and collective evaluation of 35-page research papers, is taught annually by the Director of the PPL Program and/or by members of the Committee on Political Philosophy, Policy, and Law.  Enrollment in each section is limited to 15 fourth-year majors.

II.  Interdisciplinary Core (8 courses)

A.  Political and Legal Theory  

Select four courses. Two courses must be taken in Political Theory and two in Legal Theory. Courses taken as PPL prerequisites cannot be counted in fulfillment of this requirement.

  1. Political Theory (select 2 courses)

    HIEU 381 Marx
    PHIL 356 Classical Political Philosophy
    PHIL 357 Political Philosophy
    PLPT 301 Ancient and Medieval Political Theory
    PLPT 302 Modern Political Thought
    PLPT 303 Contemporary Political Thought
    PLPT 305 Survey of American Political Theory
    PLPT 403 Democracy and its Critics
    PLPT 407 Liberalism and its Critics
    PLPT 506 Plato and Aristotle
    PLPT 515 Continental Political Thought

    With the advice and consent of the academic advisor, PPL majors may take topical seminars offered as PLPT 424.

  2. Legal Theory (select 2 courses)

    ANTH 323 Legal Anthropology
    ECON 401 Game Theory
    ECON 408 Law and Economics
    HIUS 354 American Legal Thought since 1880
    PHIL 206 Philosophical Problems in Law
    PHIL 367 Law and Society
    PHIL 368 Crime and Punishment
    PHIL 369 Justice, Law and Morality
    PLPT 505 Concepts of Law
    SOC 455 Sociology of Law
B.  Legal History and Public Policy  

Select four courses from at least three different departments. Two courses must be taken in Legal History and two in Public Policy. Courses taken as PPL prerequisites cannot be counted in fulfillment of this requirement.

  1. Legal History (select 2 courses)

    COMM 341 Commercial Law I
    HIEU 309 Ancient Law and Society
    HIEU 355 English Legal History to 1776
    HIEU 372 Witchcraft
    HIUS 303 Era of the American Revolution
    HIUS 355 Early American Law
    HIUS 356 Modern American Law
    PLAP 382 Constitutional Limitations
    PLAP 483 First Amendment
    PLAP 484 Race and the Constitution
    RELJ 331 Jewish Law
    RELC 320 Medieval Church Law
    RELC 510 Natural Law in Judaism and Christianity

    With the advice and consent of the academic advisor, PPL majors may take topical seminars offered as HIEU 401, HIUS 401, or HIUS 403.

  2. Public Policy (select 2 courses)

    COMM 342 Commercial Law II
    ECON 416 Economics of Health
    ECON 418 Economics of Regulation
    ECON 420 Antitrust Policy
    ECON 421 International Trade
    ECON 431 Economics of the Public Sector
    PHIL 365 Justice and Health Care
    PLAN 306 Land, Law, and the Environment
    PLAP 319 Judicial Processes and Policy Making
    PLAP 355 Gender Politics
    PLAP 381 Constitutional Interpretation
    PLIR 311 International Law
    PLPT 480 Political Economy
    PSYC 346 Psychological Study of Children, Families, and the Law
    PSYC 468 Psychology and Law: Cognitive and Social Issues
    SOC 255 Law and Society
    SWAG 381 Feminist Theories and Methods

    With the advice and consent of the academic advisor, PPL majors may take  topical seminars offered as PLAP 424.
III.  Related Courses in a Foundational Discipline (4 courses, 2 of them double counted)

Majors in PPL must establish a foundational discipline by fulfilling the designated requirements in ONE of the following departments:

Economics (select one course from each group)

(1) ECON 201 Microeconomics
(2) ECON 202 Macroeconomics
(3) ECON 301 Intermediate Microeconomics
ECON 311 Mathematical Microeconomics
(4) ECON 408 Law and Economics
ECON 431 Economics of the Public Sector

ECON 201 will also count as a PPL prerequisite course; ECON 306 or ECON 431 will count as a PPL interdisciplinary-core course as well as a PPL related course in the foundational discipline. PPL majors may earn a minor by selecting two more Economics courses from the interdisciplinary-core menu, completing an approved statistics course, and maintaining a cumulative GPA of 2.0 in the minor coursework.

Politics (select one course from each group)

(1) Any PLAP (American Politics)
(2) Any PLCP (Comparative Politics)
(3) Any PLIR (International Relations)
(4) Any PLPT (Political Theory)

Any two PLAP, PLIR or PLPT courses, chosen from different subfields and selected from the interdisciplinary-core menu, will count as PPL related courses in the foundational discipline as well as PPL interdisciplinary-core courses in the appropriate category. PPL majors may earn a minor by selecting two more Politics courses in the same subfield, one of them at the 400- or 500-level, from the interdisciplinary-core menu and by earning a grade of C or better in all minor coursework.

History (select one course from each group)

(1) HIEU 204 Roman Republic and Empire
  HIEU 211 England to 1688
(2) HIEU 207
Early Modern Europe
  RELC 233 History of Christian Social & Political Thought I
  RELJ 331 The Judaic Tradition
(3) Any HIEU (History of Europe) at the 300 level
(4) Any HIUS (History of the United States) at the 300 level

Any HIEU course and any HIUS course selected from the interdisciplinary-core menu will count as a PPL related course in the foundational discipline as well as a PPL interdisciplinary-core course in the appropriate category. PPL majors may earn a minor by selecting one more History course from the interdisciplinary-core menu and completing a course in African, East Asian, South Asian, Latin American, or Middle Eastern history.

