University of Virginia
The Rotunda at U.Va.
2003-2004
GRADUATE RECORD
Graduate School of Architecture
General Information  |  Programs and Degress Offered  |  Course Descriptions  |  Faculty
Ownership of Student Works
Applications
Master of Architecture
Master of Landscape Architecture
Master of Urban and Environmental Planning
Master of Architectural History
Doctor of Philosophy in the History of Architecture
Interdisciplinary Programs
American Urbanism Certificate Program
Programs Abroad

Programs and Degrees Offered

Candidates for a degree in one of the four graduate curricula offered in the School of Architecture must hold an approved baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university.

Applicants whose previous course work does not include the equivalent of courses listed under the "admission" paragraph for any of the described degree programs must complete those courses before enrollment or, with permission, while enrolled in their respective graduate program.

An explanation of the course numbering system is given in the How to Read Course Listings section of this Record.

Inquiries concerning degrees should be addressed directly to the Dean of the School of Architecture.

Grading System The following letter grade symbols are used for grading graduate students in the Graduate School of Architecture: A, A-, B+, B, B-, C, F, S, U. Graduate School of Architecture: students may take undergraduate courses on a CR/NC basis, but those courses may not be offered toward a graduate degree.

Academic Good Standing The lowest acceptable grade for a student in the Graduate School of Architecture is a B-. Students who earn more than two grades lower than a B- are required to leave the program in which they are enrolled. Students failing a studio cannot continue in the studio sequence until they have successfully passed the course. Two failing grades in the same or different studios may result in the student being asked to leave the program.


Ownership of Student Works

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The School of Architecture reserves the right to retain student course work for purposes of exhibition and/or publication with appropriate credits. Teachers who wish to retain student work for their own purposes must gain the student's consent and provide adequate documentation of the work for the student.


Applications

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  1. Deadline for all applications to the Departments of Architecture, Architectural History, and Landscape Architecture is January 15; for the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning, it is February 1. All admissions materials should be sent to the Graduate Admissions Office, School of Architecture, University of Virginia, Campbell Hall, P.O. Box 400122, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4122. For information about applying for admission to the Ph.D. program in architectural history, see the description of that program given below.
  2. A non-refundable application fee of $40 must accompany the application. Make the check or money order payable to: UVA, School of Architecture. Foreign checks accepted in U.S. dollars only.
  3. If an applicant wants to apply to more than one department he or she must fill out an application, pay the application fee for each department, and submit supporting documents for each application.
  4. The financial aid form serves as the basis for scholarships awarded by the School of Architecture. Other financial assistance in the form of loans and part-time employment is administered by the Office of Financial Aid to Students and must be applied for separately. See chapter 3.
  5. Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores are required.
  6. A non-refundable deposit of $250, made payable to the University of Virginia School of Architecture, is required at the time of acceptance. This deposit is applied to the student's fees upon enrollment.


Master of Architecture

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Admission The Master of Architecture Program attracts a diverse range of students with undergraduate degrees in liberal arts as well as architecture. After an introductory summer session, students with liberal arts degrees typically complete their courses in six semesters, while those with pre-professional degrees frequently gain advanced standing. A two-semester Master of Architecture Program, directly tailored to the interests of each student, is available for those with an undergraduate professional degree in architecture. Students who wish to obtain the Master of Architecture degree should have at least a 3.0 cumulative grade point average with a 3.5 average in design studios. Admission to the Master of Architecture programs is extremely competitive.

Curriculum The Master of Architecture (M.Arch.) curricula emphasize strong foundation studies in design with support courses in architectural history and theory, building, and construction. To gain broader understanding of the relationships within and parallel to the field of architecture, students take courses in the Departments of Architectural History, Landscape Architecture, and Urban and Environmental Planning. The Department has a strong emphasis on issues of architectural pedagogy, and upper level graduate students are encouraged, through an optional teaching elective, to expand their knowledge by serving as teaching assistants to undergraduate students in design, theory or technology courses.

Accreditation In the United States, most state registration boards require a degree from an accredited professional degree program as a prerequisite for licensure. The National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), which is the sole agency authorized to accredit US professional degree programs in architecture, recognizes two types of degrees: the Bachelor of Architecture and the Master of Architecture. A program may be granted a five-year, three-year, or two-year term of accreditation, depending on its degree of conformance with established educational standards.

Masters degree programs may consist of a pre-professional undergraduate degree and a professional graduate degree, which, when earned sequentially, comprise an accredited professional education. Please note that the pre-professional undergraduate degree is not, by itself, recognized as an accredited degree.

The University of Virginia's Path A (for students without pre-professional degrees) and Path B (for students with rigorous pre-professional degrees) Master of Architecture programs received five-year terms of accreditation in 1998. These programs will be reviewed again in 2003. The Bachelor of Science in Architecture, by itself, is not an accredited degree.

M.Arch. Path A Curriculum
This program allows students without pre-professional undergraduate degrees (e.g., B.S. in Architecture) to obtain a first professional degree in a minimum of three years plus an initial summer session. Applicants must hold a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university. Prior to enrollment, it is required for students to have completed a calculus and physics course or the equivalent.

After the first year, each student's studio work is evaluated to determine progress and ability to continue in the program. In the spring of their second year, students initiate a comprehensive design project that explores detailed design development of a small institutional or commercial building. Issues of programming, building structure, materials and assembly, detailing and life safety are explored in conjunction with ARCH 848 and ARCH 823.

