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Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
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Course Descriptions

Department of English Language and Literature

Prospective students should be aware that the deadline for application to the graduate program in English is December 3.

Degree Requirements

Master of Arts 30 credits required. The only specifically required course is ENCR 801 (Introduction to Literary Research). This three-week course, offered in late August and graded on an S/U basis, is a practical introduction to the techniques and uses of literary scholarship, tied to the resources of the University library system. In addition to ENCR 801, the M.A. requires twenty-four credits at the 500, 700, or 800 level, taken in residence at the University and completed with a grade of B or higher. These courses must satisfy the following distribution requirements:

  1. two courses, each in a different period of British literature before 1800
  2. one course in the history of criticism or literary theory

A three-credit course of independent research (which may involve the writing of a thesis or preparation for an oral examination or a pedagogical project) completes the thirty-credit requirement for the degree. The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences allows no transfer credit toward the M.A. Students who receive two or more failing grades are not permitted to remain in the program.

The foreign language requirement for the M.A. is normally satisfied by passing a ninety-minute examination, administered by the appropriate language department at the University and designed to ascertain the student's ability to translate prose (with the aid of a dictionary); a satisfactory grade automatically fulfills half the foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. Students not proceeding to the doctoral program, however, may also satisfy the M.A. requirement with courses taken as undergraduates: twelve semester hours at any level with a grade of B or higher in the final six hours or a grade of B or higher in intermediate or advanced course work.

Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing Candidates approved by the creative writing committee must complete a 24-credit/two year program in residence at the University of Virginia. All work must be completed and the degree received within five years of beginning the program. There is no foreign language requirement. A thesis in poetry, prose, or playwriting and an oral examination are required. Deadline for applications to the M.F.A. Program and for the Hoyns Fellowships is January 1. The M.F.A. Program accepts only fall admissions.

Doctor of Philosophy (Language, Literature, and Research) In addition to the general University requirements for the Ph.D. degree, the candidate must normally satisfy the following requirements:

I. Research Course: All entering doctoral candidates, including those who have earned an M.A. degree, must take ENCR 801, Introduction to Literary Research, a three-credit course for an S/U grade. This is usually offered at the end of August before the fall semester begins. (See Master of Arts requirements).

II. General Coursework: Doctoral candidates who come to the program without an M.A. must take twelve graded courses (at the 500, 700, 800, or 900 level) in graduate English or approved related courses, in addition to ENCR 801 in the first semester and ENGL 998 in the fall of the fourth year. These courses must be chosen to satisfy the M.A. distribution requirement. In the first semester, they enroll in three courses plus ENCR 801. In the following three semesters, they enroll in three courses plus ENGL 991, Independent Research, a place-holding course that fills out the number of fee-carrying credit hours required by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Students must take care to enroll in a total of four ENGL 991 courses; the department provides guidelines to help plan enrollment for the right combinations of credits.

Normally, students who enter the doctoral program with the M.A. degree in hand will be allotted the equivalent of a year's course credits, and will enroll in six graded courses at the 500, 700, 800, or 900 level, plus ENCR 801 and ENGL 998. These "M.A. transfer" students are required to take two ENGL 991 fee-carrying courses.

III. Additional Coursework, Contiguity, and Seminar Requirements: All doctoral candidates audit two courses during the third year (or the year after full-time coursework is completed). In addition, students take ENGL 998, the Dissertation Seminar, during the fall of their fourth year (or the fall after taking the oral examination and before the dissertation presentation). The entire record of a doctoral student's coursework (including audits or transfer credits) needs to satisfy two other requirements. The transcript must include three 900-level seminars, and it must reflect what is termed "contiguity": two courses each must belong to two fields contiguous to the student's major field. The relevance of the two related fields may be temporal, geographical, or theoretical/methodological. Often, the Renaissance scholar will take two courses in Medieval literature, and two in the eighteenth century, but a student of the nineteenth-century American novel might offer two courses in nineteenth-century British literature, and a course in narrative theory and a course theorizing a genre related to the novel.

IV. Orals: Students must pass a two-hour qualifying oral examination, consisting of two parts: historical teaching and research field, and other teaching and research field. The second field may be a genre, a historical field, or any professional specialization of substance and breadth. Lists are prepared in consultation with a dissertation committee of three faculty members.