Philosophy (select one course from each group)

(1) PPL 201 Morality, Law and the State
(2) PHIL 141 Forms of Reasoning
  PHIL 142 Basic Logic
(3) PHIL 331 Metaphysics
  PHIL 332 Epistemology
(4) PHIL 356 Classical Political Philosophy
  PHIL 357 Political Philosophy

PPL 201 will also count as a PPL required course. PHIL 356 will count as a PPL prerequisite course or as an interdisciplinary-core course, as well as a related course in the foundational discipline. If PHIL 357 is selected instead, it will count as an interdisciplinary-core course in the appropriate category, as well as a related course in the foundational discipline. PPL majors may earn a minor by selecting two more Philosophy courses from the interdisciplinary-core menu.

Admission Procedures  TBA. First class of 30 majors will be admitted in April 2004. Contact James R. Sofka, Department of Politics, for questions and additional information at (434) 982-2952.

Program in Political and Social Thought
P.O. Box 400786
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-0786
Phone: (434) 982-2235

Overview  Now approaching its twenty-fifth year, this well-regarded interdisciplinary program was launched by a small group of University faculty from several departments committed to the idea of broad social inquiry. It offers qualified students the opportunity to pursue the study of society, and the study of politics—conceived both in its broadest and narrowest senses—without being limited by the boundaries, or the methodological preoccupations, of the relevant disciplines. With the advice of associated faculty, independent and capable students can fashion a program of study that reflects their intellectual interests and goals. Some students construct a program that emphasizes thought and significant thinkers (e.g., John Locke, Karl Marx, Max Weber, John Dewey, Hannah Arendt) or concepts (justice, property, welfare, human rights). Others place greater emphasis on concrete studies—in the past (nineteenth-century Christian missionaries in Africa; labor unions in the 1930s auto industry), or in the present (the impact of welfare reform; the impact of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission). Some students are more theoretically oriented, others more practically inclined; all share a deep curiosity about the content and implications of social and political thought. A key strength of the program is that, within reasonable limits, it can be custom-tailored to the student's interest. Another is its interdisciplinary character, established during the intensive year-long core seminar offered in the third year. The student can study politics and society wherever they are best examined for his or her purpose.

Among the departments and programs that have played a considerable role in this program are history, politics, sociology, anthropology, studies in women and gender, religious studies, philosophy; and more recently, economics, bioethics, and English.

The program is an outstanding major for a variety of future activities—in many cases better than a major in a single department. Students graduating from this program often pursue further study in graduate and professional schools, gaining admission to the nation's top programs. Members of recent classes, for example, have been accepted to law schools at Harvard, Yale, N.Y.U. and Virginia; and to Ph.D. programs at the same and similar institutions. Other students have gone on to careers in publishing, investment banking, labor organizing, and positions in NGOs and advocacy groups like Amnesty International. In short, PST majors find themselves well-prepared for careers in a wide variety of fields.

Because of the intensive nature of this two-year program, study abroad during the school year cannot ordinarily be allowed.

Faculty  Michael Joseph Smith, the program director, is a Thomas C. Sorenson Professor of Political and Social Thought, and an associate professor of politics. Other faculty associated with the program and its faculty committee include Ellen Contini-Morava and George Mentore of anthropology; James Childress, William Wilson, and Charles Mathewes of religious studies; John Arras and John Simmons of philosophy; George Klosko of politics; Erik Middlefort and Alan Megill of history; Murray Milner and Sharon Hayes of sociology; Ann Lane of history and studies in women and gender; and Rita Felski and Raymond Nelson of English. The program's high reputation often attracts other faculty from throughout the University to act as thesis advisors.

Students  The program attracts able, creative, diverse, and independent students with strong interests, both theoretical and practical, in politics and society. Each spring about 16-18 rising third-year students are selected for the program from a substantial applicant pool. Students are chosen on the basis of strong grades, a writing sample, a faculty recommendation, and a short essay explaining the student's interest in the field. PST majors share an intensive, full-year core seminar in their third year in which they write short essays virtually every week. In the fourth year, students focus on their individual thesis projects, while sharing a weekly thesis seminar and workshop during the fall term. In this way, they come to know each other and their teachers.

Requirements for Major The major has four basic components:

1. PST Seminars
8 hours
2. Foundation Courses
6 hours
3. Area Studies
18 hours
4. Thesis
6 hours
 
PST Seminars  8 hours, open to majors only, consisting of PST 485, 487, and 498.

Foundation Courses  Each student must complete at least six (6) hours from the following list of courses, or equivalents approved by the director, dealing with political and social thought or its historical foundations:

ANTH 301 Theory and History of Anthropology
3
ECON 412 Evolution of Economic Thought
3
HIEU 378 Origins of Modern Thought
3
HIEU 379 Intellectual History of Modern Europe
3
HIEU 380 Origins of Contemporary Thought
3
PHIL 356 Classics in Political Philosophy
3
PHIL 357 Political Philosophy
3
PLPT 301 Ancient Political Theory
3
PLPT 302 Modern Political Theory
3
PLPT 303 Contemporary Political Theory
3
PLPT 305 American Political Theory
3
RELC 233 History of Christian Political and Social Thought I
3
RELC 234 History of Christian Political and Social Thought II
3
SOC 302 Introduction to Social Thought
3
SOC 503 Classical Sociological Theory
3

Area Studies  Each student is required to define three different area studies. An area is defined as a particular intellectual theme or subfield of interest to be investigated in the course of the student's studies. These areas can be derived from within, between, or outside traditional disciplines. Some examples of area studies might include ancient (or modern, or contemporary) political thought;  18th-19th century intellectual history; applied ethics; human rights; church-state relations; feminist theory; issues in third-world development; the modern welfare state; or African-American movements in the post-war era.