Summer First Year
ARCH 501 Architectural Design 3
ARCH 502 Architectural Design
Prerequisite: ARCH 501
3
ARCH 505 Architectural Graphics 2
ARCH 544 Computer Graphics and Design Application 2
    10
 
Semester 1 Fall First Year
ARCH 601 Architectural Design
Prerequisite: ARCH 502
6
ARCH 508 Architectural Theory and Analysis 3
SARC 600 The Common Course 3
ARCH 523 Materials and Assembly 3
15
 
Semester 2 Spring First Year
ARCH 602 Architectural Design
Prerequisite: ARCH 601
6
ARCH 503 History of Modern Architecture 3
ARCH 554 Architecture Analysis: Key Buildings of Modernism 3
ARCH 524 Introduction to Structural Design 4
16
 
Semester 3 Fall Second Year
ARCH 701 Architectural Design
Prerequisite: ARCH602
6
ARCH 721 Structural Design for Dynamic Loads 3
L AR 533 Sites and Systems 3
Open Elective 3
15
 
Semester 4 Spring Second Year
ARCH 702 Architectural Design Comprehensive Studio
Prerequisite: ARCH701
6
ARCH 525 Environmental Control Systems and Lighting 4
ARCH 848 Professional Practice 3
Open Elective 3
16
 
Semester 5 Fall Third Year
ARCH 801 Architectural Design Option Studio
Prerequisite: ARCH702
6
ARCH ARCH Elective 3
ARCH 880(1) Teaching Experience 3
Open Elective 3
Open Elective 3
18
 
Semester 6 Third Year
ARCH 802(2) Architectural Design Option Studio
Prerequisite: ARCH801
6
ARCH 823 Projects in Technology 4
ARCH Building Elective 3
Open Elective 3
16
Degree Total 106

Note
(1) All graduate students must take either ARCH 880 (Teaching Experience, 3 credits), or ARCH 782 (Independent Study, 3 credits), prior to graduation. ARCH 880 involves serving as a teaching assistant for an undergraduate class, with teaching assignments coordinated by the chair. ARCH 782 involves independent research on a topic chosen by the student in consultation with a faculty member. Students interested in pursuing the thesis option are encouraged to take ARCH 782 in the summer before their final year.
(2) Students may pursue a thesis in lieu of ARCH 802. Thesis students must take ARCH 897 (Thesis Research, 3 credits) and get approval from the chair.

M.Arch. Path B Curriculum
Students admitted to this program have pursued a rigorous pre-professional program at the undergraduate level. The curriculum follows the prescribed core of foundation studies - history, land, and building. Students are encouraged to develop a planned sequence of electives either independently or through one of the certificate programs. Independent scholarship is encouraged through the thesis option. In the spring of their first year, students initiate a comprehensive design project that explores detailed design development of a small institutional or commercial building. Issues of programming, building structure, materials and assembly, detailing and life safety are explored in conjunction with Arch 848 and Arch 823.

Semester 1 Fall First Year
ARCH 701 Architectural Design 6
SARC 600 The Common Course 3
ARCH 721 Structural Design for Dynamic Loads 3
Open elective 3
    15
 
Semester 2 Spring First Year
ARCH 702 Architectural Design Comprehensive Studio
Prerequisite: ARCH 701
6
ARCH 554 Architectural Analysis: Key Buildings of Modernism 3
ARCH 848 Professional Practice 3
ARCH 525 Environmental Control Systems and Lighting 4
    16
 
Semester 3 Fall Second Year
ARCH 801 Architectural Design Studio
Prerequisite: ARCH 702
6
ARCH Architectural History elective 3
ARCH 880(1) Teaching Experience 3
ARCH Building elective 3
Open elective 3
    18
 
Semester 4 Spring Second Year
ARCH 802(2) Architectural Design Option Studio/Thesis
Prerequisite: ARCH 801
6
ARCH 823 Projects in Technology 4
ARCH ___ Architecture elective 3
Open elective 3
    16
Degree Total 65

M.Arch Path C Curriculum
Post-Professional Degree
This curriculum is for those with a professional undergraduate degree in architecture (B.Arch.). The program provides post-professional degree students an opportunity to undertake more advanced interdisciplinary studies in architecture. These self-initiated studies are supervised by faculty members and draw on the resources of the School of Architecture and the University. Because of the individualized nature of this program, the applicant is encouraged to visit the School of Architecture for an interview. Each student develops a specific curriculum in consultation with the chair. The duration of study may be extended beyond one year with permission of the chair. This degree is not accredited by NAAB. International students interested in gaining licensure in the United States should apply to the Path B program.

Semester 1
ARCH 801 Architectural Design Option Studio 6
Open elective 3
Open elective 3
Open elective 3
    15
 
Semester 2
ARCH 802 Architectural Design Option Studio
Prerequisite: ARCH 801
ARCH Architecture elective 3
Open elective 3
Open elective 3
    15
Degree Total 30

Certificate Programs Certificate Programs in Historic Preservation and American Urbanism are open to graduate students enrolled in Paths A, B, and C. Admission is subject to the approval of the chair of the Department of Architecture and the director of the program. Students must also meet all requirements for admission to, and completion of, the Master of Architecture Program. Students are expected to meet the program requirements within the normal curricula of each path with the exception of Path C, which takes an extra semester.

Historic Preservation Certificate Program Students wishing to enter the Historic Preservation Certificate Program must be admitted to one of the four graduate departments in the School of Architecture. In order to ensure proper academic advising and program coordination, students interested in the Historic Preservation Program should attend the program meeting at the start of the Fall semester. Upon arriving at the Architecture School they should also file a program participation form with the Architecture School's registrar. Students who complete the required 21 credits of preservation course work receive a Certificate in Historic Preservation, in addition to their department's master's degree. There are individual courses that fulfill the requirements of the historic preservation certificate curriculum that also fulfill requirements within the architecture department curriculum. For example, the Community Preservation Studio (6 credits) counts as one of the studios required for the fulfillment of the architecture department program. Thus, students normally complete the course work for the historic preservation certificate during the same period in which they complete their departmental program.

American Urbanism Certificate Program This program is open to qualified degree candidates who wish to engage in a focused study of the issues and questions central to the interpretation of the American urban landscape and to the creation of new paradigms of urban design. The program's curriculum is intentionally flexible to provide students the opportunity to develop individual programs of study with the review and guidance of the program director. Because of the special nature of the program interested candidates are strongly advised to arrange an interview with the program director.

Dual Degree Programs The multi-disciplinary structure of the School of Architecture offers unique opportunities for students to pursue dual graduate degrees. Dual degrees are offered with Architectural History, Landscape Architecture and Urban and Environmental Planning. The dual degree depends upon admission to each program under the appropriate requirements. Students with prior undergraduate degrees in Architecture can expect to earn a dual degree in Architecture and Landscape Architecture within three academic years. Path A students can expect to earn a dual degree in four academic years. Students interested in pursuing a dual degree should consult with the Department Chair.

