University of Virginia

Graduate Record 1995-1996

Chapter 6: Graduate School of Architecture

General Information

The academic programs of the School of Architecture encompass the broad range of concerns, disciplines, and sensitivities expressed in Thomas Jefferson's timeless design for the University-his "academical village" which is widely considered to be one of the most significant achievements of American architecture. Four distinct yet increasingly interrelated departments provide a rich setting for professional education. Architecture and Landscape Architecture seek to integrate the intellectual and pragmatic aspects of their disciplines in the belief that design skills must be responsive to the cultural, historical, and physical context as much as to functional need. Architectural History aims to develop an awareness of the value of the past. The program in Urban and Environmental Planning emphasizes the application of planning theory, processes, and methods in the context of political and market forces, resource limitations, and social needs. In addition to the traditional courses offered in each department, the curricula provide ample interdisciplinary opportunities for the exploration of such diverse contemporary issues as energy conservation, social equity, environmental protection, preservation, and adaptive re-use.

The School of Architecture offers four graduate programs leading to: Master of Architecture, Master of Landscape Architecture, Master of Architectural History, and Master of Planning. In conjunction with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences it also offers a Doctor of Philosophy in the History of Architecture. The programs are accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board, the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board, and the Planning Accreditation Board, and the School holds memberships in the Collegiate Schools of Architecture, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture, the National Council for Preservation Education, the Society of Architectural Historians, and the National Trust for Historic Preservation. In addition to the graduate degree programs the School offers two interdisciplinary programs of study, one leading to the Certificate in Preservation and the other to the Certificate in American Urbanism.

The full-time faculty numbers about 45, augmented by 20 to 30 visiting lecturers and critics from this country and abroad who bring to students their varied perspectives and wide-ranging experience. The student body averages approximately 530 students of whom about 330 are undergraduates and the remainder are graduate students.

The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation Professorship in Architecture has been funded since 1965 by an annual grant from the same Foundation which has guided the restoration and preservation of Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson. The Foundation also awards an annual medal and honorarium to a practitioner or teacher of international distinction and has established two fellowships which are awarded annually to outstanding graduate students in the School of Architecture.

The Institute for Environmental Negotiation, established in 1981, is affiliated with the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning and has become a major resource for the resolution of land-use conflicts in the State and in the region. In addition, the Institute awards one or two fellowships each year which provide graduate students with training and experience in negotiation.

Mr. Jefferson's legacy seems as appropriate and alive today as it did in 1819 when the University was founded, and it is one of the imperatives of that legacy and a central educational aim of this School that students understand their culture as well as their profession. Since we expect to play major roles in the analysis, planning, design, development, and protection of the physical environment, nationally and internationally, we are charged with that most difficult of tasks, the development of "the whole person": one who understands how a craft is connected to a society, who appreciates the larger context of life and seeks elegant and practical approaches to its ever-changing needs. Jefferson sought "useful knowledge" and was able to fashion that knowledge artfully. We take that as our tradition also. Seen in this light "profession" is raised to the level of art, and when that art serves life, lasting culture results.


Address

Graduate School of Architecture
Campbell Hall
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-3715

Visit the Architecture World Wide Web site.


Facilities

Campbell Hall, the School of Architecture building, was completed in 1970 and is part of a complex of buildings forming a Fine Arts Center which also includes the Department of Art, the Department of Drama, and the Fiske Kimball Fine Arts Library. Campbell Hall provides well-equipped studio work areas, exhibition areas, lecture halls, and seminar rooms. The school has two computer graphics and computer aided design laboratories with high resolution graphics, and is linked with the digital imaging center located in the adjacent Fiske-Kimball Fine Arts Library. It supports software applications in computer aided design, GISdigital terrain modeling, site analysis, image processing, rendering, animation, structural analysis, lighting analysis, energy analysis, statistics, word processing, spread-sheet and other areas. It contains UNIX, Macintosh and IBM computers on the Internet, and maintains digital voice and video links with other research laboratories in the United States and Europe. Provision for networked computers within all design studios is actively under development. Other research support facilities include mechanical and structural laboratories, a woodworking shop, and a photography darkroom.

The Fiske-Kimball Fine Arts Library, a branch of the University Library system, is part of the School of Architecture. The collections, consisting of 127,000 volumes, 169,000 slides, and various kinds of technical reports, cover all subjects related to architecture, landscape architecture, architectural history, planning, and the visual and performing arts. The Fine Arts Library provides its patrons access to all other University Library resources including very extensive collections of government documents, maps, video recordings, rare books, manuscripts, and many hundreds of on-line databases as well as a gateway to the Internet and World Wide Web. Special emphasis is placed on teaching students and faculty to find needed information utilizing on-line electronic resources. Reference services are provided to the entire University community and to the arts and architecture practitioners throughout the Commonwealth.


Student Honors and Awards

Both the School and professional organizations from the fields of Architecture, Architectural History, Landscape Architecture, and Urban and Environmental Planning recognize outstanding achievements with the following honors and awards.

The American Institute of Architects School Medal is awarded annually to the outstanding graduate student in the Department of Architecture. The award is supported by an endowment fund established in 1914 in the estate of the late Henry Adams.

The Alpha Rho Chi Medal is awarded annually to the graduating student in the Department of Architecture who has shown ability for leadership, who has performed willing service for the School and department, and gives promise of real professional merit through their attitude and personality.

The American Society of Landscape Architects Certificatesof Honor and Merit are awarded to outstanding graduating students in the Department of Landscape Architecture.