For each area, the student must complete two relevant courses at the 300 level or above. The total of six courses necessary to fulfill the area requirements
must be drawn from at least three different disciplines, programs, or departments. In brief: 3 areas; 2 courses per area; 3 disciplines.

Taken together, the three areas of study should be well thought-out and intellectually coherent, and form the general basis of study for the fourth-year thesis. The three areas of study define the interdisciplinary character of the student's program and must meet a rigorous standard of coherence. In consultation with their advisors and the program director, students are expected to articulate the rationale of their choices in a brief written statement due by the end of the third year.

Fourth-Year Thesis  Six hours consisting of PST 497Y.

Admission  Interested students currently in their fourth semester in the College of Arts and Sciences are invited to apply for admission into this interdisciplinary program. As a distinguished major, the program admits only eighteen new students a year. A 3.2 cumulative GPA is generally required for admission. The program assumes the students will be in Charlottesville their third and fourth years. It is highly desirable (but not mandatory) that students applying for the PST program should take at least one of the courses listed under the foundations of political and social thought by the end of their second year.

Students interested in becoming PST majors should submit:

  1. a completed PST application form;
  2. a letter of recommendation by a faculty member;
  3. a 300-500 word essay. This essay should address the following two questions: (1) Why are you interested in becoming a PST major? (2) At this (tentative) point, what three area studies would you select in constructing your PST curriculum? This answer does not obligate students to a particular course of studies if they are accepted into the program;
  4. a writing sample. Students may submit a previously completed term paper or essay (preferably with the instructor's comments on it) or a piece of creative writing.
The above materials should be brought to the PST office in 248-A Cabell Hall by March 1. Candidates should hear from the committee by the end of March.

The director of the PST program holds a meeting for the prospective majors in early February to answer any questions about admission procedures and program requirements. Students may also obtain this information from the PST website or by calling the PST office at (434) 982-2235.

Additional Information  For more information write to Michael J. Smith, Program Director, 248-A Cabell Hall, P.O. Box 400786, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4786, (434) 982-2235; mjs9t@virginia.edu; www.virginia.edu/pst/.

Course Descriptions

Note  These courses are open only to majors in Political and Social Thought.

PST 485 - (3) (Y)
Core Seminar in Political and Social Thought I
Study of great political and social thinkers and movements studied from a variety of disciplinary and genre viewpoints. Readings include classic texts, plays, novels, literature, current works of advocacy. Led by the program director, with occasional guest faculty; weekly response essays required.

PST 487 - (3) (Y)
Core Seminar in Political and Social Thought II
Continuation of PST 485, with greater emphasis on contemporary works.

PST 497Y - (6) (Y)
Thesis in Political and Social Thought
Prepared with the advice of two faculty members, the fourth-year PST thesis is a substantial, independent, year-long project built upon the student's prior study in the program.

PST 498Y - (2) (Y)
Workshop in Thesis Research
Taken in the fourth year, this workshop offers discussion with PST faculty on their current research and continuing presentation of students' developing projects.

Woodrow Wilson Department of Politics
P.O. Box 400787
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4787
Phone: (434) 924-3192
Fax: (434) 924-3359

Overview  It should come as no surprise that, at the University of Virginia, politics is one of the most popular and prestigious departments. After all, Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, founded this University to educate and prepare citizens for participation in the governance of this country.

The department studies government, public law, and politics of the national, state and local levels, and among states in international relations. Its course offerings are divided into four fields: American politics, comparative politics, international relations, and political theory. These fields permit two undergraduate majors. The government major emphasizes American politics and political theory, while the foreign affairs major emphasizes comparative politics and international relations. Both degree programs require study in all four of the department's fields; at the same time, they are designed to allow each student latitude in selecting courses that meet specific interests.

The department's orientation is toward developing a critical understanding of the practical and theoretical dimensions of national and international governmental processes and institutions, as well as providing students with essential analytical and methodological skills. Rather than narrow specialization or vocational training, the department's programs are designed to prepare students for teaching and research, public service at all levels of government, and fields such as business, foreign affairs, journalism, and public affairs.

Faculty  With more than thirty-five faculty members, the department offers students access to a diverse group of internationally recognized scholars and teachers. This group includes the immediate past president of the American Political Science Association, a recipient of Fulbright, Rockefeller, N.E.H. and American Council of Learned Societies fellowships, and a Rhodes Scholar, who is a frequent political commentator on national news broadcasts. The faculty has published numerous influential books.

Students  More than 650 students are currently seeking a degree in one of the two majors available in the department. As a result, introductory lecture courses are large (200-plus students) and designed to give students an overview of a major topic (e.g., national government of the United States). In courses with large enrollments, teaching assistants lead discussion sections, which are limited to twenty students. Upper-level courses and seminars focus on more specific topics, such as Virginia government and politics, Japan in world affairs, or Marxist theories. While upper-level courses average thirty to forty students, seminars are limited to fifteen. The department offers approximately 100 courses each year. Advanced students may enroll in graduate course work or pursue independent study topics.

Most students who receive a degree in politics go immediately into the workforce. Corporations from around the country come to the University to recruit students. However, graduate work is being pursued by an increasingly large percentage of students. Law is the most popular option, at Virginia's law school or other top schools, such as Harvard and Stanford. Others choose graduate work in international relations, foreign affairs, or business.

Special Resources
Internships  Several internship programs are available to students through various research centers located within the University, including the Center for Governmental Studies. There also are internships available through state agencies and in Washington, D.C. These must be approved by both the internship coordinator at the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service and the undergraduate advisor.

Requirements for Major  Students planning to major must see an associate undergraduate advisor regarding admission and assignment to a faculty advisor. Completion of at least three credits of work in this department with no grade below C and a cumulative grade-point average (GPA) of 2.0 are prerequisites for majors in government or foreign affairs.