Programs Abroad Architecture students may, with approval, spend a semester in one of the programs abroad when offered.


Master of Landscape Architecture

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Admission Students from a wide variety of academic backgrounds, both with and without prior study in landscape architecture, are admitted to this graduate degree program.

Students without background study, who constitute the majority of the student body, follow the Path A curriculum. Normally, they complete the degree requirements in six semesters, plus a prerequisite summer session studio taken before the first fall semester. Prior to enrollment, students are encouraged to take drawing and ecology courses.

Students with degrees in architecture and landscape architecture can be granted advanced standing and may complete the degree requirements in four semesters. Applicants with undergraduate degrees in Architecture undertake the Path A advanced standing program. Applicants with professional undergraduate degrees in landscape architecture (B.L.A. or B.S.L.A.) follow the Path B program.

Curriculum This graduate-level professional degree program emphasizes design and prepares graduates for professional work in private offices, teaching, and public service. At the core of the curriculum is the design studio. Design invention is grounded in the language of the discipline through an understanding of its relationship to architecture and the study of landscape history, theory and ecology. The design of the landscape embodies a vision of public life and an attitude to the natural world. It brings together the study of natural systems with the exploration of social, ethical, and cultural issues. It is also, fundamentally, about making and building, grounded in an understanding of materials and processes. Essential to the design process is understanding how to build a site and shape the land. This understanding is developed through a rigorous sequence of courses in ecology, plants, landform, detailing, site engineering, and digital media, all of which stress the importance of giving form to conceptual ideas and values. A variety of elective seminars addresses special topics in landscape architecture.

During the final semester, students choose from three studio options: independent, landscape architecture, or an interdisciplinary studio in architecture, urbanism.

Path A Curriculum
The Path A program allows students with liberal arts degrees to obtain a first professional degree in landscape architecture. This requires three years plus an eight-week introductory summer session. Each semester's work consists of a design studio with supporting history, theory, construction, and natural systems courses.

A total of eighteen elective credits are required. Six of those credits (two courses) must be taken in the Department of Landscape Architecture. The remaining credits may be taken in any department of the University. Since students come from different backgrounds and experiences, electives can be distributed either to give students exposure to the different fields related to landscape architecture, or to develop an area of expertise, such as design theory, historic preservation, ecological design and planning, or urbanism. Students may undertake an independent study with a faculty member as one of their electives, but those wishing to take more than one independent study must petition the faculty to do so.

In the final year, students may elect to undertake an independent studio. If so, L AR 821 (Research Methods) must be taken in the fall semester in order to develop a thesis, identify a faculty advisor(s), and prepare a theoretical basis for the spring term independent studio. L AR 821 counts as one of the elective courses.

Summer Session
LAR 501 Introduction to Landscape Architectural Design I 3
LAR 502 Introduction to Landscape Architectural Design II 3
LAR 503 Landscape Arch. Drawing and Representation 2
LAR 544 Computer Graphics and Design Application 2
    10
 
First Year
First Semester
LAR 601 Landscape Architectural Design I 6
Site reading/Interpretation + Digital workshops
LAR 537 Plants and Environment I 4
LAR 533 Sites + Systems 3
Intro to reading and analyzing sites (watershed as unit of study)
SARC 600 Common Course 3
16
 
Second Semester
LAR 602 Landscape Architectural Design II 6
City reading/interpretation + landscape/architecture + Design detail/materials
LAR 538 Plants and Environment II 4
LAR 534 Earth Work 4
LAR 512 Landscape Architectural History 3
    17
 
Second Year
First Semester
LAR 701 Landscape Architectural Design III 6
Urban Landscape: Systems + Settlements
LAR 733 Site Assembly I 2
Materials and detailing
LAR 735 Site Work I 2
Site engineering: stormwater runoff, road design and layout
LAR 514 Theories of Modern Landscape Architecture 3
ARCH 541 CADD 3
    16
 
Second Semester
LAR 702 Landscape Architectural Design IV 6
Landscape Reclamation
LAR 734 Site Assembly II 2
Materials and detailing
LAR 736 Site Work II 2
Urban hydrological infrastructure & natural systems
LAR 732 Regenerative Technologies 2
Remediation-soil, water, plants
Elective I 3
    15
 
Third Year
First Semester
LAR 801 Landscape Architectural Design V, or Option Studio 6
Electives II-IV
Or
9
Electives II-III
and
6,
LAR 821 Research Methods
if doing a design thesis
3
    18
 
Second Semester
LAR 802 Landscape Architectural Design VI 6
or
LAR 804 Independent Thesis Studio, or ARCH 802 Option / Interdisciplinary Studio
LAR 832 Contract documents and Professional Practice
Working drawings and specs plus PP lectures
4
Elective V-VI 6
    16
Degree Total 105

ELECTIVES Six electives/18 credits required, two courses/6 credits of which must be in LAR dept.

Path A Advanced Standing Curriculum
Students with accredited baccalaureate or master's degrees in architecture are admitted with advanced standing and generally complete 65 hours of course work for the degree, depending upon the extent to which technical courses in landscape architecture were included in their architectural studies. The following program is representative, but may vary according to individual interest and prior work.

First Year
First Semester
LAR 701 Landscape Architectural Design III 6
Urban Landscape: Systems + Settlements
LAR 537 Plants and Environment I 4
LAR 533 Sites + Systems 3
Intro to reading and analyzing sites (watershed as unit of study)
SARC 600 Common Course 3
    16
 
Second Semester
LAR 702 Landscape Architectural Design IV 6
Landscape Reclamation
LAR 538 Plants and Environment II 4
LAR 534 Earth Work 3
LAR 512 Landscape Architectural History 3
    16
 
Second Year
First Semester
LAR 801 Landscape Architectural Design V 6
LAR 514 Theories of Modern Landscape 3
LAR 731 Planted Form 2
LAR 735 Site Work I 2
Site engineering: storm water runoff, road design and layout
Elective 3
    16
 