V. Dissertation: Doctoral students prepare a prospectus for a dissertation, which is subject to the approval of the three-person dissertation committee. Within a calendar year of the approval of the prospectus, candidates offer a public presentation of conference-paper length at a forum open to members of the department (this is not an examination). The completed dissertation is read by the dissertation committee and a member of the faculty from another department, and the candidate meets with them for a defense of the project. Completion of the dissertation requirement depends on the approval of its final form by all four faculty appointed for the defense. (Other members of the University community may attend a defense at the invitation of the candidate, subject to the decision of the committee and fourth reader as to whether the defense shall be private.)

VI. Foreign Language: Demonstrate either a "reading knowledge" of two languages or a "mastery" of one. The candidate may demonstrate "mastery" by either

    A. achieving passing grades in two graduate semester-courses in French or German literature offered in the foreign language itself (not in translation) and taken at the University of Virginia. Such courses, which may also be counted toward completion of the course requirements for the Ph.D. in English, must be approved in advance by the Director of Graduate Studies, or

    B. passing a two-hour examination (administered by the language department in question) designed to ascertain the student's ability to read literary and critical texts in the foreign language (with the aid of a dictionary) and to write discursively in that language.

    Under the two language option, one of the languages offered must be French, German or Latin. The second language may be French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Latin, or Greek. (Students who wish to pursue their research in the medieval period must pass the locally administered Latin examination.) For the second language, the department also considers petitions to substitute a language not mentioned above, but appropriate to the candidate's field of study.

    Under the two language option, the candidate demonstrates "reading knowledge" of the languages by passing a ninety-minute examination in each, administered by the appropriate language department at the University and designed to ascertain the student's ability to translate prose (with the aid of a dictionary).

    The full foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. must be completed before the student is permitted to take the doctoral oral examination.

    Students may not satisfy the foreign language requirements through qualifying examinations taken at other universities.

VII.Pedagogy: Gain teaching experience by assisting with instruction of undergraduate courses. Second year Ph.D. students enroll in ENPG 885 concurrently with their teaching assignment in a historical survey or Shakespeare lecture course. The requirements of this course consist of staff meetings and class preparation, and it fulfills 3 of the total semester hours required for Ph.D. coursework. Students also participate in systematic training in writing instruction.

For more information concerning these degree programs, consult the department's web page (; or write to the Director of Graduate Studies, Department of English, 219 Bryan Hall, PO Box 400121, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4121.

219 Bryan Hall
P.O. Box 400121
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4121
(434) 924-7105 Fax: (434) 924-1478

Course Descriptions


Certain graduate courses are offered in alternative years or are temporarily suspended when the instructor is on leave of absence or for other reasons. The program of course offerings is available in early May, on application to the department. With the permission of the Director of Graduate Studies, courses offered by other departments may be allowed toward an advanced degree in English.

Prerequisite to courses numbered 801 to 899: the bachelor's degree, with a major in English or its equivalent of 24 credits of English courses above the required level. Prerequisite to courses numbered 901 to 999: the M.A. degree in English, or permission of the instructor and the Director of Graduate Studies.

Creative Writing

ENWR 531, 532 - (3) (Y)
Poetry Writing

Prerequisite: Instructor permission. Limited enrollment. Students should submit a sample of their writing well in advance of the first class meeting.
Intensive work in poetry writing, for students with prior experience.

ENWR 541, 542 - (3) (IR)

Prerequisite: Instructor permission. Limited enrollment. 541 is prerequisite for 542.
Examines one-act plays by such masters as Chekhov, Pirandello, and Synge, emphasizing character, context, and scene construction. Each students writes two one-act plays.

ENWR 551, 552 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Fiction Writing

Prerequisite: Instructor permission. Limited enrollment. Students should submit a sample of their fiction well in advance of the first class.
For short story writers. Student manuscripts are discussed in individual conference and in class.

ENWR 561 - (3) (IR)

Suitable for graduates and undergraduates; explains film, television and radio production values with exercises in the grammar, composition, and writing of screenplays, radio drama, literary adaptation, documentaries, and docudrama.