Government  The major concentration in government requires 30 credits of course work, as specified below, including the three prerequisite hours. No more than nine credits taken at the 100 level may be counted toward the major. At least fifteen credits of course work in the department must be earned at the 300 level and above. At least six of these must be earned at the 400 and 500 levels.

The government concentration requires the following minimum distribution of courses among the four fields:

I.
American Politics - three credits
II.
Comparative Politics - three credits
III.
International Relations - three credits
IV.
Political Theory - three credits; majors should take this distribution requirement by the end of their third year.
V.
Choice of PLAP or PLPT track: students choosing the PLAP track must take nine additional credits in PLAP; students choosing the PLPT track must take nine additional credits in PLPT.

The remaining nine credits required for the government major may come from departmental offerings in any of the four fields, depending on student interests and objectives.

In addition to the 30 credits required in the Department of Politics, 12 credits of courses in closely related disciplines, such as history, philosophy, the social sciences and, in appropriate cases, in other related subjects, are required. No more than six of these credits should be taken at the 100 and 200 levels. The other six credits should be in advanced courses. Students should seek to construct their related course "package" in such a way that it contributes to their major subject field in as direct a fashion as possible, and to have this list of courses approved by their major advisor.

Foreign Affairs  The major concentration in foreign affairs requires 30 credits of course work, as specified below, including the three prerequisite credits. No more than nine credits taken at the 100 level may be counted toward the major. At least fifteen credits of course work in the department must be earned at the 300 level and above. At least six of these must be earned at the 400 and 500 levels.

The foreign affairs concentration requires the following minimum distribution of courses among the four fields:

I.
American Politics - three credits
II.
Comparative Politics - three credits
III.
International Relations - three credits
IV.
Political Theory - three credits; majors should take this distribution requirement by the end of their third year.
V.
Area Courses - six credits in a pair of courses that specialize in one area of the world, of which three should be in comparative politics and three in international relations. Area courses may deal with all or part of Latin America, Western Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Africa, or Eastern Europe and Russia.
VI.
Six additional credits in either international relations or comparative politics.

The remaining six credits required for the foreign affairs major may come from departmental offerings in any of the four fields, depending on student interests and objectives.

In addition to the 30 credits required in the Department of Politics, 12 credits of courses in closely related disciplines, such as history, philosophy, the social sciences, and in appropriate cases, in other related subjects, are required. No more than six of these credits should be taken at the 100 and 200 levels. Students should seek to construct their related course "package" in such a way that it contributes to their major subject field in as direct a fashion as possible, and to have this list of courses approved by their major advisor.

Both Majors  A grade of C or better is necessary in any course counted toward the major. Students who earn a grade of C- or lower in three courses in the department or who drop below a 2.0 GPA in the department are not allowed to continue as majors.

The 18 credits offered to fulfill the basic field requirements of the major must be taken in this department. Ordinarily, six of the remaining nine credits required for the major may be transferred from other institutions, with the approval of the departmental undergraduate advisor.
Such approval is not automatic. In order to be counted toward the major, work done elsewhere must be of a suitable nature and quality and must be offered in compliance with departmental rules available from the undergraduate advisor. Students already enrolled at the University of Virginia who wish to take courses at other institutions (including foreign ones) must obtain advance approval from the dean of the College and, for courses to be counted toward the major, from the departmental undergraduate advisor as well. Students who transfer to the University may transfer three credits for the required prerequisite and up to six of the nine credits not specified as fulfilling basic field requirements for the major after proper validation.

Under no circumstance may advanced placement credit count toward fulfilling the major.

Requirements for Minor  A minor program in politics consists of at least 15 credits of course work taken at the University in at least two of the four fields of the department, with a grade of C or better. At least nine credits must be in one field. Of the 15 credits, no more than six may be taken at the introductory (100) level. At least three credits must be taken at the 400 or 500 level. No advanced placement credit is allowed for a minor.

Students taking the minor in government or foreign affairs should fill out a minor application in the department's academic office (Cabell 240). The department's rules for satisfactory standing apply.

Honors Program  The Bachelor of Arts with honors, high honors, or highest honors may be awarded to students who follow a special course of study during the third and fourth years. It combines honors seminars and a thesis with independent, as well as ungraded study, in this department and others. Written examinations are given at the end of each year, and a general oral examination is conducted by an independent examining committee at the end of the fourth year. The John White Stevenson Prize may be awarded annually for the best honors thesis.

Students of unusual academic distinction and promise may be selected for participation. They should consult with the department's Honors Program advisor at the time of declaring a major. Before admission to honors study, they should complete, with superior grades, at least three courses distributed among the fields of American politics, comparative politics, international relations, and political theory.

The Distinguished Majors Program  Students of high academic achievement are eligible for the department's Distinguished Majors Program (DMP). Students completing the program graduate with distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction. A prerequisite of three credits of course work in the department and departmental and University GPA's of 3.4 or above are required for admission. Students wishing to apply should submit an application form, a statement of interest in the DMP, a copy of their current transcript, and two sealed letters of recommendation from faculty members. Students may apply in the second semester of their third year. The application deadline is April 1.

GPA Requirements  Students in the DMP must maintain grade point averages of 3.4 or better, both cumulatively and in the department.

Requirements of the DMP  Students in the DMP are required to take 3 hours in the Department as a prerequisite plus 30 hours in the major. These 30 hours must include:  1) At least l5 hours at the 400 and 500 levels including six credit hours of PLAD 496.  2) Courses to satisfy general departmental distribution rules for Government or Foreign Affairs majors.  