Second Semester
LAR 802 Landscape Architectural Design VI
or
6
LAR 804 Independent Thesis Studio,
or
Interdisciplinary Studio
LAR 736 Site Work II 2
Urban hydrological infrastructure & natural systems
LAR 732 Regenerative Technologies 2
Remediation-soil, water, plants
Elective 6
    16

ECO-TECH ELECTIVES Three-four credits, from the following courses:
LAR 544 Landscape Visualization-3D digital terrain modeling 3
LAR 733 Site Assembly I 2
Materials and detailing
LAR 734 Site Assembly II 2
Materials and detailing
LAR 832 Contract documents and Professional Practice 4
Working drawings and specs plus PP lectures
HISTORY / THEORY Three credits required in LA history/theory (20s-30s course number)
ELECTIVE Offerings vary per semester
STUDIOS Four studios required: LAR 701 and 702 plus a third LAR studio, chosen in consultation with advisor. One studio may be LAR 804 Independent thesis studio, or an interdisciplinary studio.
Degree Total 65

Path B Curriculum
Students with accredited baccalaureate degrees in landscape architecture are admitted with advanced standing and normally complete the degree in four academic semesters. Their programs are tailored to their individual design and research interests. If an independent studio is pursued, it must be preceded by L AR 821 (Research Methods). The following program is representative but may vary according to individual interest and prior course work. Students are encouraged to enroll in courses in all departments of the school and in related fields of study across the University.

First Year
First Semester
LAR 701 Landscape Architectural Design III 6
  Urban Landscape: Systems + Settlements
LAR 514 Theories of Modern Landscape 3
SARC 600 Common Course 3
  Elective 3
    15
 
Second Semester
LAR 702 Landscape Architectural Design IV 6
  Landscape Reclamation
LAR 732 Regenerative Technologies 2
  Remediation-soil, water, plants
LAR 736 Site Work II 2
  Urban hydrological infrastructure & natural systems
  Elective 6
    16
 
Second Year
First Semester
LAR 801 Landscape Architectural Design V 6
  Electives 9
    15
 
Second Semester
LAR/ARCH 802 LAR or ARCH Interdisciplinary Option studio
Or
6
LAR 804 Independent Thesis Studio
LAR 832 Contract documents and Professional Practice 4
  Working drawings and specs plus PP lectures
LAR Elective 6
    16
Studios Four studios required: two in LAR Remaining studios may be an independent thesis, architecture, or an interdisciplinary studio.
Electives Eight electives Two in LAR department Two may be independent studies with LAR faculty Four in any department in the university
Degree Total   62

Special Programs
The multi-disciplinary structure of the School of Architecture offers unique opportunities for students to pursue dual graduate degrees. These degrees are offered in Architecture and Urban and Environmental Planning, and Architectural History. The dual degree depends upon admission to each program under the appropriate requirements. Students interested in pursuing a dual degree should consult the chair of the Department of Landscape Architecture.

Independent Studio and Interdisciplinary Options The final semester of design course work provides the student with the opportunity to investigate an area of special interest through an independent studio, an interdisciplinary studio, or an advanced landscape architecture studio. If the student undertakes an independent studio in the spring term, it must be preceded by L AR 821 (Research Methods). Student work closely with a faculty advisor in the development of a thesis and the exploration of its design implications.

Historic Preservation Certificate Program Students wishing to enter the Historic Preservation Certificate Program must be admitted to one of the four graduate departments in the School of Architecture. In order to ensure proper academic advising and program coordination, students interested in the Historic Preservation Program should attend the program meeting at the start of the Fall semester. Upon arriving at the Architecture School they should also file a program participation form with the Architecture School's registrar. Students who complete the required 21 credits of preservation course work receive a Certificate in Historic Preservation, in addition to their department's master's degree. There are individual courses that fulfill the requirements of the historic preservation certificate curriculum that also fulfill requirements within the landscape architecture department curriculum. For example, the Community Preservation Studio (6 credits) counts as one of the studios required for the fulfillment of the landscape architecture department program. Thus, students normally complete the course work for the historic preservation certificate during the same period in which they complete their departmental program.

American Urbanism Certificate Program This program is open to qualified degree candidates who wish to engage in a focused study of the issues and questions central to the interpretation of the American urban landscape and to the creation of new paradigms of urban design. The program's curriculum is intentionally flexible to provide students the opportunity to develop individual programs of study with the review and guidance of the program director. Because of the special nature of the program interested candidates are strongly advised to arrange an interview with the program director.

Programs Abroad Landscape Architecture students may, with approval, spend a semester in one of the programs abroad when offered.

Accreditation The Graduate Program in Landscape Architecture (M.L.A.) is accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board.


Master of Urban and Environmental Planning

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Admission Students from a wide range of academic backgrounds are admitted to the Master of Urban and Environmental Planning degree program. Applicants with an accredited bachelor's degree in the social sciences, engineering, design, or liberal arts contribute to the vitality of the program and to the field of planning.

Overview and Philosophy The Master of Urban and Environmental Planning degree is designed to prepare students to become significant contributors as professional planners in a variety of public, private, and non-profit settings. The program is based on a "generalist with a specialty" model.

The requirements for the degree consist of 50 credits: 20 in the core generalist courses, 15 in a special concentration, 6 in planning application courses (one of these courses must be in the area of concentration), and 9 in open electives. Courses are selected from those offered in the department as well as those available through other departments in the School and University. Students earning dual degrees or who have transferred from other planning programs may warrant advanced standing and be able to complete the planning program in less than the normal two years. Students may take more than the minimum 50 credits if their schedules allow it.

One of the distinctive features of our program is our strongly felt concern for community sustainability. Sustainability is addressed in specific courses with that title, but sustainability also provides the underlying framework for virtually all of the department's courses. The title of our department is Urban and Environmental Planning. We believe it is necessary to consider both the urban and environmental aspects of a setting to address its issues, problems, and opportunities. We are as much concerned with the economy and issues of equity as we are with the environment and find it more useful to emphasize linkages than distinctions, although both are sometimes necessary. We hope to inspire our students to have the same enthusiasm we feel for addressing the planning needs of sustainable communities.

