Reflecting Jefferson's interest in architecture, courses in architectural drawing and construction were taught at the University as early as 1832. Students now, as then, benefit from the proximity of Jefferson's classical structures and the availability of his plans and drawings for the University Grounds and other buildings. At the end of World War I, a formal curriculum in architecture began, and from the mid 1950s through the early 1970s the School of Architecture continued to expand its programs. Today a student may receive a baccalaureate in architectural history, urban and environmental planning, and a baccalaureate of science in architecture.
The faculty believes that each student deserves personal attention and guidance. The School of Architecture has a small, carefully selected student body. The school seeks applicants with strong academic records and demonstrated artistic creativity.
A prospective student applies to one of the three undergraduate departments, but can apply to transfer from one program to another during the first or second year.
The undergraduate program in architecture combines a solid humanities foundation with an emphasis on the role of architecture as cultural expression, and provides three years of studio experience in the development of architectural ideas and the design of built form. Most graduates of this program go on to advanced degrees in architecture and related fields.
The undergraduate program in architectural history is the only one in the United States. The program is directed toward developing knowledge and an understanding of the history of the built environment: architecture, cities, and landscapes. Opportunity is also provided for an introduction to the issues and practices of historic preservation. After attaining this degree, most graduates of this program go on to advanced degrees in architectural history, art history, architecture, landscape architecture or planning.
The undergraduate professional program in urban and environmental planning is one of less than a dozen such programs in the nation accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board. The study of planning theory, processes, and methods is integrated with the contextual exploration of political and market forces, resource limitations, environmental concerns, and social needs. With the Bachelor of Urban and Environmental Planning degree, many graduates go directly into professional jobs with governmental agencies or private planning and development firms. Others go on to advanced degrees in planning, architecture, law, public administration, and business.
School of Architecture
P.O. Box 400122
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4122
University Admissions: (434) 982-3200
The School of Architecture offers three undergraduate programs of instruction under the Departments of Architecture, Urban and Environmental Planning, and Architectural History. Supporting course work is offered through the cooperation of departments in the College of Arts and Sciences and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
The specific degree requirements for each program depict the general structure and the number of credits necessary for each degree. Evaluation of courses and curricula modification are continuing processes in the school. Therefore, the specific degree requirements are subject to change.
Bachelor of Science (Architecture) The undergraduate degree in architecture offers students an opportunity to combine a foundation in the liberal arts with course work in architecture. The four-year, preprofessional program prepares graduates to pursue a variety of career paths and graduate programs. Students who wish to continue in architecture would complete the requirements of the professional, accredited architecture degree at the graduate level.
Most states require that an individual intending to become an architect hold an accredited degree. There are two types of degrees that are accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB): the Bachelor of Architecture, which requires a minimum of five years of study; and the Master of Architecture, which requires a minimum of three years of study following an unrelated bachelor's degree, or two years following a related preprofessional bachelor's degree. These professional degrees are structured to educate those who aspire to registration and licensure as architects.
The four-year, preprofessional degree, where offered, is not accredited by NAAB. The preprofessional degree is useful for those who desire a foundation in the field of architecture as preparation for either continued education in a professional degree program or for employment options in architecturally related areas.
Bachelor of Urban and Environmental Planning The Bachelor of Urban and Environmental Planning is a professional degree recognized by the Planning Accreditation Board. The program has a strong liberal arts emphasis, and the student is expected to take a majority of the first two years of course work in the College of Arts and Sciences. During the final two years, the student has a wide range of professional seminars and application courses to choose from in the areas of environmental planning, land use planning and growth management, and urban development and housing policy. This course of study is designed to develop an integrative knowledge of environmental and community processes, professional skills, and leadership.
Bachelor of Architectural History This four-year program is one of the few of its kind in the country. Students are offered a liberal arts education with an emphasis on the study of architectural history. This degree program provides an introduction to the problems of historic restoration and preservation, while offering ample opportunity for interaction with the three other departments in the school.
Study Abroad The School of Architecture encourages study abroad by offering programs in Helsinki, Finland and Copenhagen, Denmark, as well as summer programs in Vicenza, Italy and Beijing, China. All students in the School of Architecture are eligible for these programs. For departmental regulations governing participation, contact the director of programs abroad representative in Campbell Hall; (434) 924-3937.
Residence Requirements and Transfer Credits Prospective students must apply to one of the three undergraduate programs. All three programs place substantial emphasis on the liberal arts and include a significant number of courses offered in the College of Arts and Sciences, most of which are taken in the first two years. All three programs also normally require four years for completion and a minimum of two years as a full-time student in the School of Architecture. In some cases, summer session study at the University is also required of transfer applicants.
Credit toward a degree is allowed for work comparable to courses offered at the University, if such work has been completed in an accredited college. Credit is not granted for work completed elsewhere with a grade less than C or its equivalent. The dean of the School of Architecture governs the awarding of transfer credit.
In no case are transfer credits in excess of 60 granted toward an undergraduate degree in the School of Architecture. The school does not accept pass/fail courses for transfer credit.
exceptional circumstances, the School of Architecture dean may waive
an admission or performance requirement when, in the dean's judgment,
such action best serves the intent of the program.
Required Courses A student who enters the School of Architecture without transfer credits must complete, at this University in Charlottesville, all prescribed courses in the curriculum for which she or he is a degree candidate. Students transferring from another college or university must complete, at this University in Charlottesville, all required courses in those subjects not completed at the time of first admission to the School of Architecture. Exceptions may be made to these requirements provided permission is granted in advance by the dean of the School of Architecture.
Candidates for a degree from the School of Architecture must complete the courses in the curriculum for which they are registered, as outlined in the subsequent pages. In addition, candidates must maintain a GPA of at least 2.0 in all courses taken at the school or University and offered for a degree.
The dean of the School of Architecture may waive a specific course requirement for a degree when, in the dean's judgment, such action best serves the intent of the program.