ENWR 731, 732 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Poetry Writing

Graduate-level poetry writing workshop for advanced writing students. A weekly 2 1/2 hour workshop discussion of student poems.

ENWR 751, 752 - (3) (Y)
Fiction Writing

Prerequisite: Instructor permission. Limited enrollment. 751 is prerequisite for 752.
A course devoted to the writing of prose fiction, especially the short story. Student work is discussed in class and in individual conferences. Parallel reading in the work of modern novelists and short story writers is required.

ENWR 801 - (3) (Y)
Independent Writing Project

Prerequisite: Permission of the chair
Intended for graduate students who wish to do work on a creative writing project other than the thesis for the Master of Fine Arts degree under the direction of a faculty member.

ENWR 895, 896 - (3) (Y)
M.F.A. Thesis

The project must comprise a substantial body of original writing—80 pages of fiction (one long or two or three short stories), a full-length play or two one act plays, or a collection of poems (approximately 48 pages); and it must, in the opinion of the faculty, be of publishable quality, comparable to the literature taught in other courses offered by the department.

ENWR 991 - (3) (S)
Research in Creative Writing

Research in creative writing for M.F.A. students.

Medieval Languages and Literature

ENMD 501 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Old English

Studies the language and literature of Anglo-Saxon England.

ENMD 505, 506 - (3) (IR)
Old Icelandic

Introduces the language and literature of medieval Scandinavia; readings from the Poetic Edda and the sagas.

ENMD 520 - (3) (IR)

A reading of the poem, emphasizing critical methods and exploring its relations to the culture of Anglo-Saxon England. Readings in translation include Old Norse Prose Edda and Grettrissage and Bede's Historia.

ENMD 812 - (3) (SI)
Fourteenth-Century Literature

Surveys the major writers and genres, excluding Chaucer.

ENMD 813 - (3) (SI)
Medieval Transitions to the Renaissance

English and Scottish literature from Chaucer to the sixteenth century.

ENMD 825 - (3) (SI)
Chaucer I

Studies The Canterbury Tales and their backgrounds.

ENMD 826 - (3) (SI)
Chaucer II

Studies Troilus and Criseyde, the early poems, and their background.

ENMD 850 - (3) (SI)
Medieval Romance

Studies Middle English and Continental romance.

ENMD 881 - (3) (Y)
Backgrounds to Medieval Literature

Introduces the major texts and concepts of European Christian humanism.

ENMD 883 - (3) (SI)
Prolegomena to Medieval Literary Research

Introduces research tools and methods for the student of medieval literature.

ENMD 885 - (3) (Y)
Mapping the Middle Ages

Surveys literature, art, and culture in Western Europe from late Antiquity to the invention of printing, using a selection of major literary texts as a focal point.

ENMD 905 - (3) (SI)
Studies in Early English Philology

Prerequisite: ENMD 501 or equivalent.
Studies the developing structure of Old and Middle English with special attention to syntax and dialectology. Includes English paleography of the period 900-1500.

ENMD 922 - (3) (SI)
Piers Plowman

An intensive study of the poem and its cultural tradition.

ENMD 924 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Chaucer

A critical study of Chaucer's narrative art, including questions of genre, relationship of narrator to audience, techniques of characterization, and the use of sources.

ENMD 981 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Old English I

ENMD 983, 984 - (3) (SI)
Studies in Middle English I, II

Topics in recent years have included the Gawain-poet, medieval subjectivity and voyeurism.

ENMD 991 - (3) (Y)
Research in Medieval Studies

The Renaissance in England

ENRN 811 - (3) (Y)
Renaissance Poetry

Studies the theory and practice of lyric and epic poetry in 16th-century England, with some brief glances at other forms: romance, epyllion, and verse essay.

ENRN 812 - (3) (IR)
Early Seventeenth-Century Poetry

An intensive study of style and tone in the poetry of Donne, Jonson, Herbert, and Marvell, with some consideration of poems by Crashaw, Vaughan, and the cavaliers.

ENRN 820 - (3) (IR)

Studies The Faerie Queene and the minor poems.

ENRN 821, 822 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Shakespeare I, II

Topics vary annually. Recent examples are "Gender and Genre in Shakespeare" and "Shakespeare's Histories and Roman Plays."