The Core Courses Required of All Students
SARC 600 The Common Course
PLAN 601 Planning Process and Practice
PLAN 604 Legal Aspects of Planning
PLAN 605 Methods of Planning Analysis
PLAN 607 Urban Theory and Public Policy
PLAN 609 Planning Theory and Practice

Planning Application Courses In addition to the above courses, all students must take at least two planning application courses (PLAC). A planning application course combines theory and application, emphasizing application through a project approach. These are listed each semester in the Course Offering Directory, with their subject matter rotating among land use planning, housing, community development, environmental impact analysis, social planning, transportation planning, neighborhood analysis, and other subjects.

Planning Concentrations While the core classes provide the basic curriculum, students meet with their advisors to plan a course of specialized study called Planning Concentrations (PCs). Their purpose is to guide the student in designing a coherent program with an individual focus. The Planning Concentrations listed below should not be viewed as mutually exclusive program compartments. Rather, they are umbrella categories that assist students in focusing their interests. Within these categories, individual students may develop subspecialties. The PCs overlap, combine, and reinforce each other, remaining flexible while suggesting the types of programs we emphasize at the University of Virginia.

Housing and Community Development This concentration stresses the issues of established communities, land reuse and redevelopment, and community and economic development. Housing is a key element in each. Different emphases are feasible depending upon whether one's interest is primarily physical, economic, or social. Opportunities are provided to explore land development and public/private development partnerships, and/or to concentrate on urban design and preservation planning. Community organization, social equity, and participatory aspects of communities are also important.

The foundation course for this concentration is PLAN 540. Environmental Management and Conservation Planners who specialize in the environment perform functions such as assessing the impacts of land development on the biophysical environment and recommending policies to conserve the natural bases of life, air, water, land, energy, and minerals. These individuals also develop plans for addressing the issues of sensitive settings, such as coastal, mountain, wetland, heritage, and special habitat areas. Environmental planning embraces many settings, ranging from urban environments to wilderness areas to agricultural ecosystems.

The foundation course for this concentration is PLAN 553.

Land Use and Growth Management As communities change or grow, decisions are made about the uses of land, about qualities desired in the physical environment, and about the location of development and the protection of open areas. Questions of public facilities and financial resources arise alongside issues of timing and adequacy. A wide range of tools have developed that are employed in land use and growth management planning. These include plans, regulations, tax and finance policies, as well as public service programs. Local land use and growth management activities are frequently linked with regional and state level concerns. The foundation course for this concentration is PLAN 560.

Historic Preservation Planning Planners with a special interest in historic preservation work in numerous settings. They may be on the staff of a local planning agency, work closely with a historic architectural review board, develop the historic element for a comprehensive plan, prepare nominations for building or districts, or prepare strategies to take advantage of historic assets for economic development purposes. Planners also work for state offices of historic preservation, non-profit preservation advocacy groups, and private consultants. Many planners combine their interest in historic preservation with housing and community development or with land use and growth management. Students may opt to earn a Certificate in Historic Preservation and choose their courses accordingly, or they may select a more flexible course of study while completing this planning concentration.

The foundation course for this concentration is PLAN 530. The year-long community history sequence offered through the Department of Architectural History can also provide an appropriate starting point for this concentration.

Student-Designed PCs Although the four PCs described above permit a substantial degree of flexibility, students are also free to develop planning specialties outside these categories. Students might wish to develop specializations in urban design, transportation planning, or social program planning. Required course work depends on the individual's previous study.

Internship The internship is an approved ten-week assignment in an agency, firm, or organization engaged in planning activities. It takes place during the summer between the first and second years of study, for which no course credit is given and no tuition is charged. Prior work experience may satisfy this requirement.

Two-Year Program Summary
A typical two-year program leading to the Master of Urban and Environmental Planning degree would follow this general pattern:

First Year
First Semester
SARC 600 The Common Course 3
PLAN 601 Planning Process and Practice 4
PLAN 607 Urban Theory and Public Policy 3
PLAN ___ Concentration course or elective 3
    13
 
Second Semester
PLAN 604 Legal Aspects of Planning 3
PLAN 605 Methods of Planning Analysis 4
PLAN ___ Concentration course 3
PLAN ___ Elective 3
    13
 
Summer Session
Internship in a planning agency, organization, or firm (no credit)
 
Second Year
First Semester
PLAN 609 Planning Theory and Practice 3
PLAC ___ Applications course 3
PLAN ___ Concentration course 3
PLAN ___ Elective 3
    12
 
Second Semester
PLAC ___ Applications course in concentration 3
PLAN ___ Concentration course 3
PLAN ___ Concentration course 3
PLAN ___ Elective 3
    12
Degree Total 50

As many as six hours of credit may be gained by independent study for approved projects or work experience. These hours are granted only when the work or subject has been approved in advance by the faculty. Normally, the 50 credit hours include periodic faculty review, appropriate readings, and a final report in the form of an analytical paper or case study.

Students are encouraged to take courses throughout the School and University. The School of Law, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences all offer a variety of courses appropriate for degree requirements.

Other Opportunities
Advanced Standing Graduates of accredited undergraduate planning programs will be considered for advanced standing in special cases. A minimum of 30 graduate credits, in addition to the undergraduate degree, must be completed at the University of Virginia. This must be constructed so that, combined with the undergraduate program, each of the requirements for the Master of Urban and Environmental Planning degree is met, including the core courses, planning application courses, planning concentration, and internship. The advanced standing opportunity is intended for students with strong undergraduate records and at least a 3.5 GPA in planning courses.

Dual Degrees These programs are available with the departments in the School of Architecture and various departments of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, including government and environmental science. Dual degree programs are also available with the School of Law, the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, and the School of Graduate Engineering and Applied Science, and depend upon admission to each program under the appropriate requirements. These programs permit the joint use of credit to satisfy the requirements of each degree and shorten the time required for attaining both degrees. Interested students should consult the department chair.

Programs Abroad Planning students may, with approval, spend a semester in a program abroad.

Institute for Environmental Negotiation Negotiation, mediation, and other interactive and consultative problem solving approaches are being relied on with increasing frequency and effectiveness in planning and policy making and in the resolution of development controversies. The Institute for Environmental Negotiation of the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning is a major resource for the provision of these conflict resolution skills. The Institute sponsors visiting mediation practitioners, offers courses in negotiation skills and public involvement, and provides training opportunities through assistantships. The Mediator, newsletter of the institute, is available upon request. No degree in negotiation or mediation is offered independent of the school's regular degree offerings.