Minors A minor in architecture provides students with an opportunity to develop a basic understanding of, and appreciation for, architecture as an important component of culture and the built environment. The minor requirements are under the curricula section.
A minor in architectural history requires 19 AR H credits, including AR H 105, and 15 credits of AR H electives. No thesis is required.
A minor in urban and environmental planning requires 15 credits of planning courses. Students may choose from among any PLAN course, with no more than 6 credits at the 500 level. Students outside of the school should take at least one plan-making course.
A minor in historic preservation requires 15 credits, nine of which must be from among the following courses in the foundations of preservation core: AR H 590, 351, 352 or 353; ARCH 511, 515; and PLAN 530. Six credits from among more specialized preservation courses are also required. These include, but are not limited to, AR H 515, 554; L AR 523, 512; PLAC 565; PLAN 534, 571; ARCH 512, 513, 516, 517, 522, and 589.
A minor in landscape architecture requires a minimum GPA of 3.0, five courses, and at least 15 credits in landscape architecture. These credits include L AR 512; two courses from among L AR 505, 507, 517, and 535; and at least two of the following: L AR 513, 514, 520, 525, or a University seminar taught by landscape architecture faculty. Students in the Architecture Department are strongly encouraged to take a 400 level studio in Landscape Architecture (subject to availability). Students outside the Architecture department are strongly encouraged to take ARCH 102 Fundamentals of Design (3) in addition to the courses listed above. Student in the College of Arts & Sciences must submit a "Degree Application Form" to their advisor in Landscape Architecture.
Applications for the five minors are available in Campbell Hall, Room 201. Upon completion of all requirements, the signature of the respective department chair must be obtained.
Intra University Courses ARCH101, 102; L AR 512; and all AR H courses are recognized as College equivalents. In addition, AR H 100, 101, 102, 150, and 333 count fully as College courses and meet the area requirement in the humanities/fine arts.
Evaluation Because continuance in the School of Architecture depends on demonstrated ability and promise of professional and academic achievement, each student's performance is evaluated at the end of every semester.
Program Flexibility Curricular requirements for the first two years of the Bachelor of Science in Architecture, Bachelor of Architectural History, and Bachelor of Urban and Environmental Planning degree programs are similar, enabling students to transfer from one program to another.
Ownership of Student Work The School of Architecture reserves the right to retain student course work for exhibition and publication with appropriate credits. Teachers who wish to retain student work for their own purposes must gain student consent and provide adequate documentation of the work for the student.
Course Load Special permission of the dean's office is required to register for fewer than 12 credits or more than 19 credits each semester.
Incompletes IN represents incomplete and indicates the grade is being withheld until additional work is performed and approved. The deadline for resolution of IN grades is the first Friday in January for courses taken in the fall semester, and the last Friday in May for courses taken in the spring semester. Grades that remain IN after those times will be administratively changed to F.
Credit/No Credit Grades Students have the option of receiving a CR (credit) or NC (no credit) in place of the regular grades, A through F, for a given course. This option is selected when students register for courses. Instructors may deny students permission to take courses on a CR/NC basis. If this occurs, students may either change back to the regular grading option, or they may drop the courses entirely. Courses taken for CR/NC may not be used for any major or basic area requirements.
Only one three-credit course of open elective credit may be taken each semester on a CR/NC basis.
Class Standing Students are categorized by class according to the number of credits they have earned as follows: 1st year: 0-29 credits; 2nd year: 30-59 credits; 3rd year: 60-89 credits; 4th year: 90 or more credits. AP and transfer credits are included in the computation of class standing; credits not completed or completed unsuccessfully are not. Students in the design concentration are classified according to their studio level.
Academic Performance Student performance in the Department of Architecture's professional subjects is reviewed by the faculty at the end of every term. Students are expected to achieve at least a C- in ARCH 201, 202, 301, 302, 303, 324, and 401. Grades of D or F in any of these professional courses results in repeating the course. A grade of C in a studio course is grounds for reconsideration of continuing in the studio sequence. If, in the judgment of the faculty, a student has not achieved an appropriate standard of performance in a professional subject, he or she may be required to repeat one or both terms of the course before proceeding with the next level of work in this subject. There is an approved student grievance procedure relative to grades.
Participation in formal juries is an integral part of a student's training in architecture. There are few tenable reasons for missing a jury, and the professor must be notified of the reason for an absence. An unexcused absence from a jury is deemed by some faculty as grounds for failure.
Students majoring in Urban and Environmental Planning or Architectural History must pass their required departmental courses with a minimum grade of C-.
Probation Students are placed on probation if they do not pass at least 12 credits of work in any semester following the first semester, or if their cumulative GPA falls below 2.0 after the completion of the first semester. Enrollment in advanced professional course work is allowed only for students with GPAs of 2.0 or better. A third probation, or probation following suspension, results in a final suspension.
Suspension Students are suspended if they do not pass at least ten credits of work in any semester following their first semester. Students who have been suspended once may appeal to the school's faculty for readmission. However, this appeal will be considered only after the student has passed a minimum of six credits in this University's summer session with a grade of at least C in each course. In addition, these courses must be approved by the Dean of the School of Architecture. Courses taken in the School of Continuing and Professional Studies or any other institution are not accepted for degree credit or as a basis for application for readmission. No student suspended a second time will be readmitted.
Campbell Hall, the School of Architecture building, was completed in 1970 and is part of a complex of buildings forming a Fine Arts Center that also includes the Department of Art, the Department of Drama, and the Fiske Kimball Fine Arts Library. Campbell Hall provides well-equipped studio work areas, exhibition areas, lecture halls, and seminar rooms. The school has two computer-graphics and computer-aided design laboratories with high resolution graphics. These facilities support software applications in computer-aided design, GIS digital mapping and modeling, site analysis, image processing, rendering, animation, structural analysis, lighting analysis, energy analysis, statistics, word processing, spreadsheet, and other areas. They also contain UNIX, Macintosh, and IBM computers with Internet access, and maintain digital voice and video links with other research laboratories in the United States and Europe. The design studio space has network connections for individual computers. Other research support facilities include digital modeling laboratories, a woodworking shop, and a photography darkroom.