The DMP Seminar  In the fall semester, members of the DMP will meet regularly (but not weekly) to discuss issues related to conceptualizing, researching, and writing social-science theses. A small amount of readings will be assigned to inform that disussion. In the spring semester. members of the DMP will present their preliminary hypotheses and findings to the seminar.

The DMP Thesis  Students in the DMP are required to write a thesis of high quality, earning six credits, during the fourth year. The thesis course, PLAD 496, is a year long course, carrying six credit hours, and graded at the end of the second semester. Students are responsible for obtaining a faculty member to serve as their thesis advisor for both semesters of the PLAD 496 course. Complete first drafts of theses must be submitted by April 1; the final deadline for completed theses, reflecting all revisions, is the third week of April, on a date set each year by the director.

Program Evaluations  Students who successfully complete the requirements of the DMP will be evaluated according to the following rankings: Distinction, High Distinction, or Highest Distinction. Evaluations will be based on the following: (l) quality of the thesis, (2) overall work in major field of study, (3) overall College record.

Faculty thesis readers will forward evaluations to the Department's DMP faculty director, will review the evaluations and students' records, and forward recommendations to the College Committee on Special Programs.

Superior theses will be nominated by faculty advisors for the Emmerich-Wright Prize, which is given annually to the outstanding thesis, as determined by a faculty committee. The prize carries a cash award.

For more information on the Department's DMP, contact David Waldner 924-6931.

Conferences and Special Activities  Students and faculty of the department meet frequently in informal and off-the-record conferences throughout the session at which discussions are led by visiting authorities from government, business, and educational institutions. Speakers of distinction are also brought to the Grounds by student organizations, including those consisting primarily of students in the department. When appropriate, field trips are organized to study the operation of government and international relations firsthand in nearby Richmond, Washington, and the United Nations.

The Quincy Wright Library (Cabell Hall 211) is the department's special reference collection. It is available to undergraduates as a supplement to their explorations in Alderman and Clemons Libraries.

Additional Information
 For more information, contact Dale Copeland (434) 924-6930, Director of Undergraduate Advising, Department of Politics, 240 Cabell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903; (434) 924-3604; www.virginia.edu/govtfa.

Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service

The Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service was created in 1987 by the merger of the former Institute of Government and portions of the former Tayloe Murphy Institute. With research programs in government, public policy, business and economics, and demographics, the center brings multiple perspectives to the study of Virginia. It assists both state and local governments in the Commonwealth with research into specific issues, management expertise, planning, and social and economic data. The center also sponsors professional education programs for government managers and elected officials, through the Virginia Institute of Government, and it hosts the Virginia Institute of Political Leadership. In all its work, the center aims to apply the University's resources to improving the public life of Virginia.

The center employs both work-study students, who serve as office staff, and graduate research assistants, who gain firsthand experience in research and government by participating in center projects. The center's publications program provides a wealth of data on Virginia to supplement course work in political science, economics, history, and sociology. Besides its central offices in Charlottesville, the center maintains a Southwest Virginia office in Wise County and a Richmond office.

Center for Governmental Studies

The Center for Governmental Studies, founded in 1998 by government professor Larry J. Sabato, maintains a close tie with the department. The center is dedicated to the non-partisan study and development of practical solutions to the problems facing our political system. The center is currently sponsoring a dozen projects and seminars, including the annual National Post Election Conference, the Youth Leadership Initiative, the Governors Project, and studies of the referendum process and non-voting. For more information, contact Larry Sabato or Alexander Theodoridis at (434) 243-8468.

Course Descriptions

Departmental Seminars

PLAD 100 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Seminar in Politics
Open to first- and second-year students. Only one PLAD seminar per student.
Introduces the discipline of political science through intensive study of the political dimensions of a selected topic.

PLAD 496 - (6) (Y)
Thesis for Distinguished Majors Program
Students must be previously admitted into the department's Distinguished Majors Program.

American Politics

PLAP 101 - (3) (S)
Introduction to American Politics
Surveys the fundamentals of American government and politics, systematically covering the major institutions of our system (the presidency, the Congress, the courts) as well as the system's essential processes.

PLAP 227 - (3) (Y)
Public Opinion and Political Behavior
Study of the nature of public opinion and its relationship to politics and public policy.

PLAP 266 - (3) (Y)
Ideas, Institutions, and Public Policy
Examines and critically assesses the ideas, institutions, and public policies that constitute the foundation and have influenced the development of liberal democracy in the United States.

PLAP 314 - (3) (Y)
Mass Media and American Politics
Examines the role of mass media in the political process including such topics as print and broadcast news, media and election campaigns, political advertising, and media effects on public opinion and political participation.

PLAP 319 - (3) (Y)
Judicial Process and Policy-Making
Prerequisite: PLAP 101 or permission of instructor.
Survey of empirical and, to a lesser extent, normative questions concerning actors and institutions in American judicial politics. Topics include the selection of judges, judicial decision making, the legal profession, the impact of court decisions, and the role of judges in a democracy.

PLAP 321 - (3) (Y)
Political Parties and Group Politics
Introduces the roles of parties, interest groups, public opinion, and elections in democratic government.

PLAP 322 - (3) (Y)
President and Congress
Studies the political bases, structures, and functions of Congress and the institutionalized presidency, and their interaction in political leadership and policy  making.

PLAP 331 - (3) (IR)
American Presidency
Prerequisite: Two courses in PLAP, or instructor permission.
Examines the power, purposes, and problematics of the presidency as a role of national leadership in the American and political constitutional system. While the emphasis is on the modern presidency (1933-present), attention is given to its historical development.