Historic Preservation Certificate Program Students wishing to enter the Historic Preservation Certificate Program must be admitted to one of the four graduate departments in the School of Architecture. In order to ensure proper academic advising and program coordination, students interested in the Historic Preservation Program should attend the program meeting at the start of the Fall semester. Upon arriving at the Architecture School they should also file a program participation form with the Architecture School's registrar. Students who complete the required 21 credits of preservation course work receive a Certificate in Historic Preservation, in addition to their department's master's degree. There are individual courses that fulfill the requirements of the historic preservation certificate curriculum that also fulfill requirements within the landscape architecture department curriculum. For example, the Community Preservation Studio (6 credits) counts as one of the studios required for the fulfillment of the landscape architecture department program. Thus, students normally complete the course work for the historic preservation certificate during the same period in which they complete their departmental program.

American Urbanism Certificate Program This program is open to qualified degree candidates who wish to engage in a focused study of the issues and questions central to the interpretation of the American urban landscape and to the creation of new paradigms of urban design. The program's curriculum is intentionally flexible to provide students the opportunity to develop individual programs of study with the review and guidance of the program director. Because of the special nature of the program interested candidates are strongly advised to arrange an interview with the program director.

Accreditation The Graduate Program in Urban and Environmental Planning is accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Certified Planners and the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning.


Master of Architecture History

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Admission Applicants must hold an approved baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university. Admission to graduate study will normally require an average of B or better and a command of at least one foreign language. Candidates admitted to the program must, before beginning their work for the degree, have taken the equivalent of AR H 101 and 102 (Intro to Architectural History) and two semesters of architectural design studio (ARCH 201). These prerequisites may be satisfied by taking AR H 112 and ARCH 204, or the equivalent, during the school's summer session. (Students do not normally enter the program in the spring semester, although this is permitted in special circumstances following the approval of the chair.)

Curriculum The program's purpose is to equip the student with a sound background in architectural history, including its principles and interpretation. The degree requires a minimum of 36 credit hours at the graduate level.

The degree requirements should be considered as a minimum core program. Architectural History is the primary vehicle for students who wish to obtain the Certificate in Historic Preservation. Others may wish to explore interests in fields related to the History of Architecture. Thus, the student should expect to take more than the required minimum courses during the normal four semesters of residency. Qualified students interested in historic preservation can complete the requirements for the Certificate in Historic Preservation and the Master of Architectural History within a two-year period.

Historic Preservation Certificate Program Students wishing to enter the Historic Preservation Certificate Program must be admitted to one of the four graduate departments in the School of Architecture. In order to ensure proper academic advising and program coordination, students interested in the Historic Preservation Program should attend the program meeting at the start of the Fall semester. Upon arriving at the Architecture School they should also file a program participation form with the Architecture School's registrar. Students who complete the required 21 credits of preservation course work receive a Certificate in Historic Preservation, in addition to their department's master's degree. There are individual courses that fulfill the requirements of the historic preservation certificate curriculum that also fulfill requirements within the landscape architecture department curriculum. For example, the Community Preservation Studio (6 credits) counts as one of the studios required for the fulfillment of the landscape architecture department program. Thus, students normally complete the course work for the historic preservation certificate during the same period in which they complete their departmental program.

Placement Examination Students from different disciplines apply to the program. For those students who lack adequate undergraduate preparation in the field, the curriculum has been structured to allow deficiencies to be remedied.

Upon entry into the program, candidates will take a placement examination composed of two sections. Section one is Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Early Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic, and Early Renaissance. Section two is 1500-present, and includes High Renaissance, Baroque, and European including, England, France, Germany, Italy and North American, since the first European contact. Students who fail in one or more of these fields are required during the first year to take the appropriate course or courses. Only one such course may be used to satisfy the degree requirements; it would take the place of the free elective.

Language Qualification Candidates are required to demonstrate a reading knowledge of one foreign language, preferably French, Italian, or German. This requirement may be satisfied by earning the grade of B or better in an intermediate-level university course in the language within two years of admission, by a score of at least 550 on an ETS Graduate School Foreign Language Test, or by a language departmental reading test.

Course Distribution Three credits must be in AR H 700 (Methods in Architectural History), three credits in SARC 600 (The Common Course), and three hours in thesis credit. In addition, each student must have at least nine hours at the 700 level or above, and at least one course from four of the following distribution areas: Ancient and Medieval Architecture, Renaissance and Baroque Architecture, European Architecture since 1700, American Architecture, and non-Western Architecture.

Major and Minor Field Areas Each student must complete a major field of nine credits and a minor field of six credits selected from among the distribution areas listed above. Students enrolled in the Historic Preservation Certificate Program may select historic preservation as their six-credit minor. Of the 36 credit hours required for the degree, 33 must be in AR H courses, although in extraordinary circumstances, and by prior approval of the Department Chair, the student may substitute other courses, e.g., art or history.

Comprehensive Examination The examination is given during the spring semester of the second year, and requires mastery of the discipline of architectural history including its less familiar aspects. The preparation required for this examination should be kept in mind when selecting courses, conducting student-run seminars, pursuing outside reading, and attending additional courses informally.

Thesis The thesis is a major piece of independent work undertaken under the supervision of a committee from the Department. The committee is normally composed of two full-time Department Faculty, one of who serves as Chair, and a third member. The thesis represents three credit hours, normally taken during the student's fourth semester. It is possible to explore the thesis topic more broadly by enrolling for an independent research course in conjunction with the thesis course.

Typical Program of Study

First Year
First Semester
AR H 700 Methods in Arch. History 3
AR H ___ Major field area 3
SARC 600 The Common Course 3
AR H ___ Elective 3
    12
 
Second Semester
AR H ___ Elective 3
AR H ___ Other distribution areas 3
Elective 3
Elective(1) 3
    12
 
Second Year
First Semester
AR H ___ Major field area 3
AR H ___ Minor field area 3
AR H ___ Minor field area 3
Elective(1) 3
    12
 
Second Semester
AR H ___ Major field area 3
AR H ___ Thesis 3
AR H ___ Other distribution areas 3
Elective(1) 3
    12
Degree Total(1)   48

(1) A course beyond the 36 credits required to satisfy the minimum requirements for the degree. These electives may be used to explore interests in related fields or to satisfy the requirement of a second or third preparatory course from among AR H 501, 502.