ENRN 827 - (3) (IR)

An intensive study of Paradise Lost and Samson Agonistes.

ENRN 840 - (3) (IR)
Elizabethan Drama 1585-1642

Surveys English drama (exclusive of Shakespeare) from Kyd and Marlowe to Tourneur and Ford.

ENRN 870 - (3) (IR)
Renaissance Prose

Surveys rhetorical projects and postures from humanist advocacy to the anti-rhetorical pose of Montaigne; considers the development of English prose style from the early Tudor period to the era of Milton. Includes Erasmus, More, Castiglione, Montaigne, Sidney, Nashe, Jonson, Bacon, Browne, and Milton.

ENRN 881 - (3) (IR)
The Idea of the Renaissance

Neoplatonists, Protestants, skeptics, empiricists, princes, pedagogues, painters, poets: this course explores Renaissance culture in search of an idea of the period that is both descriptive and explanatory.

ENRN 920 - (3) (IR)

Studies the later plays of Shakespeare, including problem comedies, late tragedies, and last plays. Some attempt is made to describe the characteristics of the plays as a group, but the emphasis is on criticism of the individual plays.

ENRN 924 - (3) (IR)

The Faerie Queene and minor poems.

ENRN 927 - (3) (IR)

Selected topics in poetry and prose.

ENRN 991 - (3) (Y)
Research in the Renaissance

Restoration and Eighteenth Century Literature

ENEC 540 - (3) (IR)
English Drama 1660-1800

Surveys representative plays and dramatic developments from 1660 to1800. Potential authors include Etherege, Dryden, Behn, Wycherley, Congreve, Centlivre, Gay, Fielding, Goldsmith, and Sheridan.

ENEC 811 - (3) (IR)
English Literature of the Restoration and Early Eighteenth-Century

Surveys representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1660-1740. Among the authors typically read are Dryden, Butler, Rochester, Etherege, Bunyan, Behn, Defoe, Swift, Gay, Pope, and Haywood.

ENEC 812 - (3) (IR)
English Literature and the Late Eighteenth-Century

Surveys representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1740-1800. Among the authors typically read are Johnson, Boswell, Gray, and Burney.

ENEC 850 - (3) (Y)
Eighteenth-Century Prose Fiction

Studies prose fiction in the 18th century. Authors include Defoe, Haywood, Richardson, Fielding, Burney, Sterne, and Austen.

ENEC 881, 882 - (3) (E)
Topics in Eighteenth-Century Literature

Topics vary and recently include "From Classic to Romantic" and "Eighteenth-Century Poetry."

ENEC 981, 982 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Eighteenth-Century Literature I, II

Topics vary, focusing on a theme, genre, or group of writers.

ENEC 991 - (3) (Y)
Research in Restoration and Eighteenth Century

Nineteenth Century Literature

ENNC 811 - (3) (IR)
The Romantic Period

The poetry and prose of the Romantic period.

ENNC 814 - (3) (IR)
The Victorian Period

A critical survey of selected works in poetry and fiction. Attention to developments in ideas, form, and literary theory of the Victorian period.

ENNC 831 - (3) (IR)
Victorian Intellectual Prose

Surveys the writings of Carlyle, Mill, Macauley, Newman, Arnold, Ruskin, Pater, and Wilde.

ENNC 851 - (3) (IR)
The English Novel II

Novelists studied include Dickens, Eliot, the Brontës, and Hardy.

ENNC 852 - (3) (IR)
The Late Victorian Novel 1850-1914

Critical discussion of selected novels of the period.

ENNC 855 - (3) (IR)
The Literature of Empire

Literature dealing with the British Empire from Beckford to Kipling.

ENNC 883 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Nineteenth-Century Literature

Topic varies from year to year.

ENNC 950 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Nineteenth-Century Fiction

Studies topics in the relation between novelistic techniques and the history of ideas. Works include both continental and English novels.

ENNC 981, 982 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Romanticism I, II

Intensive study of one or two writers, e.g., Blake and Wordsworth, Keats and Byron.

ENNC 983, 984 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Victorian Literature I, II

Topics vary from a focus on major writers (e.g., Browning and Arnold), to a consideration of the aesthetic movement and its influence.

