University of Virginia
The Rotunda at U.Va.
2004-2005
GRADUATE RECORD
School of Law
General Information  |  Admission Information  |  Financial Aid Information  |  Academic Regulations  |  Activities and Awards  |  Annual Law School Awards and Honors  |  Degree Programs  |  Course Descriptions  |  Faculty
J.D. Degree
Master of Law (LL.M) and Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.)
Combined Degree Programs
J.D.-M.A. (Bioethics) Program
J.D.-M.A. (Economics) Program
J.D.-M.A. (English) Program
J.D.-M.A. (Politics) Program
J.D.-M.A. (History) Program
J.D.-M.A. (Philosophy) Program
J.D.-M.A. (Sociology) Program
External Combined-Degree Programs in Public International Law
J.D.-M.B.A. Program
J.D.-MPH (Public Health) Program
J.D.-M.U.E.P. Program
J.D.-M.S. Program (Accounting)

Degree Programs

J.D. Degree

Candidates for the Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree must successfully complete a minimum of 86 credits including all required first-year courses and a course in Professional Responsibility; satisfy the Writing Requirement; complete six residency semesters; and maintain a satisfactory record characteristic of a prospective member of the legal profession.

Residence The Law School, by virtue of regulations promulgated by the American Bar Association and the Association of American Law Schools, requires six semesters in residence for the J.D. degree, except in the case of transfer students who have received credit for work done in other law schools and enter with advanced standing. A semester in residence is one in which a student enrolls in a minimum of 12 credits towards the J.D. degree, receives grades of D or better for at least nine of those 12 credits and meets the Law School’s attendance requirement.

Grading System Candidates for the J.D. degree must satisfy two conditions during each academic year of enrollment: they must earn and maintain a minimum grade point average of C+ (2.3) and accumulate fewer than three exclusion points. A grade of D carries one exclusion point and a grade of F carries two exclusion points. Under the current grading system, there are ten possible grades that can be used by the faculty in evaluating performance in courses and seminars: A+, A, A-, B+, B, B- C+, C, D, F. It is the intent of the faculty that, for the purpose of allocating grades in a course or seminar and to assist in achieving grade uniformity, the mean grade for each course and seminar will be a 3.3 (B+). However, there is no particular grading curve to which a faculty member must adhere.


Master of Laws (LL.M) and Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.)

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Admission Requirements This program of graduate study is designed primarily for graduates of foreign law schools wishing to study one or more aspects of U.S. law and legal methods, and for foreign and U.S. law graduates seeking careers in legal education or government service. Admission is limited to specially qualified students and depends upon proven ability in the study of law.

A law graduate desiring to enter the School of Law and become a candidate for a graduate degree must prepare an application including, among other things, his or her objectives in pursuing graduate study and a proposed program of study or research. Application forms may be obtained on request from the Director of Graduate Studies, School of Law, P.O. Box 400405, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4405.

Foreign students whose native language is other than English are required to demonstrate satisfactory proficiency in the English language. Such students are required to submit results on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) as part of their complete application.

All graduate students are normally admitted at the outset as candidates for the LL.M. LL.M. graduates and others are admitted to candidacy for the Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) degree only after the candidate is in residence and the graduate committee is satisfied as to his or her qualifications. To be considered for S.J.D. candidacy, one normally must hold the LL.M. or have taught or practiced for some time. Admission to candidacy for the S.J.D. degree does not follow automatically from admission to the graduate program, but depends upon the judgment of the candidate’s qualifications by the graduate committee.

Application Deadline Applications must be received by February 1. However, candidates are strongly advised to submit their applications earlier in the fall semester.

Financial Aid Financial Aid is based on merit and need. Foreign students may compete for financial aid funds on the same basis as Americans. Financial aid awards are normally granted for one year and are limited in number.

Degree Requirements for Master of Laws (LL.M.) The degree of Master of Laws is conferred upon students who, having been admitted to candidacy, have satisfactorily completed at least two semesters of residence and a minimum of 24 credits. With the exception of required first-year courses and graduation requirements, all policies and regulations listed in the Course Offering Directory as applicable to J.D. students also apply to graduate students. At least two credits must be earned in producing a substantial written work of publishable quality, either within a seminar or as supervised research. Foreign students may be required to attend one or more orientation lectures specially designed for them.