The Fiske Kimball Fine Arts Library, a branch of the University of Virginia Library system, serves the School of Architecture, the Department of Art and Art History and the Department of Drama. The collections include 155,000 volumes, including technical reports, videos, CD-ROMs, and other electronic resources. We also have an image collection of 200,000 slides and a growing digital image collection. The collections cover all aspects related to architecture, landscape architecture, architectural history, urban and environmental planning, and the visual and performing arts. The Fine Arts Library provides patrons with access to all University Library resources, including government documents, maps, rare books and manuscripts, many other online resources, as well as a gateway to the Internet. Special emphasis is placed on teaching students and faculty to conduct research utilizing online resources. Reference services are provided to the entire University community and to practioners throughout the Commonwealth and the nation.
Dean's List To be eligible for the Dean's List of Distinguished Students at the end of each semester, students must take a minimum of 15 credits and achieve a grade point average of 3.4 or higher without failure in any course. Courses taken on a CR/NC basis may not be counted toward the 15-credit minimum. Any student receiving an F, NC, IN or NG during the semester is not eligible to be on the dean's list.
Honors Students who enter the University
directly from high school or preparatory school and who after four
regular semesters, have completed at least 60 credits of course work
with a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.4 at the end of the fourth semester
and are in the top twenty percent of their class, are awarded a Certificate
of Intermediate Honors; the notation "intermediate honors"
is placed on the student's official academic record.
Theses and Commencement Honors Students who have demonstrated high academic achievement in pursuit of the bachelor's degree are eligible for commencement honors.
Diplomas inscribed "with honors" are awarded to graduates who have earned a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.6.
Diplomas inscribed "with high honors" are awarded to graduates who have earned a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.75.
Diplomas inscribed "with highest honors" are awarded to graduates who have earned a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.90.
The School of Architecture offers graduate programs leading to the degrees of Master of Architecture, Master of Landscape Architecture, Master of Architectural History, and Master of Urban and Environmental Planning.
A separate graduate catalog describing each of these programs is available from the Admission Office of the School of Architecture. A Ph.D. in Architectural History is administered through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
Bachelor of Science in Architecture
The Bachelor of Architecture Program attracts a diverse range of students with a wide range of interests that are bound together by an overriding desire to consider and construct environments of enduring value.
Transfer students are accepted into the Department each fall up through the beginning of third year. Students wishing to transfer into the University's Department of Architecture should refer to www.virginia.edu/~admiss/ugadmiss/home.shtml. Those students already a member of the University and wishing to apply for transfer should refer to the Student Handbook at http://www.virginia.edu/arch/.
The prime objective of the curricular core of the first three years is to provide a framework for the study of contemporary culture through observation, analysis, and considered design of our ongoing constructed occupation of the earth. This exploration uses design as a mode of critical inquiry from the scale of the city to the scale of the hand while maintaining its focus on the value of this effort to the community and the land, both immediate and extended. To make this evaluation possible, the curriculum is based on the foundation of a liberal arts education formed broadly during the first two years of study while subjects directly related to making architecture are pursued in the third year.
Students entering the Department of Architecture follow one curriculum for their first three years. Starting in their second year, the strategic choices of electives will prepare the student to pursue the concentration of their choice.
Election of Concentration
At the end of the spring semester of the third year, each student will elect a course of study for the fourth year from the following list. The choices are designed to maximize the opportunities for undergraduate study given the wide range and scope of student interests and potential career paths.
4th Year: Pre-Professional Concentration
This Concentration is for students intent on pursuing a career as a practicing Architect. The curriculum is designed to maximize the opportunities to explore through design complex issues and conditions as well as representing intentions in material form.
4th Year: Architectural Studies Concentration:
This Concentration is designed for students interested in expanding the scope of their study to include the related design fields of landscape architecture or urban planning. This option also allows students interested in the relationship between the practice of architectural design and research into architectural history or technical issues related to building and the environment to pursue these interests. Minors offered within the School of Architecture are the primary vehicle used to complete the degree requirements.
4th Year: Multi-Disciplinary Concentration
This Concentration is for those students interested in exploring the connection between architecture and another discipline. This discipline can be something as close to architecture as art or engineering, or it could also be a more distant field, such as business, archeology, or materials science. It is the student's responsibility to make the case for the connection. Fulfilling the requirements for a minor in the related field is the primary vehicle used to complete the degree requirements.
A minimum grade point average of 2.0 is required.
(1) HUM or SCI Elective: SCI "Science" electives include Natural Sciences, Mathematics, Engineering, and Computer Science.
(2) Students scoring above 600 on the math SAT are encouraged to take MATH 131. Students who have not completed a trigonometry course prior to matriculation, or who scored below 550 on the math SAT, are required to take MATH 103 Pre-Calculus in lieu of an Open Elective in the first semester.
(3) ARCH Elective: Any course designated with one of the following prefixes: ARCH, AR H, LAR, PLAC, PLAN, or PRES. ARCH Elective - Minor Related: An ARCH Elective that is directly related to the Minor Study Area.
(4) One Open Elective per semester may be taken Credit/No Credit. A Maximum of 8 hours of degree credit will be granted for Ensemble Music or Dance. A maximum of 12 hours of degree credit will be granted for AIRS, MISC, & NASC courses. PHYE "Physical Education" credits do not count toward degree totals.
Note Students who wish to obtain the Master of Architecture professional degree apply to a graduate program. Students expecting to enter graduate studies should have maintained a 3.0 cumulative average, with a 3.5 average in the architectural design sequence. Admission into the graduate program in architecture at the University of Virginia is extremely competitive.