ENNC 985, 986 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth-Century Studies I, II

Topics have included Victorian discursive prose and intensive study of Shelley and Tennyson.

ENNC 991 - (3) (IR)
Research in Nineteenth-Century Literature

American Literature to 1900

ENAM 802 - (3) (Y)
American Studies Colloquium I

Prerequisite: Admission to the American Studies M.A. Program.
Introduces students to American Studies' theory, method, and practice, and using modern technologies for the acquisition, analysis, and distribution of information.

ENAM 803 - (3) (Y)
American Studies Colloquium II

Prerequisite: Admission to the American Studies M.A. Program.
Focuses on the construction of various hypertext projects in American Studies. Past projects have included hypertext presentations of classic American texts like de Tocqueville's Democracy in America or on continuing explorations of powerful symbolic spaces like the National Capitol Building.

ENAM 810 - (3) (IR)
Early American Literature

Surveys American literature to 1840 designed to introduce the literature of the Colonial and early National periods, and to examine the intellectual and literary backgrounds of nineteenth-century American literature.

ENAM 813 - (3) (IR)
Early African American Literature

Surveys pivotal moments and texts in the history of African-American prose, from 1760, the date of Briton Hammon's Narrative of Uncommon Sufferings to 1903, the year of W. E. B. DuBois's The Souls of Black Folk.

ENAM 815 - (3) (IR)
American Romanticism

Studies romantic thought and art in the nineteenth century.

ENAM 824 - (3) (IR)
Major American Authors

Studies the work of one or two major writers within a precise historical context. A recent pair was Hawthorne and Melville.

ENAM 830 - (3) (IR)
American Poetry of the Nineteenth Century

Studies selected poets of the century, their media, their audiences, and their reputations. Coverage will be broad, with some emphasis on Bryant, Longfellow, Lowell, Emerson, Whitman, Dickinson, and Crane.

ENAM 836 - (3) (IR)
African-American Poetry

Studies in African-American poetry from the eighteenth-century to the present. Poets include Phyllis Wheatley, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Hayden, Jay Wright, Amiri Baraka, Michael Harper, Audre Lorde, and Rita Dove.

ENAM 853 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth-Century Fiction

Studies form and technique in the American novel to 1900.

ENAM 854 - (3) (IR)
Studies in American Fiction

Analyzes the writings of major authors approached through the consideration of such specific topics as historical romance, Gothic romance, and American mythmaking.

ENAM 885 - (3) (IR)
American Folklore

Studies the problems of definition, origin, collection, and analysis of the main genres of folklore in America, both narratives and songs. Cross-listed as ANTH 732.

ENAM 888 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the South

Surveys the literature of the American South from Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia to such contemporary writers as William Styron and Walter Percy.

ENAM 910 - (3) (IR)
Early American Literature

Advanced work in Early American literature.

ENAM 980 - (3) (IR)
Studies in African-American Literature

The topics will vary (e.g., the writer and audience, movements in the literature, an individual writer or group of writers, folk traditions, and the literature and literary relations with writers in the U.S.A. or in other countries).

ENAM 981, 982 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in American Literature I, II

Topics range from the colonial period to the cultural influence of pragmatism.

ENAM 991 - (3) (Y)
Research in American Literature

British and American Literature of the Twentieth Century

ENTC 811 - (3) (IR)
American Literature 1912-1929

Studies literary modernism in the United States.

ENTC 815 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the Americas

A comparative study of major fiction writers of North, Central, and South America in the past 40 years.

ENTC 816 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary American Writers

Studies recent U. S. writing in various genres.

ENTC 830 - (3) (IR)
American Poetry of the Twentieth Century

A historical survey of major figures and movements from Frost and Pound to the present day.

ENTC 831 - (3) (IR)
British Poetry of the Twentieth Century

Studies in the twentieth-century sensibility: distortions and other tensions in the imaginative worlds of Hopkins, Yeats, Eliot, and Auden.

ENTC 833 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary American Poetry

Studies selected poets from the 1940s to the present, including Lowell, Jarrell, Plath, Ginsberg, and others.