Degree Requirements for Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) The degree of Doctor of Juridical Science is conferred upon students who, having been admitted to candidacy, have:

  1. Completed two semesters of residence demonstrating honors ability in a program of study covering 12-16 credits to be divided between classroom and research credits as prescribed and approved by the Director of Graduate Studies. The research component will require completion of the dissertation proposal and/or written work demonstrating progress toward the dissertation. Final acceptance in the S.J.D. program is conditional upon the work completed during the one year period of study. Candidates for the S.J.D. degree must usually take additional periods of time, either in residence or in absentia, to prepare for the oral examination and submit a satisfactory dissertation;
  2. completed a dissertation that is an original contribution to the literature of law, demonstrating mastery of the principles of scholarly research, critical analysis, and reasoned presentation of results. The doctoral dissertation is normally of book or monograph length or suitable for a series of law review articles. The subject must be approved by the student’s advisor;
  3. satisfactorily passed an oral examination by a special committee appointed for that purpose. When the dissertation has been approved by the faculty member supervising the student’s research, three examiners are appointed to question the applicant orally and report to the law faculty in writing their opinion of his or her work and fitness for the degree.

The dissertation required for the degree may be submitted, and the oral examination held, any time within five years after the completion of the required period of residency. This period may be extended at the discretion of the graduate committee on showing of cause in writing to the committee.

Master of Laws in the Judicial Process This degree program was inaugurated by the Law School in 1980 as a special graduate program designed for American appellate judges. The program requires attendance at two resident summer sessions of six weeks each and the submission of a thesis.

A class is admitted to the program only once every three years. The present class enrolled in the summer of 2002 and the next class enrolls in the summer of 2005. Priority in admission is given to judges of the federal and state appellate courts, although trial judges will be considered for admission.

Additional information may be obtained from the Director, Graduate Program for Judges, University of Virginia School of Law, Charlottesville, VA 22903.


Combined Degree Programs

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Credit for Courses Taken Before Enrollment as a J.D. Candidate No credit is granted to any student, except transfer students, for any academic work completed prior to enrollment as a J.D. candidate, including law courses in the Law School and graduate courses in schools and departments at the University of Virginia with which the Law School maintains combined degree programs.

Limited Enrollment While in Residence While enrolled in the Law School, no student may be enrolled simultaneously in academic courses, as part of a degree-granting program or otherwise, at another institution without prior approval by the Curriculum Committee. Exception: students enrolled in External Combined-Degree Programs in Public International Law do not need Curriculum Committee approval.

Documentation for Combined Degree Programs Students must present documentation indicating acceptance into a combined degree program to the Student Records Office. During one semester of their tenure in the School of Law, students must be registered in the school in which the second degree will be obtained. The Student Records Office must be informed of the semester in which the student will be enrolled in the other school.


J.D.-M.A. (Bioethics) Program

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The following program for a combined J.D.-M.A. degree was instituted in 1998 by the School of Law, the School of Medicine and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.

Administration of the Program The program is administered by a Program Committee, consisting of one or more members of the Law faculty appointed by the Dean of the School of Law, one or more members of the faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences appointed by the Dean of the Graduate Faculties, and the Director of the Center for Biomedical Ethics in the School of Medicine.

Admission to the Program The student is required to secure admission separately to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the Law School through the normal admissions processes in the two schools. The student has to meet the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. Once admitted to the two schools, the student may apply to the Program Committee for admission to the joint program. Students may seek admission to the Graduate School and initiate the joint degree program after they have begun matriculating in the Law School.

Curriculum The student is required to meet all of the requirements set by the respective Schools for the award of both the J.D. and M.A. degrees. In the School of Law, this means that the student is required to complete the required curriculum and to earn a minimum of 86 credits. In the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, minimum requirements for the M.A. degree include 24 credits in an approved program, and completion of a thesis under the supervision of a faculty advisor. (It is also possible to complete the M.A. degree by earning 30 credits in an approved program without a thesis.)

With the approval of a Law School representative on the Program Committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for his or her J.D. degree in appropriate graduate level work in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Similarly, with the approval of a Graduate School representative on the Program Committee, a student may receive up to 18 of the credits required for the M.A. Degree in appropriate work in the School of Law. No student, however, may have more than 15 credits applied toward both degrees.

The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes three and one-half years to complete and requires a minimum of 95 credits and an approved thesis (or a minimum of 101 credits without a thesis). In effect, the program consists of the complete first-year program at the School of Law and at least two and one-half years of courses taken from the curricula of the two schools and, when appropriate, from other graduate offerings at the University. However it is possible for an enterprising student to complete both degrees by taking a heavier course load and devoting one or two summers to the program.

Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint program with the approval of the Program Committee and continue towards a single degree at either school.

Grading Standards The student is required to meet the grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing.

Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors Richard J. Bonnie, and Paul A. Lombardo.


J.D.-M.A. (Economics) Program

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It is possible to pursue both the J.D. degree in the Law School and an M.A. degree in the Graduate School of Arts and Science’s James Wilson Department of Economics, but admission and course requirements are handled independently by each school. The Law School advisors for this program are Professors Charles J. Goetz and George Cohen.


J.D.-M.A. (English) Program

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The following J.D.-M.A. program was instituted in 1994 by the School of Law and the Department of English.

Administration of the Program Management of the program and advising of participant students are entrusted, on the Law School side, to a faculty member designated by the dean, and, on the side of the Department of English, to its director of graduate studies.

Admission to the Program Admission to the program requires three steps. (1) The student must secure admission to the English department graduate program through the department’s normal admissions process. A student will be held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program will not be considered at this stage. A student may apply to the English department either while a first-year law student or prior to entering the School of Law. (2) The student must secure admission to the School of Law through its normal admissions process. A student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint degree program is not considered at this stage. (3) The student must secure admission to the joint program by petitioning the joint faculty committee.

Curriculum The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes four years to complete. It may be possible to complete the program in less time, however, by additional summer work and by carrying a higher than average load. In brief, the program consists of the complete first-year program in the School of Law, followed by three years of courses taken from the curricula of the two schools and, in appropriate cases, from other graduate offerings at the University.

Students are required to meet all of the requirements set by the respective departments for the award of both the J.D. and the M.A. degrees. In the School of Law this means that the student is required to earn a minimum of 86 credits and complete the required curriculum of the Law School. In the English department, requirements for the M.A. degree vary from program to program. There are three: the M.A. in English, the M.A. in English and American Studies, and the M.A. in English and Medieval Studies. The programs’ different requirements appear in the department’s regulations for graduate studies, and all applicants should thoroughly familiarize themselves with these rules.

With the approval of the Law School representative on the program committee, students may receive up to 12 of 86 credits required for their J.D. degree in appropriate graduate-level work in the Department of English or other departments at the University. Graduate school courses in literary theory or cultural studies are the most likely candidates for such credit, and Law School credit is not usually given for literature courses. When directly relevant to a particular student’s Law School program of study, however, the Law School representative may grant Law School credit for literature courses containing a significant component of cultural studies, literary theory, or cultural, intellectual, or social history. In all cases, the Law School representative must approve credit for any course taken outside the School of Law before the student takes the course. Similarly, with the approval of the director of graduate studies of the English Department, a student may receive up to nine of the credits required for the M.A. in appropriate work in the School of Law. Whether a student may receive the full nine credits varies from program to program within the English department.

Change in Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint degree and continue toward a single degree at either school. A student is then obligated to satisfy the normal requirements of the school elected, which may include credit for some of the work completed in the other school, as determined by the appropriate officials of the school in question.

Financial Aid During the first year, financial aid is available to law students on the usual basis by application to the School of Law. Financial aid during remaining years may be available from each school under that school’s normal procedures in proportion to the number of credits taken in each school and depending on the availability of assistance.

Extracurricular Activities The student is eligible to participate in the extracurricular activities of both schools to the extent that time permits, but should be particularly alert to the possibility of over-commitment, and should seek the counsel of the program committee before undertaking any formal extracurricular activities of a time-consuming nature.

Grading Standards In the first year of the combined program, while enrolled exclusively in the School of Law, the student is required to meet the grading standards of that school. In remaining years, when enrolled in both schools, the student will be required to meet the session and cumulative grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing. Grades will be recorded on the student’s transcript under the system in effect at the school in which the course is taken.

Faculty Advisors The Law School Faculty advisor for this program is Professor George Rutherglen.


J.D.-M.A. (Politics) Program

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The following J.D.-M.A. program was instituted in 1970 by the School of Law and the Woodrow Wilson Department of Politics.

Administration of the Program Management of the program and advising of participating students are entrusted, on the Law School side, to a faculty member designated by the dean, and, on the side of the Woodrow Wilson Department of Politics, to its regular graduate advisor.