PLAP 335 - (3) (Y)
American Congress
Prerequisite: Two courses in PLAP, or instructor permission.
Focuses on the contemporary organization and workings of the United States Congress. Emphasizes elections, the committee system, political parties, staff, and the law-making process, as well as the role of Congress in the national policy making system.

PLAP 341 - (3) (Y)
State and Local Politics
Prerequisite: One course in PLAP or instructor permission.
Investigates the political dynamics of subnational political institutions, parties, and elections. Includes state parties and elections, intergovernmental relations and institutional powers, representation and democracy in federal systems, and subnational policy processes.

PLAP 344 - (3) (Y)
Urban Politics
Prerequisite: Any course in PLAP, PLCP, or economics.
Analyzes the structure, politics, and problems of American cities. The meaning and scope of “"urban crisis" receive extensive attention. Examines the growing ties between the federal government and cities, central city-suburban conflict, machine politics, and welfare and housing policies.

PLAP 351 - (3) (Y)
Minority Group Politics
Prerequisite: Any course in PLAP or instructor permission.
Examines the problems and politics of minority groups in the United States. Studies both the theoretical and practical aspects of minority group politics, including their comparative experience in the U.S.

PLAP 355 - (3) (Y)
Gender Politics
Prerequisite: Two social science courses or permission of the instructor.
Examines the legal and political status of women, and the politics of changes in that status. How are gender identities forged, and how do they affect law, public policy, political rhetoric, and political movement? Explores, more generally, the clash between “"difference" and "equality" in democratic societies, using gender as a case-study.

PLAP 361 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Public Administration
Prerequisite: PLAP 101, PLCP 101 or instructor permission.
Studies the role of public administration in contemporary government, emphasizing administrative structure, control, and relations with other branches of government.

PLAP 381 - (3) (Y)
Constitutional Interpretation: Separation of Powers and Federalism
Prerequisite: Two courses in PLAP or instructor permission.
Studies the legislative, executive, and judicial branches and the functional and territorial distribution of powers as reflected by Supreme Court decisions. Includes the nature of the judicial process. (No CR/NC enrollees.)

PLAP 382 - (3) (Y)
Constitutional Limitations: Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
Prerequisite: Two courses in PLAP or instructor permission.
Studies judicial construction and interpretation of civil rights and liberties reflected by Supreme Court decisions. Includes line-drawing between rights and obligations. (No CR/ NC enrollees.)

PLAP 412 - (3) (IR)
Electoral Behavior and Political Participation
Prerequisite: PLAP 227.
Surveys current theories and research on electoral behavior, including political participation, partisanship, voting behavior, and the impact of electoral institutions.

PLAP 424 - (3) (S)
Seminar: Special Topics in American Politics
Prerequisite: One course in PLAP or instructor permission.
Investigates a selected issue in American government or American political development.

PLAP 430 - (3) (Y)
Political Analysis
Prerequisite: One course in PLAP or instructor permission.
Seminar examining basic issues in the design, execution, analysis, and interpretation of political research. Familiarizes students with practical tools, such as quantitative analysis and computing skills, which enable them to carry out an original research project.

PLAP 434 - (3) (IR)
American Political Leadership
Prerequisite: PLAP 101 or instructor permission.
Studies the theory and practice of political leadership at the national level with comparisons to state, local, and foreign government. Includes leadership in different institutional and policy settings, techniques of leadership, types of leaders, bargaining among leaders, experience of specific leaders, and conditions and opportunities of leadership.

PLAP 436 - (3) (Y)
Campaigns and Elections
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Reviews and analyzes the techniques and technologies of modern American election campaigns. Enrollment is limited.

PLAP 438 - (3) (Y)
The Politics of the Policy Process
Prerequisite: PLAP 101 or instructor permission.
Analyzes cross-institutional and inter-level (federal/state/local) public policy processes. Emphasizes how domestic policy issues are defined and treated by executive and legislative units, as well as interest group involvement.

PLAP 471 - (3) (Y)
Values, Resources, and Public Policy
Prerequisite: Any course in PLA, economics, or philosophy, or instructor permission.
Examines the political, economic, and ethical content of enduring domestic policy issues.

PLAP 483 - (3) (Y)
First Amendment
Prerequisite: PLAP 382 or fourth-year undergraduate government major.
Examines the constitutional law of the first amendment from the founding of the United States to the present. Considers and analyzes Supreme Court decisions and scholarly works.

PLAP 484 - (3) (S)
Race and Constitution
Prerequisite: PLAP 381 or 382 or instructor permission.
Examines the constitutional law of racial discrimination in the United States from the founding to the present. Considers Supreme Court decisions and congressional civil rights acts. (No CR/NC enrollees.)

PLAP 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Prerequisite: Three courses in PLAP and instructor permission.
Supervised work on a thesis in American politics for especially motivated students.

PLAP 513 - (3) (Y)
Sex Differences: Biology, Culture, Politics and Policy
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
An exploration of sex and gender differences—in traits such as sexuality, cognition, nurturance, and aggression—with a consideration of their causes, significance, and political/policy implications.

PLAP 526 - (3) (IR)
Special Topics in Public Policy or Public Administration
Prerequisite: Any PLA course or instructor permission.
Intensive analysis of selected issues in public policy or public administration.

PLAP 543 - (3) (Y)
Intergovernmental Relations
Prerequisite: Six credits of American Government or fourth-year standing.
Analyzes the contemporary relations of national, state, and local governments. Examines urban and metropolitan growth problems and their implications for public policy and administration in relation to the federal system.

PLAP 545 - (3) (Y)
Virginia Government and Politics
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Analyzes Virginia government at the state, county, municipal, and special district levels. Considers legislative, executive, judicial organization, intergovernmental relations, and structural and political arrangements in the existing and emerging metropolitan areas. Enrollment is limited.