Minor In Architecture
The Minor in Architecture is offered to all students at the University. Students who complete the Minor range from those whose major is in a related field and who wish to expand the boundaries of that endeavor, to those considering graduate study in architecture.
Urban and Environmental Planning
The Program in Urban and Environmental Planning balances professional planning skills with a liberal education emphasizing interdisciplinary study. Students typically take courses in the social and natural sciences, the humanities, and in design fields that complement professional courses in planning practice and theory. Graduates either begin work in the public or private sectors or go on to graduate professional studies.
The scope of the planner's work encompasses present and future urban and environmental concerns, including such diverse issues as environmental impact, quality of life, and the public and private costs of development. Planners work in the public and private sectors in urban and rural areas. Public sector planners work for all levels of government, formulating plans to redevelop or rehabilitate downtowns and neighborhoods, develop land aesthetically and profitably, and regulate private development to protect public interests. Although planners frame long-range designs, anticipating futures 5 to 15 years away, they are also deeply involved in choosing among current projects. Private sector planners employed with land developers, utilities, banks, property management firms, industries, and other major corporations do similar work according to the particular concerns of each business. Many of these concerns are integrated with the department's focus on sustainable community development.
Students may enter the program directly from high school, or they may transfer from another University school or other accredited universities or colleges. Usually, students transfer in their first or second year and complete the degree requirements without additional sessions. Although the first two years conform closely to the Arts and Sciences core curriculum, students who wish to transfer to the program should consult with the director of undergraduate studies. Students may apply for transfer for the spring or fall semesters. If other prerequisites have been met, it is possible for transfer students to complete the required planning courses in two years.
Bachelor of Urban and Environmental Planning(1)
(1) Students must have a minimum of 122 credits with at least a 2.0 average in order to graduate with a Bachelor of Urban and Environmental Planning degree.
(3) Select two from among ARCH 101, ARCH 102 (ARCH 102 is taken only after ARCH 101), AR H 100, or AR H 105.
(6) Planning applications courses are designated as PLAC. They emphasize field work, analysis, plan development, document preparation, and formal presentation. PLAC401 is designed for planning undergraduates seeking a culminating workshop.
(7) A Professional Elective can be taken in a professional school, at the 300-level or above, with advisor's permission.
The undergraduate curriculum provides an introduction to the discipline of architectural history within a liberal arts program. A minimum of 34 credits in architectural history is required for the major. These include AR H 105 and AR H 490. The latter is taken during the fourth year, which allows students to research and write an advanced paper on a topic of their choice while working closely with a faculty member. This paper, with faculty comments, becomes part of the student's permanent record. Students must also complete the first year of architectural design courses (ARCH 201-202). Appropriate preservation and art history courses may be used to fulfill architectural history requirements after consultation with an academic advisor.
Bachelor of Architectural History(1)
(1) Students must have a minimum of 122 credits with at least 2.0 average in order to graduate with a Bachelor of Architectural History degree.
(3) Students must attain, at a minimum, an intermediate level in one foreign language, usually by completing 12 credits of foreign language study through the 202 level. Any remaining course slots may be used for additional languages or as open electives. Those with previous language study may contact the appropriate department for placement in advanced level courses (i.e., to begin study at the University with a 200- rather than a 100-level language course). Students scoring at least 620 on a CEEB language achievement examination have satisfied this requirement. Those intending to continue in the field of architectural history are advised to study a second language.
(4) Students should take advantage of courses in preservation and building technology when they are available.
With faculty approval, upper-level undergraduate students may be allowed to enroll in graduate courses and offer them for elective credit. These courses are described in the Graduate Record and are offered through all four departments.
Although ARCH, AR H, L AR, and PLAN are preprofessional and professional courses, not all are restricted to School of Architecture students. If students outside the school wish to enroll in one of these courses, they should secure the approval of the faculty member offering that course. Even in professionally-oriented courses, some faculty members encourage and welcome such participation.
Lessons of the Lawn
The study of architecture as a speculation on origins is located at the conjunctive core of any liberal arts curriculum and serves as the physical armature and conceptual foundation of the University. This course is concerned with the contemporary imagination, attempting to make the discipline of architecture meaningful to a wide range of citizens in its public obligation to be constructive and optimistic in the most profoundly ethical, pragmatic, and magical of terms.
Lessons in Making
This course explores the delights and dilemmas of making physical objects. With simple tools and modest materials (paper and pencils, brushes and paint, cardboard and earth) we will make drawings, paintings, sculptures and architectural designs. In the context of this course, to make means to imagine, invent and design; it also means to study, research and analyze. Making engages both our minds and our bodies-our hands and muscles, as well as all our senses. We will thus study not only the objects of our making, but also the different ways in which we perceive-the ways we see, touch, taste, smell and hear our physical environment.
ARCH 201, 202 - (4) (6) (Y)
Introduction to Architectural Design
Explores the humanistic determinants of form; architecture as both experience and formal proposition; analysis and synthesis in the design process; and the communication of design intentions.
Prerequisite: ARCH 201, 202.
Analyzes architectural design conceptualization and synthesis; the relationship of building, site, and basic technology as determinants in architectural form; and the integration of various disciplines and concerns in the design of a complete building.
Introduces the technology involved in the design and construction of buildings, emphasizing the nature of materials and their practical assembly. A parallel intention to ARCH 301 and 302, it presents a vocabulary that interrelates history, theory, and technology.
Introduction to Digital Analysis and Representation
The course focuses on the development of skills needed to represent analytical and creative ideas utilizing digital multimedia. Emphasis is placed on the exploration of computer-aided diagramming, abstraction, collage, assemblage and three-dimensional analytical modeling. In addition, weekly lectures, readings and film screenings introduce students to a broad range of topics engaging architecture, technology and culture.