Admission to the Program Admission to the program requires three steps. (1) The student must secure admission to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs through the department’s normal admissions process. A student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. A student may apply to the Woodrow Wilson Department of Politics while a first-year law student or prior to entrance at the School of Law. (2) The student must secure admission to the School of Law through its normal admissions process. A student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. (3) The student must secure admission to the joint degree program by petitioning the joint faculty.

Curriculum The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes three and one-half years to complete. It may be possible to complete the program in three years, however, by additional summer work and by carrying a higher than average load. In brief, the program consists of the complete first-year program in the School of Law, followed by two and one-half years of courses taken from the curricula of both schools and, in appropriate cases, from other graduate offerings at the University. The student must meet all of the requirements set by the respective departments for the award of both the J.D. and the M.A. degrees. In the School of Law, this means that the student is required to earn a minimum of 86 credits and complete the required curriculum of the School. In the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, requirements for the M.A. degree in government or in foreign affairs include 24 credits, satisfactory performance on two comprehensive examinations, completion of a thesis under the supervision of two faculty advisors, and demonstration of appropriate competence in a foreign language or in quantitative research methods. With the approval of the Law School representatives on the program committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for his or her J.D. degree in appropriate graduate-level work in the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs or other graduate offerings at the University. Similarly, with the approval of the graduate advisor of the Woodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, a student may receive up to six of the 24 credits required for the M.A. in appropriate work in the School of Law. The same rules pertain to the M.A. degree in public administration, except that 27 credits and only one comprehensive examination are required, and there is no language requirement.

Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint degree and continue toward a single degree at either school. A student is then obligated to satisfy the normal requirements of the school elected, which may include credit for some of the work completed in the other school, as determined by the appropriate officials of the school in question.

Financial Aid During the first year, financial aid is available to law students on the usual basis by application to the School of Law. Financial aid during remaining years is available from each school in proportion to the number of credits taken in each school and the availability of assistance. The program committee has the responsibility of working with the financial aid officers of each school and with the student to coordinate any problems of financial aid that arise.

Extracurricular Activities The student is eligible to participate in the extracurricular activities of both schools to the extent that time permits, but should be particularly alert to the possibility of over-commitment, and should seek the counsel of the program committee before undertaking any formal extracurricular activities of a time-consuming nature.

Grading Standards In the first year of the combined program, while enrolled exclusively in the School of Law, the student is required to meet the grading standards of that school. In remaining years, when enrolled in both schools, the student is required to meet the session and cumulative grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing. Grades are recorded on the student’s transcript under the system in effect at the school in which the course is taken.

Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisor for this program is Professor John Norton Moore.


J.D.-M.A. (History) Program

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In order to encourage the study of legal history and to attract able students into the field, the School of Law, in conjunction with the Corcoran Department of History, offers a combined J.D.-M.A. degree program. Law students interested in the program may apply during the Fall semester of the first or second years. (Graduate School deadline is December 1 annually.) Eight courses are required for the M.A. degree, which is generally awarded simultaneously with the J.D. at the end of the third year of Law School.

Students typically take two history courses per semester during the second and third years of law study. Five of these are courses in legal history offered by the law faculty. Two other courses, drawn from the general offerings of the Corcoran Department of History, are chosen in consultation with the law-history program advisor. Of these seven courses, at least one must be a colloquium (700-level) and at least one must be a research seminar (800-level). The paper produced in the seminar forms the basis of the Master’s essay, which is submitted in the spring of the third year. Other requirements for the M.A. degree include proficiency in a foreign language (two years of college-level study or satisfactory performance on a translation examination), and a creditable performance in a one-hour oral examination administered in the Spring semester of the third year. The eighth course, for which credit is awarded toward the M.A. but not toward the J.D., is a readings course taken in the Spring semester of the third year in preparation for the oral examination.

The Law School faculty advisors for the program are Professors Barry Cushman, Charles McCurdy, G. Edward White, and Michael Klarman.


J.D.-M.A. (Philosophy) Program

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This program generally follows the format of the J.D.-M.A. (English) program. Applicants interested in this program should write for further details to either of the Law School faculty advisors, Professors Jody Kraus and Dan Ortiz.


J.D.-M.A. (Sociology) Program

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The following program for a combined J.D.-M.A. degree was instituted in 1971 by the School of Law and the Department of Sociology.

Administration of the Program The program is administered by a program committee, consisting of two members of the Law faculty appointed by the dean of the School of Law, and two members of the Department of Sociology faculty, nominated by the department chair and appointed by the dean of the graduate faculties.