The preservation program requirements for students in the Department of Architectural History are given in the description of the Historic Preservation Program.

Architectural History students may, with approval, attend the summer program in Vicenza.

A semester in England is also offered through the Courtauld Institute at the University of London for second year students.

A Venice program is offered through the School of Architecture for second year students.


Doctor of Philosophy in the History of Architecture

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The Doctor of Philosophy in the History of Architecture prepares students to teach at the university and college level, both in traditional art history and humanities programs and in professional schools. Holders of the degree may also engage in any number of other fields, for instance: preservation, writing and publishing, curatorial work in museums, and the practice and teaching of architecture.

The degree is offered through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, while the program is located in the Department of Architectural History in the School of Architecture. In addition to the requirements for the school's Master of Architectural History, the doctorate's requirements include an additional year of course work, competence in at least one more foreign language, successful completion of field examinations, and the successful defense of a dissertation. Limited financial aid is available, some of which requires teaching.

Admission Required for admission into the doctorate program is the equivalent of the School of Architecture's Master of Architectural History. Students lacking that preparation should apply for admission to the Master of Architectural History Program with a clear indication of their interest in the Ph.D. program. Admission to the doctorate program is a separate procedure pursued through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Admission is based on the student's record in graduate architectural history courses and other graduate-level work as revealed in the official transcript and letters of recommendation (at least two are required), on Graduate Record Examination scores, and on the form and content of the statement of intent submitted as part of the application. An interview is useful but not required.

Curriculum and Course Distribution In addition to the requirements for the M. ArchH. degree (36 credits), the doctorate program requires a minimum 18 credits of additional graduate course work and 18 credits of non-topical research.

The student must select an area of major field concentration and two areas of minor field concentration. Field examinations are held in each of these areas, which include American, European since 1750, Renaissance-Baroque, Medieval, Ancient, and non-Western architecture. Upon consultation with an advisor, the student may create a new field for examination, and/or select a minor field area from another Department (e.g., art history: American or Renaissance art; Anthropology: American Archaeology; History: Colonial, etc.). Counting the M.ArchH. courses, the student is required to present for the Ph.D. degree at least five courses in the major field area, three courses in each of the two minor field areas, and at least one course in all other Architectural History areas.

Language Qualification The doctorate calls for a reading knowledge of at least one more foreign language than the one required for the MArchH, usually French, German, or Italian (although Latin or some other language may be substituted with permission). This requirement may be satisfied by earning the grade of B or better in an intermediate-level university course in the language within two years of admission, or by a score of at least 550 on an ETS Graduate School Foreign Language Test, or by a language departmental reading test.

Examinations The Ph.D. field examination is normally held in the first semester of a student's second year and consists of written and oral segments taken consecutively over a three to five day period. The student must submit a dissertation prospectus prior to taking the field examination. The written portion of the exam is two days in length. The first day is devoted to the major field area and takes about six hours to write; the second day consists of two three-hour written segments in the student's two minor field areas. The faculty reads the examination, and the oral examination segment follows on either the third, fourth, or fifth day, and consists of one hour on the major field area and one-half hour on each of the minor field areas. The student is expected to demonstrate familiarity with buildings and other works related to architecture, the methods used for dealing with that knowledge, and the history and bibliography connected to it. Attention is also directed to the economic, intellectual, and social history that surrounds specific architectural history questions.

Dissertation A dissertation, normally prepared in the third year of doctorate study, is meant to make an important contribution to knowledge. The formation of the committee should follow the guidelines of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The dissertation committee will consist of at least four including: two full-time department faculty members, one of whom will serve as chair, a member from another department in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and a fourth member who can be from the department or from outside. The time and place of the dissertation defense must be posted at least two weeks before its scheduled date.

Typical Program of Study
Note that a M.ArchH. or equivalent degree is required for admission to the program. Not included here are courses required for that degree, and various additional required non-topical research courses.

First Ph.D. Year
First Semester
AR H ___ Major field area 3
AR H ___ Minor field area 3
AR H ___ Additional area 3
AR H ___ Non-Topical research 6
    15
Second Semester
AR H ___ Major field area 3
AR H ___ Art History (or other) elective 3
AR H ___ or  
ARTH ___ (or other) elective 3
AR H ___ Non-Topical research 6
    15
Second Ph.D. Year
  Field and written examinations
AR H ___ Non-Topical (dissertation) research 9
AR H ___ Non-Topical (dissertation) research 9
    18

Third Ph.D. Year
AR H 999 - (9)
Dissertation defense

The Graduate Arts and Sciences Admissions Catalog contains information about the Ph.D. program and its requirements. It may be obtained from the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, P.O. Box 400773 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4773. Students seeking admission to the program who have, or are completing, the School of Architecture's Master of Architectural History degree or its equivalent should apply directly to the GSAS at that same address.


Interdisciplinary Programs

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Historic Preservation Certificate Program The interdisciplinary program in Historic Preservation offers master's degree candidates in architecture, architectural history, landscape architecture and urban and environmental planning the opportunity to expand their professional studies through specialized training in the ethics and practice of historic preservation. Preservation has grown increasingly important in defining a civic sense of place, buttressing sustainable communities, conserving urban neighborhoods, protecting rural and scenic areas, and enriching public understanding of social, cultural, and architectural history. The program provides the opportunities for graduate students to develop the skills and expertise of the preservation practitioner within their own discipline, while at the same time studying the breadth of preservation work in related fields. Faculty from all four departments in the School of Architecture and distinguished visiting practitioners teach the preservation courses.