Architectural Theory and Ethics
Architectural theory acts as a critical discourse parallel to practiceas its conscience and provocation. Buildings, landscapes, and manifestos by architects are scrutinized for significant, recurring themes using methods from aesthetics, philosophy, and criticism. This course relies upon reading, writing, and argument to develop an analytic approach that bridges the gap between architectural knowledge and other forms of knowledge.
Introduction to Structural Design
Prerequisite: Equivalent college-level physics.
A first course in structures for undergraduates to develop analytic and critical skills through both mathematical and visual investigation. Topics include statics, mechanics of materials, computer-based structural analysis, and the design and behavior of basic structural elements and systems.
Prerequisite: ARCH 301, 302.
Explores architectural design problems of complex programs and intermediate scale, emphasizing circulation, formal intent, and specialized technology in both historic and contemporary urban contexts.
Explores the relationship between the technology of contemporary construction and the social, political, and economic forces that form the context of architectural practice. Examines the ethical responsibilities of the architect with respect to the unique tools and knowledge of the discipline.
Selected students lead a seminar (of 8 to 10 younger students each) for "Covenant" and "Fundamentals." All student assistants attend class lectures (for a second time) and then meet with their seminar groups weekly, leading discussions of topics and questions raised by the instructor.
Summer study abroad in Vicenza, Italy. Students will be introduced to Italian culture through the study of architecture, landscape architecture, and city planning. Both the formal ideals as well as the constructed reality of these three subjects will be studied through critical observation and documentation of universal conditions and critical junctures.
Descriptive geometry, perspective, and presentation techniques used in architecture. Required for Path A graduate students.
Hones the faculty of seeing and the skill of drawing through drawing the human figure.
Design Approaches to Existing Sites
Explores various approaches by designers to the contexts of their work. Examines buildings, urban infrastructure, and landscape interventions, and includes lectures, discussions, and presentations by visitors and students.
Surveys the dramatic changes in building, transportation, and communications technology that occurred in America between 1870 and 1920. Developments such as steel, reinforced concrete, electricity, telephones, etc., directly affected building design and construction.
Technology, Materials, and Conservation of Traditional Buildings
Studies the principles of inspection, diagnosis, and treatment of older buildings from an engineering perspective. Emphasizes materials and the structural behavior of masonry, concrete, wood, and metals. Lectures and field work.
Preservation of Jeffersonian Architecture
Examines the Jeffersonian buildings on Grounds within the restoration program now underway in the Academical Village. Provides a hands-on study of the buildings and their care, which examines the buildings within the context of their own historical origins and life span, then broadens that literary and cultural understanding with intensive site investigation, otherwise known as building archaeology. Explores alternative solutions to problems and changes in the buildings.
Surveys the dramatic changes in building, transportation, and communications technology that occurred in America between 1870 and 1920. Developments such as steel, reinforced concrete, electricity, and telephones directly affected building design and construction.
Materials and Assembly
A seminar in which the properties of basic building materials are evaluated and assemblies of critical junctures are proposed and critiqued.
Environmental Control Systems and Lighting
Study of fundamental principles applied to the design of thermal and luminous environments, as well as plumbing/drainage and electrical systems. A studio project is selected for additional analysis and design development focusing on the energy-conscious building envelope, mechanical systems selection, natural and artificial lighting schemes, and the building services layout.
An investigation and comparative analysis of energy consumption patterns before and after energy conserving retrofits were implemented in existing buildings. Explores current and future development trends in energy conservation technologies, emphasizing passive solar analysis and design methodology. This study is followed by an application of issues onto a studio problem.
Development of knowledge and skills in lighting design through the study of exemplary buildings, design exercises, case studies and analyses of lighting conditions. Considers quantitative and qualitative lighting design issues and their synthesis through design.
Construction Practice Management
Provides future architects, engineers, lawyers, and developers with an overall understanding of the construction process for commercial, industrial, and institutional projects. Follows the history of a typical project from selection of architect to final completion of construction. Topics include design cost control, cost estimating, bidding procedures, bonds and insurance, contracts and sub-contracts, progress scheduling, fiscal controls, payment requests, submittals, change orders, inspections, overall project administration, and continuing architect-owner-contractor relationships. Lectures and related field trips.
Design Construction Drawing
Immerses students in the process of producing construction drawings by asking them to organize and generate a complete set of drawings that embody and describe the design intent and construction of a given building. Students examine alternative construction techniques, develop details, and produce a set of construction drawings that would yield a well-built structure whose design intent is clear.
Construction and Modernism
Discussion of the role of construction in design, focusing on industrialization and its impact on architecture in this century. Emphasizes the ideals and reality of mass production and the ways in which this has and does effect architectural form, both in a direct constructional way, and in a conceptional way.
Computer Aided Architectural Design
Explores design worlds that are made accessible through computer-based media. Lectures provide a theoretical framework for computer-aided design, describe current methods, and speculate on advanced methods. Workshop exercises focus on computer-based 3-D geometrical modeling, including photo-realistic and abstract methods of rendering, materials simulation, texture mapping, reflection mapping, image processing, color-table manipulation, photomontage, lighting, animation, and combined media applications.
Computer Graphics and Design Application
Applies geometrical modeling to solving design problems using an array of solid modeling, geometrical modeling, rendering and image-processing tools.
Prerequisite: ARCH 541/542 or 544, or instructor permission.
Explores the simulation of architecture, urban design, and environmental design through movie-making. Examines parallels between the treatment of motion in movies and the treatment of motion in design. These parallels include how film makers and designers treat the space-time continuum, 3-D depth, movement, lighting, and montage. Further examines movie-making as a medium for design exploration, architectural aesthetic expression, and critical analysis of design.