Admission to the Program Students are required to secure admission separately to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the Law School through its normal admissions processes. Students must meet the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. Once admitted independently to the two schools, students may then apply to the program committee for admission to the joint program.

Curriculum The combined J.D.-M.A. program normally takes three and one-half to four years to complete and requires a minimum of 98 credits. In effect, the program consists of either the complete first-year program at the School of Law or the complete first-year program in the Department of Sociology and at least two and one-half years of courses taken from the curricula of both schools and, when appropriate, from other graduate offerings at the University. Students must meet all of the requirements set by the respective departments for the award of both the J.D. and M.A. degree. In the School of Law, this means that students are required to earn a minimum of 86 credits and complete the required curriculum of the Law School. In the Department of Sociology, minimum requirements for the M.A. degree include 24 credits in an approved program and completion of a thesis under the supervision of a faculty advisor. With the approval of the Law School representatives on the program committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for his or her J.D. degree in appropriate graduate-level work in the Department of Sociology. Similarly, with the approval of the graduate advisor in the Department of Sociology, a student may receive up to six of the 24 credits required for the M.A. degree in appropriate work in the School of Law. No student, however, may have more than 12 credits applied toward both degrees.

Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint program with the approval of the program committee and continue toward a single degree at either school.

Grading Standards The student is required to meet the grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing.

Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors John Monahan and Richard Bonnie.


External Combined-Degree Programs in Public International Law

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The Law School does not maintain formal combined degree programs with schools in other universities. However, for a student who is admitted both to the Law School and to one of the following three schools, the Law School will approve a combined degree for the study of public international law on application by the individual student:

J.D.-M.P.A. (Public Affairs) in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University;

J.D.-M.A.L.D. (Law and Diplomacy) in the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University;

J.D.-M.A. (International Relations and International Economics) at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.

Students must be admitted independently to the University of Virginia School of Law and one of the above-named schools. The student may begin the program by attending a year at the University of Virginia Law School first or a year at the other school. However, only after completion of the first year of Law School, consisting of all required credits and two semesters of residence, may credits earned at the other school be applied to the J.D. Students may apply up to 14 semester credits and one semester of residence credit from the other school toward the J.D. Details of the requirements at Princeton, Tufts, and Johns Hopkins must be obtained from those schools, as the programs are administered independently. A student must have a faculty advisor at the other school who approves the student’s degree curriculum.

The Law School faculty advisor for a public international law combined degree is Professor John Norton Moore. Professor Moore’s permission is required in order to pursue one of the above degree programs. Transfer students and students who visit at another school for their third year are not eligible. External studies projects may not be undertaken by students in external combined degree programs.


J.D.-M.B.A. Program

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The Law School offers a combined program with the University of Virginia Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, in which the student may obtain both the M.B.A. and the J.D. degree in four years instead of the five that would be required if each were taken separately.

Administration of the Program The program is administered by faculty advisers from the Law and Darden School faculties, as designated by the respective deans.

Admission to the Program A student who wishes to be admitted into the joint program must secure separate admission to both the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration and the School of Law through the normal admissions process. In both cases, the student is held to the same standards as any other applicant, and candidacy for the joint program is not considered at this stage. Application to one school may be made either prior to entrance or while a first-year student at the other. No students are admitted to the joint program after completing the first year of either Law or Darden. Students who have been admitted to both schools and who wish to undertake the joint program should notify the registrar of each school and apply to the faculty advisors for permission to do so. Admission requires approval of both the Law and Darden faculty advisors.

Curriculum The program takes four years to complete. It consists of the complete first-year program of each school, followed by two years of courses taken from the curricula of the two schools and, in appropriate cases, from other graduate offerings at the University. Students who have been admitted to the program may elect whether they want to start in the School of Law or the Darden School, and in any event must spend their first year in full-time residence in either the Darden School or the School of Law. The second year is spent in the other school, again in full-time residence and, in effect, as regular first-year students.

Thereafter (assuming the student has earned 30 Law School credits and successfully completed the first-year program at the Darden School), the student is required to earn 32 credits per year for the next two years, 12 each year in the Darden School and 20 each year in the School of Law. As part of these credits, the student must take all of the required curricula of both the Darden School and the School of Law. The remaining credits are electives and may be chosen from the respective law and business curricula. At the successful conclusion of the four years, the student is awarded both the M.B.A. and J.D. degrees.

Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint degree and continue toward a single degree at either school. The student must then satisfy the normal requirements of the school elected, which may include credit for some of the work done in the other school, as determined by the appropriate officials of the school in question.

Financial Aid Financial aid will be available during the first two years by application to the school at which the student is a resident. During the third and fourth years, The Darden School will provide for the third year with the Law School providing aid in the final year.

Extracurricular Activities The students are eligible to participate in the extracurricular activities of both schools to the extent that their time permits. Students should be particularly alert to the possibility of over-commitment, however.

Grading Standards In the first two years of the combined J.D.-M.B.A program, while enrolled exclusively in either the School of Law or the Darden School, students are required to meet the grading standards of the school in which they are enrolled.

In the final two years, when enrolled in both schools, students are required to meet the session and cumulative grading standards of each school independently to remain in good standing.

Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors Edmund W. Kitch and Paul G. Mahoney.


J.D.-M.P.H. (Public Health) Program

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The following program for a combined J.D.-M.P.H. degree was instituted in 2003 by the School of Law, the School of Medicine and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.

Administration of the Program The program is administered by a Program Committee, consisting of one or more members of the Law faculty appointed by the Dean of the School of Law, one or more members of the faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences appointed by the Dean of the Graduate Faculties, and one or more members of the faculty of the School of Medicine appointed by the Dean of the School of Medicine.

Admission to the Program The student is required to secure admission separately to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the Law School through the normal admissions processes in the two schools. The student has to meet the same standards as any other applicant. Once admitted to the two schools, the student may apply to the Program Committee for admission to the joint program. Students may seek admission to the Graduate School and initiate the joint degree program after they have begun matriculating in the Law School.

Curriculum The student is required to meet all of the requirements set by the respective Schools for the award of both the J.D. and M.P.H. degrees. In the School of Law, this means that the student is required to complete the required curriculum and earn a minimum of 86 credits. In the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, minimum requirements for the M.P.H. degree include 42 credits in an approved program, including at least 30 course credits, and completion of a practicum (or field placement) and a thesis (or other "culminating experience") under the supervision of a faculty advisor.

With the approval of a Law School representative on the Program Committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for his or her J.D. degree in appropriate graduate level work in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences or other Schools in the University. Similarly, with the approval of a Graduate School of Arts and Sciences representative on the Program Committee, a student may receive up to 12 of the 42 credits required for the M.A. degree in appropriate work in the School of Law. No student, however, may have more than 18 credits applied toward both degrees.

The combined J.D.-M.P.H. program normally takes four years to complete.

Change of Status At any point in the program, the student may terminate plans for a joint program with the approval of the Program Committee and continue towards a single degree at either school.

Grading Standards The student is required to meet the grading standards of both schools independently to remain in good standing.

Faculty Advisors The Law School faculty advisors for this program are Professors Richard J. Bonnie, and Richard A. Merrill.


J.D.-M.U.E.P. Program

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The Law School offers a combined program with the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning of the School of Architecture, in which the student may earn both the degrees of Master of Planning (M.P.) and the J.D. in four years’ time. This program is similar in format to the J.D.-M.B.A. program. Thus, a student must be independently admitted both to the Law School and to the Architecture School, Department of Planning. The student spends one full year in the Architecture school the program. Twelve credits earned in planning courses may be counted toward the J.D., and 20 credits earned in Law School courses may be counted toward the M.P. Prospective applicants to the Law School who are interested in the J.D.-M.P. program should write for detailed information to Daphne Spain, Chair, Department of Urban and Environmental Planning, School of Architecture, Campbell Hall, P.O. Box 400122 Charlottesville VA 22904-4122. The Law School faculty advisor for this program is Professor Thomas R. White III.


J.D.-M.S. (Accounting) Program

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Persons admitted to the School of Law can earn both the J.D. and M.S. in Accounting degrees. Individuals must apply for admission to the McIntire School of Commerce in the usual manner. Commerce studies usually begin after one year in the School of Law. Students must meet all of the requirements specified by the respective schools. A student may receive up to 12 of the 86 credits required for the J.D. degree by successful completion of graduate level work in the Department of Commerce. Similarly, a student may receive up to six of the 30 credits required for the M.S. degree for successful completion of coursework in the School of Law. Law students completing the M.S. program also have the option of writing a thesis for six credits, reducing the coursework requirement to 24 credits, six in the School of Law and 18 in Commerce. The Law School faculty advisor for this program is Professor Thomas R. White, III.


 
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