PLAP 562 - (3) (IR)
Organization Theory and Administrative Behavior
Prerequisite: Any PLA course or instructor permission.
Studies the principles of organization from scientific management theory through contemporary theorists. Explores the relationship of workers and management to the organization with primary emphasis on government.

PLAP 592 - (3) (Y)
Judicial Policymaking
Prerequisite: Nine credits in American Government and instructor permission.
Examines the structure and process of judicial policymaking, focusing on agenda-setting, deciding cases and opinion writing, implementation, compliance, and impact. Particular attention is given to the United States Supreme Court and its relationship to lower federal and state courts and the political environment.

PLAP 594 - (3) (Y)
Administrative Law and Public Policy
Prerequisite: Any PLA course or instructor permission.
Examines the law-politics exchange in the American system of administrative law.

PLAP 595 - (3) (S)
Selected Problems in American Politics
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Independent study under faculty supervision, for students who are preparing for intensive research on a specific topic.

Comparative Politics

PLCP 101 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Comparative Politics
Provides a basis for understanding and explaining similarities and differences in the character of political life as observed in different settings. Issues include the political role of parties and interest groups, management of political conflict, establishment of legitimate political authority, and the consequences of federal and unitary systems of government.

PLCP 201 - (3) (Y)
The Politics of Advanced Industrialized Countries
Surveys politics in industrialized societies including Japan, North America, and Western Europe. Focuses on the rise of social movements in response to industrial and social change, the changing bases of political parties and democratic rule, attempts to manage increasingly international economies, and prospects for political cooperation and integration.

PLCP 212 - (3) (Y)
The Politics of Developing Areas
Surveys patterns of government and politics in non-Western political systems. Topics include political elites, sources of political power, national integration, economic development, and foreign penetration.

PLCP 242 - (3) (Y)
Politics of Modernity
Introduces key analytical concepts used by Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkeim in their analysis of how the development of modern society has shaped the nature of modern politics.

PLCP 311 - (3) (Y)
The Politics of Western Europe
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Europe.
Surveys recent developments in selected political systems of Western Europe, as well as the European Union. Emphasizes the impact of political culture on governmental institutions and political processes.

CFCP 313 - (3) (Y)
Political Economy of Development
Prerequisite: PLIR 205 or instructor permission.
Examines the political prerequisites (and impediments) to economic development, focusing on agricultural exporters in the 19th century and manufactured goods exporters in the 20th century. Draws on empirical material from North and South American, Europe, Asia and Africa.

PLCP 321 - (3) (Y)
Russian Politics
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Russia.
Analyzes the political system of the former USSR and Russia from 1917 to the present. Focuses on evolution of the Soviet state, modernization and social change, efforts to reform the system, the collapse of the USSR, as well as the economic and political transformation taking place in the newly independent states.

PLCP 341 - (3) (Y)
Politics of the Middle East and North Africa
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of the Middle East.
Introduces contemporary political systems of the region stretching from Morocco to Iran.

PLCP 351 - (3) (Y)
Chinese Politics
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or the history of China.
General introduction to Chinese politics in its societal context. Conveys a concrete appreciation of China's societal reality and how it interacts with the political system. Covers China's changing role in Asia and the world.

PLCP 363 - (3) (Y)
Politics in India and Pakistan
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or study of history and society in South Asia.
Surveys political development in India and Pakistan examining the process of nation-building, the causes of democratization and authoritarian rule, the development of ethnic and religious conflict, environmental politics, the political impact of cultural globalization, and gender-related political issues.

PLCP 401 - (3) (IR)
Theories of Comparative Politics
Prerequisite: One course in PLCP or instructor permission.
Critical examination and analysis of basic approaches to the study of political systems.

PLCP 413 - (3) (IR)
Political Economy of Advanced Industrial Economies
Prerequisite: PLIR 205 or instructor permission.
Examines how the U. S., Germany, and Japan politically organize their major industries, and the economic consequences of this regulation. Compares financial systems, unionization, and firms  internal organization, looking at relations between firms and labor, labor and the state, and firms and the state.

PLCP 414 - (3) (IR)
Democracy and Dictatorship
Prerequisite: One course in PLCP or instructor permission.
Surveys and critically evaluates theories of origins of democratic and authoritarian governments, and the causes of subsequent transitions to, and away from, democratic regimes.

PLCP 415 - (3) (Y)
Comparative Public Policy
Investigates why policies in areas like social welfare, education, and trade differ across time and across countries in advanced industrialized nations.

PLCP 424 - (3) (S)
Seminar: Topics in Comparative Politics
Prerequisite: One course in PLCP or instructor permission.
Intensive analysis of selected issues and concepts in comparative government.

PLCP 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Prerequisite: Three courses in PLCP and instructor permission.
Supervised work on a thesis in comparative politics for especially motivated students.

PLCP 501 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Political Systems of Northern Europe
Prerequisite: PLCP 201, 311 or instructor permission.
Surveys selected political systems of Northern Europe, such as the British Isles, the Low Countries, Germany, or Scandinavia.

PLCP 502 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Political Systems of Southern Europe
Prerequisite: PLCP 201, 311 or instructor permission.
Surveys selected political systems in Southern Europe, such as France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal.

PLCP 506 - (3) (Y)
Political Development and Developmental Politics
Prerequisite: One course in PLCP or instructor permission.
Critical examination and analysis of the basic theories of political development. Emphasizes development of the modern nation state in Europe and the Developing World from 1400-2000.