Computables of Architectural Design
Explores the quantitative basis and geometrical order of forms occurring in nature and architecture. Covers instructions, exercises, and examples of coding in a programming language during the first two thirds of the term. Students develop a case study in design methods that extends a CAD system as the basis for a computational project in the last third of the term. Programming knowledge is not assumed; class pace is individually adapted for students with previous experience.
Architectural Analysis: Key Buildings of Modernism
Investigates the link between ideas and forms of significant buildings in the canon of modern architecture.
Introduces the issues of contemporary city design. Examines methods of analyzing urban form, large scale organizational concepts, aesthetic opportunities, and methods of implementation that may be used to shape the sensory qualities of our cities. Recognizing that social, economic, and environmental issues often determine city design, the course emphasizes the design opportunities inherent in these concerns. The intent is to understand what we have done in order to improve what we will do.
Design of Cities
Cities are physical artifacts that are experienced psychologically and socially. This course investigates the theories surrounding these processes to reach an understanding of humanistic urban design intentions. Experiential realities are explored through case studies, readings, and mapping exercises.
The photographic image is used as a means of discussing and exploring the relationship between ideas and representation. This exploration begins with an analysis and presentation of compositional and thematic issues in the work of significant photographs throughout history. Film and paper exposure, processing, and printing are discussed.
Contemporary Architectural Theory
Readings and lectures covering 1966 to the present, and tracing the development of postmodernism, post-structuralism, and other current movements in architecture. Reference is made to other disciplines, the influence of criticism, the role of the media, and distinctions between theory, criticism, and style.
Photography and Digital Media
This course seeks to give students the ability to conceive and create digital photographic imagery with control and sophistication. Topics include fundamentals of photography, color theory, digital control of visual qualities, and methods of image montage for both still images and short animations. Methods include production and presentation for both printed hard copy and for the world wide web.
Applies design process and theory to the design and construction of furniture. Investigates jointing, finishing, and construction techniques. Experience with tools is not required.
History of Architecture: Survey
The history of Western architecture from ancient times to the present.
Intro to History of Architecture
Introduction to the study of Architectural History
History of Architecture
Surveys architecture from the Renaissance to the present.
Thomas Jefferson's Architecture
Surveys Jefferson's architectural world with special emphasis on the Lawn.
History of Modern Architecture
Surveys architecture and allied arts from c. 1800 to the present, emphasizing the development of the modern movement.
Later Medieval Architecture
The architecture of Western Europe from c. 1140-1500.
Early Medieval Architecture
The architecture of Western Europe from c. 800-1150.
Italian Renaissance Architecture 15th Century
Developments of classicism in Italy between 1400 and 1500.
Renaissance Architecture 16th Century
Developments in classicism in Italy between 1500 and 1600.
European Classical Architecture Outside Italy, 1400-1750
The development of classicism primarily in France, England, and Germany between 1400 and 1750.
Early American Architecture
American architecture from the first European contact to the death of Jefferson. Lectures and field trips.
Later American Architecture
Surveys American architecture from 1800 to the present.
Nineteenth-Century American Architecture
American architecture from 1776 to 1914.
Twentieth-Century American Architecture
Surveys American architecture emphasizing the development of modernism.
Nineteenth-Century European Architecture and Theory
The development of architecture in nineteenth-century Europe, with particular attention to France, England and Germany.
Studies cultural exchanges in architecture between East and West, emphasizing master architects such as F.L. Wright and L. Kahn.
East Asia Architecture
Surveys traditional architecture in China, Japan, and Korea, focusing on the main features and monuments of East Asian and landscape architecture.
Independent Studies in Architectural History
Advanced work on independent research topics by individual students.
Major Special Study
Prerequisite: Instructor approval and departmental approval of topic.
Advanced independent research projects by fourth year architectural history students.
Studies the theory, problems, and techniques of the archaeology of the American colonial past on the Atlantic seaboard. Field trips.
Selected Topics in Architectural History
Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
Special topics pursued in a colloquium.
World Buddhist Architecture
Studies the history of Buddhist architecture and allied arts in the Buddhist world, including East, South, and Southeast Asia. Lecture starts from the Indian stupas and ends in Japanese Zen gardens.
Modern Japanese Architecture
The history of architecture in modern Japan from Meiji period to the present. Focuses on post-WW II development; discusses the major influential architects such as Tange, Kikutake, Maki, Isozaki, Kurokawa, and Ando.
Independent Studies in Architectural History
Prerequisite: Departmental approval of topic.
Advanced work on independent research topics by individual students.
Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
Surveys the history of preservation, focusing on the changing nature of its ideals and practice. Preservation is discussed in the context of cultural history and the changing relationship between existing buildings and landscapes, and attitudes toward history, memory, and invented tradition.
Community History Workshop
An in-depth historical analysis of the architecture, urban form, and planning of a selected community. Focuses on the historical significance of the built landscape as an element in, and an expression of, the social and cultural life of the community.
Community Public History Seminar
Explores a variety of approaches to conveying the architectural and cultural history of a community to a diverse public constituency. Builds upon the analysis developed in AR H 592 (Community History Workshop). Analyzes the preservation implications of the work undertaken in collaboration with students in the preservation studio.
Identifies the location of early roadways in Albemarle County that provide clues to the documentation of the material culture or architectural pattern (e.g., plantation houses, barns and outbuildings, taverns, mills, churches, schools, stores, depots) associated with it through time.
Prerequisite: ARCH 201/202 or 501/502.
Analysis of graphic recording techniques as employed by the Historic American Buildings Survey along with archival research.
Technology, Materials, and Conservation of Traditional Buildings
Studies the principles of inspection, diagnosis, and treatment of older buildings from an engineering perspective. Emphasizes materials and structural behavior of masonry, concrete, wood, and metals. Includes lectures and field work.
Preservation of Jeffersonian Architecture
Examines the Jeffersonian buildings on the grounds within the restoration program now underway in the Academical Village. Provides a hands-on study of the buildings and their care, examining the buildings within the context of their own historical origins and life span and broadening that literary and cultural understanding with intensive site investigation, otherwise known as building archaeology. Where problems have arisen, or where changes in the buildings must be made, alternative solutions are explored.