ENTC 840 - (3) (IR)
Drama of the Twentieth Century

Surveys European and American drama as well as work from other regions. Focuses on reactions against realism, examining expressionism, surrealism, epic theater, absurdism, and the rise of ethnic and other minority playwrights in the second half of the century. Studies works by Strindberg, Synge, Pirandello, Brecht, Lorca, Beckett, Kennedy, Churchill, Wilson, Stoppard, Kushner, and others.

ENTC 850 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century Fiction

Studies British, American, and Continental masterpieces, with attention to the new ideas and forms in twentieth-century fiction. Writers include Proust, Joyce, Mann, Lawrence, Faulkner, Kafka, Gide, Beckett.

ENTC 851 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century American Fiction

Emphasis varies, depending on the instructor, from earlier to later writers in the century.

ENTC 852 - (3) (IR)
The British Novel in the Twentieth Century

Studies of major novels from James to the present with emphasis on James, Conrad, Joyce, Lawrence, Forster, Woolf, and Beckett.

ENTC 853 - (3) (IR)
Major Modern Novelists

Studies several works by a few modern novelists, such as Lawrence, Woolf, Mann, and Beckett.

ENTC 856 - (3) (E)
Problems in Post-Modern Fiction

Studies the theory and practice (chiefly the latter) of postmodern fiction, comparative and international in scope, including such theorists as Todorov, Barthes, and Sontag; and such authors of fiction as Calvino, Coover, Butor, Pynchon, Kundera, Hawkes, Berger, Coetzee, Eco, with the likes of Kafka and Borges as background.

ENTC 857 - (3) (IR)
African-American Fiction

Studies the African-American novel from William Wells Brown to Toni Morrison, including Jean Toomer, Richard Wright, and Ralph Ellison, among others.

ENTC 881 - (3) (IR)
African-American Literature

Readings in African-American poetry, prose, and fiction of the twentieth century.

ENTC 884 - (3) (IR)
Modernism and Mass Culture

Examines various literary, theoretical and historical attempts to understand the relationship between high art and mass culture in the modern period.

ENTC 886 - (3) (IR)
The Harlem Renaissance: African-American Writing Between the Wars

Examines the cultural and artistic history of the period. Why was it called a "renaissance"? Was Harlem a geographic or imaginative world? The framing of documents of the period are discussed (Alain Locke's The New Negro, Hughes' The Negro and the Racial Mountain, and Wright's Blueprint for Negro Writing, most especially). Includes works of the major authors (Toomer, Hughes, Hurston, Brown, Wright, and McKay), focussing on the major themes (the new negro, the folk, the idealization of Africa, the sense of the Jazz Age) as viewed from within the music.

ENTC 930 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary American Poetry

Concentrates on American experimental writing since 1970, examining important influences (Stein, Zukofsky, Cage, New American Poetry and Ashbery) as well as various comtemporary poets.

ENTC 981, 982 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Twentieth-Century Literature I, II

Topics have included Postmodern Fiction and Theory, Faulkner, Women and Cultures of Modernism, Yeats and Joyce, Modernism and the Invention of Homosexuality.

ENTC 985, 986 - (3) (E)
Seminar in Comparative Literature I, II

Recent topics include the poetry of Rilke, Valery, and Stevens and the literature of the Spanish Civil War.

ENTC 991 - (3) (Y)
Research in Twentieth-Century Literature

Genre Studies

ENGN 831 - (3) (SI)
The Lyric Genre

Surveys English lyric poems from Chaucer to Auden; designed to isolate what is lyrical (i.e., unprosaic, musical, aesthetic, reflexive, egotistical, or sublime) in this body of literature.

ENGN 840 - (3) (SI)
Drama From 1660 to the Late Nineteenth Century

Studies drama in England from Dryden and Congreve to Wilde and Shaw.

ENGN 881 - (3) (IR)
Reason and Sensibility in the Novel

First of four courses, each of which may be taken independently, surveying major issues and terms in the history of the novel. Studies the relation between aesthetic and intellectual concerns of the period ca. 1750-1820 and the development of forms and techniques. Texts are drawn from English and Continental fiction. Authors include Diderot, Goethe, Richardson, Scott, and Sterne.

ENGN 882 - (3) (IR)

Authors studied include Stendhal, Balzac, Dickens, Flaubert, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy.