PLCP 507 - (3) (Y)
Rational Choice in Comparative Politics
Prerequisite: Two courses in PLCP and/or economics, or instructor permission.
Introduces rational choice theory, one of the most important recent approaches to studying politics. Addresses the challenge of applying both classic and newer theories to democratic transitions and constitutions, elections and voting, coalitions, social movements, and political reform.

PLCP 511 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of Western Europe
Prerequisite: Graduate status or instructor permission.
In-depth analysis of the institutional structures and policy processes of selected political systems in Europe today. Focuses on legislatures, political executives, administrative bureaucracies and their interrelationships as they effect policymaking and policy implementation.

PLCP 520 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Political Parties
Examines political parties in a variety of institutional and socioeconomic settings, focusing on parties in the democratic political systems of Europe, the United States, and Japan.

PLCP 521 - (3) (Y)
Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics
Prerequisite: Graduate status or instructor permission.
Studies the political institutions and processes in the former Soviet Union and its successor states from 1917 to the present. Focuses on modernization, social change, changing structures and institutions, political mobilization, political cultures, nationality issues, and the problems of reform, system transformation and democratization.

PLCP 523 - (3) (Y)
Politics of Eastern Europe
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Eastern Europe.
Studies the development of political institutions in Eastern Europe since 1989. Comparative analysis of the differing paths of development taken by the East Europe regimes. Includes the history of the region. Examines the transitions, the development of political parties, economic reforms, and institutional development, as well as security issues, including the Yugoslav conflict and the expansion of Western security arrangements into Eastern Europe.

PLCP 525 - (3) (Y)
Politics of Economic Reform
Prerequisite: Previous course in PLCP, PLIR, or economics is recommended.
A wave of economic change has swept across countries from Argentina to Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. The unfolding of these changes has been structured by and, in turn, has shaped the politics of the countries in which they have occurred. Formulates an analytical framework for understanding the politics of economic reform. Studies cases in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

PLCP 531 - (3) (IR)
Politics of Latin America
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Latin America.
Studies the constitutional, political, and administrative system of the major countries of Latin America; the political implications of economic development and social reform; and nationalist theories of socio-political development.

PLCP 533 - (3) (IR)
Political Parties and Movements in Latin America
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Latin America.
Studies the origins, activities, and contemporary position of the major political parties and movements in Latin America and Spain, and their relationship to economic development, social reform, and the conduct of government in the principal Latin American states.

PLCP 536 - (3) (IR)
Role of the Military in Latin America
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Latin America.
Studies the impact of the military on government and society, the conditions effecting military intervention against constitutional governments, and the circumstances in which military intervention occurs and is likely to occur in Latin America and Spain.

PLCP 541 - (3) (Y)
Islam and Democracy in the Middle East
Prerequisite: PLCP 341 or equivalent.
Studies the prospects for democratic transitions in Middle Eastern states, emphasizing the role of Islamic political movements.

PLCP 551 - (3) (Y)
Politics of China
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of China.
Studies the structure and process of the Chinese political system, emphasizing political culture, socio-economic development and political socialization.

PLCP 553 - (3) (Y)
Politics of Japan
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Japan.
Surveys contemporary Japanese society and political behavior including such topics as political culture, interest groups, political parties, parliamentary democracy, decision-making, and public policy.

PLCP 563 - (3) (E)
Politics of Vietnam
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Asia.
Comprehensive introduction to Vietnamese politics, including its domestic political development and its international relations. Focuses on contemporary Vietnam, but also considers the historical development of Vietnamese politics.

PLCP 567 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Science and Technology Policy
Prerequisite: Graduate status or instructor permission.
Examines role played by science and technology policy in promoting economic and social welfare. Emphasizes government efforts to enhance domestic scientific and technological capabilities. Explores theoretical issues through a comparison of the development of the computer industry in the United States, Japan, South Korea, Brazil, and India.

PLCP 581 - (3) (Y)
Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa
Prerequisite: Some background in comparative politics and/or history of Africa; not open to students who have taken PLCP 381.
Studies the government and politics of sub-Saharan Africa. Includes the colonial experience and the rise of African nationalism; the transition to independence; the rise and fall of African one-party states; the role of the military in African politics; the politics of ethnicity, nation- and state-building; patromonialism and patron-client relations; development problems faced by African regimes, including relations with external actors; and the political future of Southern Africa.

PLCP 583 - (3) (Y)
Politics of South Africa
Prerequisite: PLCP 212, PLCP 581 or instructor permission.
Studies the socio-political structures of white supremacy and the political transition to majority rule. Emphasizes the confrontation between African and Afrikaaner nationalisms, the consequences of economic growth on the patterns of racial stratification, and the complicated process contributing to the creation of the multi-racial democratic society.

PLCP 595 - (3) (S)
Selected Problems in Comparative Politics
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Independent study, under faculty supervision, for intensive research on a specific topic.

International Relations

PLIR 101 - (3) (Y)
International Relations
Studies the geographic, demographic, economic, and ideological factors conditioning the policies of states, and the methods and institutions of conflict and adjustment among states, including the functions of power, diplomacy, international law and organization.

PLIR 201 - (3) (Y)
Evolution of International Relations
Studies the factors that determine continuity and change in the international system. Emphasizes periods of conflict and change; case studies range from the Peloponnesian War to the post-Cold War system.

PLIR 202 - (3) (Y)
Foreign Policies of the Powers
Comparative analysis of the content and definition of foreign policies of select states in historical and contemporary periods.

PLIR 205 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Political Economy
Introduces core concepts in political economy, including the institutional bases for states and markets, and the way these interact through the exercise of exit, voice, and collective action. Empirical material drawn from the last five centuries.

PLIR 304 - (3) (O)
International Politics
Prerequisite: One course in PLIR or instructor permission.
Comparative analysis of major periods in international politics, emphasizing t