Examines regional Virginia architecture through slide lectures and field trips emphasizing stylistic and technical features. Serves as an overview of Virginia architecture while concentrating in detail on the Piedmont region.
Survey of the dramatic changes in building, transportation, and communications technology that occurred in America between 1870 and 1920. Explores the development of steel, reinforced concrete, electricity, and telephones, which directly affected building design and construction.
Studies of methods and techniques of identifying, measuring, documenting, and reporting historic sites, including field work on actual historic sites.
Plants and Environment I
Studies plant types and characteristics in natural and designed environments. Emphasizes field identification, ecological associations, and plant shape and form. Incorporates drawing exercises in the field.
Plants and Environment II
Prerequisite: L AR 507.
Continued study of plant types and characteristics in natural and designed environments. Emphasizes field identification, ecological associations, and plant shape and form. Incorporates drawing exercises in the field.
Advanced Landscape Drawing and Representation
Explores ways of representing, analyzing and designing the landscape through a variety of media to include drawing, collage image processing, model making and digital modeling.
History of Landscape Architecture
Examines landscape architecture as an expression of cultural values. Lectures concentrate on a few prototypical examples, emphasizing ancient Egypt, 16th-century Italy, 17th-century France, 17th-century Japan, 18th-century Britain, 17th- and 20th-century America. Comparative case studies are complemented by primary and secondary source readings.
History of American Landscape Architecture
Studies the development of American landscape architecture from the 17th century to the present, emphasizing seminal figuresJefferson, Downing, Olmsted, Platt, Farrand, Jensen, and selected contemporary designers.
Theories of Modern Landscape Architecture
Prerequisite: L AR 512 or instructor permission.
Examines modern built landscapes as cultural products with their own materials, codes, and concerns. Underscores landscape architecture theory's interlocking relationship with changing societal constructions of nature, environmentalism, and the city. Focuses on exemplary built works of landscape architecture and their impact on, and debt to, specific design treatises or manifestos in light of broader cultural and theoretical practices.
Introduces the language and principles of site design. Lectures, exercises, case studies, and field trips provide basic skills in reading the land and building the site, including siting principles, grading, and planting. A final design project.
Seminar: Healing Landscapes
Investigates various topics centered on the general theme of designed landscapes as a means of healing human beings. Such healing is understood in a broad sense to encompass both physical and mental infirmities. Includes a historical overview of various healing landscapes, an examination of healing practices in various cultures, and field trips to various hospitals, hospices, and out-patient facilities in the Charlottesville area.
Seminar: Contemporary Landscape Design Theory
Explores topics pertaining to contemporary practice studios as environmental art, digital-media and space, etc.
Seminar: "Race, Space and Culture"
Seminar that explores how space relates to issues of cultural identity, foregrounding especially the politics of racial representation and identification. Following such themes as 1) the human/nature threshold; 2) public properties/ private spaces; 3) the urbanizing scene; 4) racializing memory; and 5) the color of sustainability, we examine the spatial implications at work in theories, practices, and experiences of racial formation as well as the racial implications at stake in our apprehensions and conceptions of space.
Historic Landscape Preservation
Readings and discussion of contemporary theory and practices for preserving historic landscapes. Evaluation of those theories and practices through a review of select case studies.
Urban Topographies: The Constructed Landscape
Explores the constructed nature of the contemporary urban landscape from the starting point of the ground. A series of landscapes that exemplify the ambiguous quality of urban groundas both floor and roof: "terra firma" and made landwill be investigated through lectures, readings, and discussions.
D.I.R.T. Seminar: Doing Industrial Research Together
Includes field work/visits to a variety of brownfield and industrial sites. Readings, lectures, and class discussions focus on the evolving definition and reclamation technologies and of the post-industrial landscape.
Seminar: Race and American Places
Seminar that explores the ways in which multicultural struggle-particularly racial struggle- is manifested spatially in the built environments of America. Examines this through readings in cultural theory and design literature, as well as through filed trips. Relates the concepts introduced in readings to the business of understanding how identity politics influences the way we design and use places around us.
Construction I: Landform and Grading
Prerequisite: L AR 535.
Part of a technical course sequence in landscape architecture that includes site design, layout plan, grading plan, and drainage calculations for a specific project. Focuses on the land as a shaped medium; applies concepts and principles of land manipulation, grading earthwork, and drainage in short exercises and a grading plan for a studio project.
Studies the structure, function, and dynamics of natural systems in both built and unbuilt environments. Combines lectures, fieldwork, and case studies. Emphasizes applications of ecological concepts to landscape design through exercises using a local site.
Introduction to Community and Environmental Planning
Analyzes community and environmental planning in the United States; the planning process; and sustainable communities.
Studies the principles of design; the architecture of cities and urban design; perception of space and visual analysis; graphic presentation, including mapping techniques; and inventories, information storage, retrieval and use.
Information Technology in Planning and Architecture
Develops fundamental skills for using computers in planning and architecture. Lectures and workshops include computing fundamentals, Internet access, spreadsheet computation, image processing, document publication, database management, and introduction to geographic information systems.
Neighborhoods, Community and Regions
Explores theories and concepts of economic, social, and cultural forces that influence urban and regional spatial structure.
Measuring Community Structure and Change
Analyzes methods used in quantitative and qualitative investigations of urban and regional settings for planning purposes.
Land, Law and the Environment
Introduces major legal issues surrounding land-use and development planning. Emphasizes developing application skills in terms of zoning, subdivision, and other land-use regulatory powers. (May be taken prior to fourth year.)
History of Cities and Planning
An overview of the planning profession with emphasis on 19th- and 20th-century American urban history.
Community Neighborhood Workshop
Explores neighborhood, planning issues from the professionalsand citizensperspectives.