Admission Students wishing to enter the Historic Preservation Program must first be admitted to one of the four graduate departments in the School of Architecture. In order to ensure proper academic advising and program coordination, students interested in the Historic Preservation Program should attend the program meeting at the start of the Fall semester. Upon arriving at the Architecture School they should also file a program participation form with the A School's registrar. Students who complete the required 21 credits of preservation course work receive a Certificate in Historic Preservation, in addition to their department's master's degree. There are individual courses that fulfill the requirements of the historic preservation certificate curriculum that also fulfill requirements within a student's departmental curriculum. Thus, students normally complete the course work for the historic preservation certificate during the same period in which they complete their departmental program.

Historic Preservation Certificate Curriculum Work in the Historic Preservation Program is grouped into four general areas.

I. Foundations of Preservation Core is made up of six courses divided into three thematic groups that provide an ethical and conceptual overview of preservation. Certificate candidates take four of six courses in this core that are divided as follows: they take the one course in Group A, one of two courses in Group B, and two of three courses in Group C. (12 credits total):
Group A: Theory (candidates take the one course in group A, 3 credits)
AR H 590, Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
Group B: History (candidates take one of two courses in group B, 3 credits)
AR H 551/552/553/554 Early/Later/19th C./20th C. American Architecture
LAR 513, History of American Landscape Architecture
Group C: Practice (candidates take two of the three courses in group C, 6 credits)
ARCH 511, Design Approaches to Existing Sites
PLAN 530, Preservation Planning
AR H 752, Field Methods and Conservation in Historic Preservation
II. Community History, Design, and Planning Core is a year-long interdisciplinary research, design, and planning project that focuses on preservation-related projects in a single community (6-9 credits):
A. Community History Workshop (3 credits, fall semester, for all certificate candidates) and
B. One of the following:
  1. Community Preservation Studio (6 credits, spring semester, for architecture and landscape architecture students);
  2. Community Public History and Planning Seminar (3 credits, spring semester, for architectural history and planning students).
III. Electives. There are numerous elective courses available that cover specialized aspects of historic preservation. Students in architectural history and planning are required to take at least one elective course that permits them to pursue work in their own particular discipline with greater depth. This course equalizes the credit hour differential that arises in the community history core and gives all certificate candidates the required 21 credit hours (3 credits, for architectural history and planning students).
IV. Internship. A required internship permits students to obtain valuable experience in preservation-related work. Students may pursue the internship either during the school year or during the summer. Students have taken advantage of numerous internship opportunities with US/ICOMOS, National Park Service, HABS/HAER/HALS, English Heritage, Preservation Action, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, Monticello, local planning authorities, and with preservation planning and design firms. UVA's Institute for Public History coordinates a summer internship program with numerous Virginia institutions and communities that is open to students in the School of Architecture. Students who enroll in the preservation program with substantial work prior work in the preservation field will have the internship requirement waived.

Inquiries should be addressed to Director, Historic Preservation Program, School of Architecture, P. O. Box 400122, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904.


American Urbanism Certificate Program

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The Program of Advanced Studies in American Urbanism provides opportunities for the masters degree candidates to examine the fundamental, symbolic, and pragmatic values underlying American urban landscapes. Urban design has become an increasingly complex multi-disciplinary endeavor. Design at this scale requires an individual who has acquired a knowledge of urban history, the process(es) of urban development, design skills derived from an understanding of the theories and practices of both architecture and landscape architecture, and most importantly a coherent set of principles with which to discern, steward, and enhance the social, cultural and political values of embodied in urban form. The program's curriculum emphasizes the development of multi-disciplinary design and analytic skills to enable a student to creatively engage the problems of the contemporary urban environment.

Admission The Program is open to students who have been admitted to one of the four graduate departments in the School of Architecture and to practitioners who seek to expand their understanding of urban form and processes. Candidates should submit a letter of intent to the Director, describing their interest in the program and relevant experience. Candidates in fields other than Architecture and Landscape Architecture may be required to submit a portfolio for review. Admission to the Program of Advanced Studies in American Urbanism requires the approval of the Director and the candidate's Department Chair. Students who complete the required 24 credits of coursework receive a Certificate in American Urbanism in addition to their department's masters degree. Students will normally be able to complete the coursework during the same period required for completion of their departmental program. Inquiries should be addressed: Director, American Urbanism Program, School of Architecture, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904.

Requirements The curriculum for the Certificate Program in American Urbanism includes required core courses and elective coursework. Required course(s) supplement the studio curriculum providing insight into the history, and theory of the development of urban form. Elective courses allow students to pursue individual interests in greater detail and offer the possibility to benefit from the breadth of expertise found within the School of Architecture and the University. The program director will review the course selection of all certificate candidates.

The core curriculum includes three courses (15 credits) that offer an introduction and overview to the principles and practices of urban design, and their application. All candidates will be required to successfully complete the required core curriculum.

Theories and Practices of Urban Design 3 credits
Urbanism Studio 6 credits
Studio (to be determined in consultation with the director) 6 credits

The remaining 9 credits will be made up of some appropriate combination of research and coursework, which will reflect the background and interests of the candidates and is determined in consultation with the program's director.


Programs Abroad

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Master Architectural History students may, with approval, spend a semester in one of the programs abroad when offered.
The following programs are subject to change.

Fall Program in London, England This program is open to graduate students in the history of architecture department for study at the Courtauld Institute of Art. Students participating in this program are on leave of absence from the University.

Fall Program in Venice, Italy The program is directed and taught by faculty members from the University of Virginia, with the assistance of Italian adjunct faculty. The coursework includes a design studio, independent research, and studies of the architecture art, landscape and urban form of Venice and the Veneto. This program is offered to all four departments.

Summer Program in Vicenza, Italy This program is open to all students in the School of Architecture. The program carries no credit other than three optional credits for Independent Study. Extensive field trips to explore the art, architecture, and urbanism of the region are a prominent part of the program. Instruction is provided by University of Virginia and adjunct indigenous faculty members. Knowledge of Italian language is strongly recommended.

Summer Program in Beijing, China The UVa program in China introduces students to Chinese art, architecture, landscape architecture, and planning. The program includes field trips to sites in the city of Beijing and environs, as well as sites in other parts of China. Students may receive up to six credits through the School of Architecture. A faculty member of the School of Architecture, as well as local experts, staff the program. Fellowships are available from the Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation. Limited travel funds are available through the Weedon East Asian Travel Grant competition sponsored by the East Asian Center.


 
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