ENGN 883 - (3) (IR)
Naturalism and the Early Modern

Authors studied include Hardy, Zola, Chekhov, Mann, Proust, and D.H. Lawrence.

ENGN 884 - (3) (IR)
Elaborations of the Modern

Authors studied include Breton, Faulkner, Malraux, Mann, Svevo, and Woolf.

ENGN 981, 982 - (3) (SI)
Seminar in Literary Genres I, II

Topics range from comedy as an art form to a study of various approaches to the novel.

Criticism and Theory

ENCR 565 - (3) (IR)
Books as Physical Objects

Surveys bookmaking over the past five centuries. Emphasizes analysis and description of physical features and consideration of how a text is effected by the physical conditions of its production.

ENCR 580 - (3) (IR)
Queer Theories and Queer Practices

Introduces "queer theory" through an examination of key theoretical texts (e.g., Foucault, Sedgwick, Butler) and several exemplary practices, which vary each semester.

ENCR 801 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Literary Research

Introduces UVa's research resources the needs and opportunities for their use. The library and its holdings are explored through a series of practical problems drawn from a wide range of literary subjects and periods. Required of all degree candidates in the M.A. and Ph.D. programs.

ENCR 860 - (3) (Y)
Criticism in Theory and Practice

Studies critical theories and the kinds of practical criticism to which they lead.

ENCR 861 - (3) (E)
An Introduction to Modern Literary Theory and Criticism

Studies 20th-century theoretical writings, focusing on intellectual movements such as Marxism, Psychoanalysis, Structuralism and Post-Structuralism, and to influential thinkers such as Barthes, Bakhtin, Derrida, Kristeva, and Butler.

ENCR 862 - (3) (IR)
Critical Theory Since Plato

A historical survey of major theories about the nature and function of literature from antiquity to the present.

ENCR 863 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth-Century Criticism

Surveys modern critical theory and practice.

ENCR 867 - (3) (IR)
Feminist Criticism

Introduces the varieties of feminist criticism practiced today, with reference to its already complex history. Explores prominent examples of psychoanalytic, linguistic, Marxist, and historical modes of feminist criticism. Students compare opposing readings of particular texts, and, in a final essay, apply the methods of a critic or school of their choice.

ENCR 965 - (3) (E)
Introduction to Textual Criticism and Scholarly Editing

Studies the transmission of texts over the past five centuries and examines theories and techniques of editing literary and non-literary texts, both published and unpublished.

ENCR 981, 982 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in Critical Theory I, II

Topics vary from year to year.

Special Topics

ENSP 581 - (3) (Y)
Film Aesthetics

Studies the motion picture as a work of art produced by cinematic skills and valued for what it is in itself. Emphasizes the major theoretical works (Eisenstein, Pudovkin, Arnheim, Kracauer, Bazin) and the analysis of individual films. Films are studied with particular reference to the techniques and methods that produce the "aesthetic effect" style, and the problems of authorship arising out of considerations of style and aesthetic unity.

ENSP 583 - (3) (Y)
Literature and the Film

Studies the relationship between the two media, emphasizing the literary origins and backgrounds of film, verbal and visual languages, and the problems of adaptation from novels and short story in the film. Seven to nine novels (or plays) are read and analyzed with regard to film adaptations of these works. Film screenings two to two and one half hours per week outside of class.

ENSP 591/592 - (3) (S)
Literary Journal Editing

Prerequisite: Instructor permission.
This course, organized around the literary journal Meridian (which is sponsored by the English department's MFA program) is designed to involve students in every aspect of literary journal production—from selecting and editing manuscripts to layout/design; from grant writing and promotion to final distribution. Along with editing and relevant research, students will write book reviews, conduct interviews, and produce articles to be published in connection with the release of each issue of the journal.

ENSP 852 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Women Writers

Studies the works of George Eliot, Jane Austen, Charlotte Brontë, Emily Brontë, Emily Dickinson, Virginia Woolf, Doris Lessing, Willa Cather, Edith Wharton, and Sylvia Plath, and an investigation into feminist critical perspectives. Readings include four novelists and one poet from each of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, in order to establish both developments and interconnections in considerations of female authorship and recurrent themes in the works.