Planning in Government: Decisions and Alternatives
Examines the role of planning in government decision-making. Focuses on local government, but intergovernmental aspects of planning that influence local decisions are also stressed. Studies planning processes, such as transportation, community development, and social planning.
Elective courses of one credit offered at the request of faculty or students to provide an opportunity for internships, fieldwork, and independent study.
Note Third- and fourth-year undergraduate students may, with instructor permission, enroll in selected 500-level courses. A partial list follows:
Introduces basic graphic skills used in communicating and designing in planning situations.
Geographic Information Systems
Reviews the use of computers in planning, focusing on geographic information systems for collection, analysis, and display of spatial information in urban and environmental contexts.
Advanced GIS Workshop
Students apply GIS technology to examine significant issues of land, natural resources, and the characteristics of urban development.
Planning, Budgeting, and Finance
Evaluates the criteria for, and processes of, making budget choices. Examines questions about who should pay, who should benefit, who should participate, and who should decide, along with the consequences of these choices.
Consensus Building, Negotiation and Mediation
Examines the processes by which consensus can be developed, focusing general negotiation theory and skill development, including the concept of principled negotiation; the conflict landscape, including government and non-government organizations; and negotiation resources and opportunities, including organizations, processes, and enabling legislation.
Special Topics in Policy Planning
Varies annually to fill graduate students' needs in the study of policy planning and analyses.
Studies current literature on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of historic places. Develops techniques for surveying, documenting, evaluating, and planning for preservation. Analyzes current political, economic, and legal issues in preservation planning.
Explores the problems and potentials encountered in planning for older urban neighborhoods and downtowns. These may range from market decline and physical decay to intense private reinvestment and displacement. Includes neighborhood change processes, the role of private lending institutions, techniques for identifying economically sound housing and business opportunities in older neighborhoods, commercial and residential revitalization techniques, financing neighborhood improvement programs, and historic and architectural preservation as a component of urban revitalization.
Introduction to Housing and Community Development
Provides an introduction to the housing and community development area of planning practice. Topics include the housing and development industries, housing production and distribution systems, housing demand and supply, housing market dynamics, neighborhood change processes, housing and real estate finance, social aspects of housing and development, and housing and development programs and policy issues.
Explores the economy of a community or region as an essential element, along with environment and equity, in livability and sustainability. Planners engage economic development by working with the community to assess needs and opportunities, through public-private business partnerships, and in development review.
Land Development Workshop
Explores the land development process from the perspective of the private land developer interacting with local governments. Includes development potential, site, and traffic analysis; land planning; development programming; and services to accommodate new development and public regulation of land development.
As the building blocks of cities, neighborhood plans involve citizens in addressing issues of housing, jobs, public services, education, recreation, and transportation.
Examines the roles of developers, investors, designers, planners, and others, identifying the objectives each have in the development decision process. Discusses the interplay and communications of what constitutes sound economics and good design.
Special Topics in Housing and Community Development
Varies annually to meet the needs of graduate students in the study of housing and community development.
Natural Systems and Environmental Planning
Integrates knowledge of natural systems into local planning processes. Emphasizes how natural systems function, the impacts that urban and land development have on their integrity, and community-wide approaches to planning for and managing urban development to reduce or mitigate those impacts.
Examines sustainable communities and the environmental, social, economic, political, and design standards that underlie them. Focuses on reviewing actual case studies of cities, towns, and development projects that reflect principles of sustainability.
Sustainable Planning & Design Workshop
Students act as a consultant team to develop sustainable planning and design strategies for sites which rotate each year.
Environmental Policy and Planning
Examines contemporary environmental policy and practice, including exploration of the normative-philosophical debate surrounding environmental issues. Emphasizes understanding the political and institutional framework for establishing policy and programs; exploring the action approaches to environmental planning including moral suasion, regulation, public investment, and public incentives; and case studies of environmental planning at the federal, state, and local levels.
Environmental Ethics and Sustainability
Detailed exploration of the normative debate surrounding environmental issues. Focus on the foundations of environmental economics, questions about the value of endangered species, concerns of future generations, appropriateness of a sustainable society, notions of stewardship, and obligations toward equity.
Environmental Impact Assessment
Explores environmental assessment processes and methods from both a theoretical and an applied perspective. Reviews the philosophy and statutory base of the assessment process. Emphasizes the integration of that process with broader jurisdictional planning processes.
Coastal Planning Workshop
Explores the special characteristics of coastal and island settings for their planning significance. Addresses natural hazard mitigation, wetlands, and biodiversity.
Special Topics in Environmental Planning
Varies annually to meet the needs of graduate students studying environmental planning.
Land Use Policy and Planning
Introduces the theory and practice of land use planning and growth management as they have evolved historically and as expressed in contemporary practice. Addresses the need and rationale for land use planning as well as its tools.
Design of Cities
Cities are physical artifacts that are experienced psychologically and socially. This course investigates the theories surrounding these processes to reach an understanding of humanistic urban design intentions. Experiential realities are explored through case studies, readings, and mapping exercises.
Special Topics in Land Use Planning
Varies from year to year to fill graduate students' needs in the study of land use planning.
Landscape Preservation Workshop
Examines the legal and practical issues involved in the conservation of rural landscapes, including the settings of historic structures. Reviews the justification for landscape preservation and the planning strategies that can be employed to preserve landscapes, including land use regulations, tax incentives, and conservation easements. Case studies of successful landscape preservation programs are presented and discussed.
Transportation and Land Use
Reviews basic relationships between land use and transportation. Considers the decision process, planning principles, impact measures, and the methodological framework for identifying and evaluating courses in action on a regional, local, and neighborhood scale. Projects and scale change from year to year.
Emphasizes the use of zoning, subdivision, and other regulations to implement comprehensive plans. Attention is given to capital facilities programming and building codes.