ENSP 870 - (3) (IR)
Special Topics in Pedagogy

Seminar in Pedagogy. Topics may vary from one course offering to the next.

ENSP 880 - (3) (SI)
Modern Poetry and Visual Art

Investigates what painting, sculpture and architecture have meant to poets of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with discussion of their poetry in relation to the aesthetics of the visual arts, art history, and art criticism. Readings from Keats, Rossetti, Gautier, Rilke, Stevens, Prevert, Quasimodo, Williams, Jarrell, Wilbur and others—illuminating the experience of works by such artists as Donatello, Botticelli, Brueghel, Michelangelo, Delacroix, Degas, and Picasso. (Cross-listed in Art Department as ARTH 880.)

ENSP 882 - (3) (IR)
The Literary Use of the Bible

Introduces the contents of scripture. Topics include the saving history, the Mosaic Torah, the Biblical offices, the doctrine of the Word of God, and the nature of a canon.

ENSP 955 - (3) (SI)
Society, Character, and Revolution in the Novel

Studies the alterations which traditional realistic assumptions underwent in the period 1870-1925. Special attention is given to Hardy and Conrad.

ENSP 982 - (3) (Y)
Special Topics in Criticism

Seminar in criticism. Topics may vary from one course offering to the next.

Language Study

ENLS 805 - (3) (SI)
Language Change and Literary Study

Introduces the study of change in English from Old English to the present, emphasizing the literary language.


ENPG 880 - (3) (Y)
Teaching Composition

A course for college teachers of expository writing that includes the arts of rhetoric, logic, and style with some emphasis on teaching strategies.

ENPG 882 - (2) (IR)
Workshop in Teaching Composition

A seven-week seminar on the arts of teaching and writing, with emphasis on solving problems of assignments, grading papers, management of a class, teaching style, and forms of discourse. Limited to eight graduate instructors; preference is given to candidates for the pedagogy degree.

ENPG 883 - (2) (SI)
Workshop in Teaching Literatures

Designed for graduate instructors teaching ENLT courses. Focuses on theories of criticism and psycholinguistics, discussing how students read and understand belletristic writing. Topics include course objectives, texts, classroom techniques, and assignments, specific issues, and problems that arise in undergraduate classes. Limited enrollment, with preference given to candidates for the pedagogy degree.

ENPG 885 - (3) (S)
Literature Surveys

Weekly workshops with faculty and teaching staff of the 300-level lecture courses, ENGL 381, ENGL 382 and ENGL 383 and ENRN 321 and ENRN 322. Second-year Ph.D. students in English enroll in this course once during the semester in which they lead a discussion section of a lecture course.

Miscellaneous English

ENGL 895 - (3) (Y)
M.A. Thesis Research

A candidate for the M.A. degree in English may choose to undertake a substantial thesis of about 15,000 words under the sponsorship of a member of the graduate faculty in English. Any candidate interested in undertaking such a project for three credits should draw up a detailed proposal, secure the approval of one faculty member willing to serve as supervisor, and present the approved proposal before registration to the Director of Graduate Studies in English. This course may be taken in either the fall or the spring semester; it is not available during the summer session.

ENGL 897 - (3-12) (Y)
Non-Topical Research, Preparation for Research

Students taking this course are expected to prepare for their M.A. oral examination and begin reading for doctoral examinations.

ENGL 995 - (3) (Y)
Special Projects in English

Independent study under faculty supervision for a limited number of superior doctoral students doing intensive research on a subject not covered in the usual courses. Requires a detailed outline of the project, and written permission from the student's faculty supervisor and the Director of Graduate Studies. Only one project may be offered for credit for the Ph.D.

ENGL 997 - (3-12) (Y)
Non-Topical Research, Preparation for Doctoral Research

Students taking this course are expected to prepare for their preliminary qualifying oral examinations for the doctorate.

ENGL 998 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Literary Research

Designed for students who are at or near the beginning of the dissertation writing process. Addresses the problems most often encountered by students as they begin to tackle the dissertation. Much of the course is spent evaluating and critiquing drafts of chapters.

ENGL 999 - (3-12) (Y)
Non-Topical Research

For doctoral dissertation, taken under the supervision of a dissertation director.

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