The Stanley Abbott Award is awarded by the faculty of the Department of Landscape Architecture to graduating students in the Department of Landscape Architecture for outstanding promise in the field of landscape architecture.

The American Planning Association, The American Institute of Certified Planners, and Virginia Citizens Planning Association Awards are presented annually to an outstanding graduate and undergraduate student.

The Paul S. Dulaney Conservation and Preservation Awardis given each year to an outstanding student in Planning who has contributed to this field by outstanding academic work.

The Robert L. Plavnick Outstanding Student Award is presented to an outstanding Planning student in the Northern Virginia Planning Program.

The Frederick Doveton Nichols Award for Outstanding Academic Achievement is made each year for outstanding academic achievement to a graduate and an undergraduate student in the Department of Architectural History.

The Lori Ann Pristo Award is made each year to the graduate student in architecture with the highest grade point average.

The Carlo Pelliccia Traveling Fellowship for study in Italy is awarded each year by the Department of Architecture.

The Benjamin C. Howland Traveling Fellowship is awarded each year to a graduating student from the Department of Landscape Architecture.

The Clark Group/OMNI Construction, Inc./George Hyman Construction Company Award is given each year to a student exhibiting overall achievement and professional promise in the fields of construction and building technologies.

RTKL Fellowship is awarded each year to a graduate architecture student.

The Sean Steele-Nicholson Memorial Award, in memory of Sean Steel-Nicholson (BS Arch '91), is presented each year at graduation to a student who has exhibited an overall excellence in design and scholarship and an enthusiasm, joy, and wonder for architecture, coupled with the ability to instill these qualities in others.

Financial Aid Sources   The following are some of the available sources of financial aid within the School of Architecture:

Governor Fellowships;
DuPont Fellowships;
IEN Graduate Assistantships;
Graduate Student Assistantships;
Graduate Teaching Assistantships;
Minority Graduate Assistantships;
Work-Study Funds;
Special Student Aid;
Tuition Adjustments;
Tuition Remission;
Thomas Jefferson Fellowships;
Arts and Sciences Graduate Fellowships
Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation Scholarship for Preservation Studies;
Peter Armisted III Scholarship for Preservation Studies;
Elizabeth Schneider Scholarship for Preservation Studies;
The Fluor Daniel Scholarship
Endowed Scholarships and Fellowships:
The Bevin and Vito Cetta Endowed Fellowship;
The Bessie F. and Ernest L. Gilliland Endowed Scholarship;
The Joseph W. Gold Memorial Scholarship;
The Milton Grigg Endowed Scholarship;
The Frederic Lord Holloway Endowed Scholarship


Programs and Degrees Offered

Candidates for a degree in one of the four graduate curricula offered in the School of Architecture must hold an approved baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university.

Applicants whose previous coursework does not include the equivalent of courses listed under the "admission" paragraph for any of the described degree programs must complete those courses before enrollment, or, with permission while enrolled, in the respective graduate program.

An explanation of the course numbering system is given at the beginning of the listing of course descriptions in the section titled How to Read Course Listings.

As noted under Regulations, graduate degree credit can be given only for graduate level courses and courses taken below the 500 level must be taken on a pass/fail basis. It should be noted that students in the School of Architecture may not audit courses.

Inquiries concerning the degrees should be addressed directly to the Dean of the School of Architecture.

Academic Good Standing   The lowest acceptable grade for a graduate student in the School of Architecture is a B-. Students who earn more than two grades lower than a B- will be required to leave the program in which they are enrolled. Students failing a studio cannot continue in the studio sequence until they have successfully passed the course. Two failing grades in the same or different studios may result in the student being asked to leave the program.


Ownership of Student Works

The School of Architecture reserves the right to retain student coursework for purposes of exhibition and/or publication with appropriate credits.


Applications

  1. Deadline for all applications to the Department of Architecture is January 15; for Landscape Architecture and Planning the deadline is February 1; for Architectural History it is February 1. All admissions material should be sent to the Graduate Admissions Office, School of Architecture, University of Virginia, Campbell Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903. For information about applying for admission to the Ph.D. Program in Architectural History, see the description of that program given below.
  2. A non-refundable application fee of $40 must accompany the application. Make the check or money order payable to: UVA, School of Architecture. Foreign checks accepted in U.S. dollars only.
  3. If an applicant wants to apply to more than one department he or she must fill out an application, send in an application fee to each department, and submit supporting documents for each application.
  4. The financial aid form serves as the basis for scholarships awarded by the School of Architecture. Other financial assistance in the form of loans and part-time employment is administered by the Office of Financial Aid to Students and must be applied for separately. See the chapter for Financial Aid.
  5. Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores are required.
  6. A deposit of $250, made payable to the University of Virginia School of Architecture, is required at the time of your acceptance. This deposit is non-refundable and will be applied to your fees upon enrollment.


Master of Architecture

Admission   Students from three types of academic backgrounds are admitted to the graduate degree programs in Architecture: those without a preprofessional degree in Architecture (Path A), those with a four-year B.S. degree in Architecture (Path B), and those with a professional five-year degree in Architecture (Path C). The department offers degree programs in Architecture with an emphasis on the land, the city, building and history/theory through design exploration.

Most states require that an individual intending to become an architect hold an accredited degree. There are two types of degrees that are accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board: (1) The bachelor of Architecture, which requires a minimum of five years of study, and (2) The master of Architecture, which requires a minimum of three years of study following an unrelated bachelor's degree or two years following a related preprofessional bachelor's degree. These professional degrees are structured to educate those who aspire to registration/licensure as architects.

The four-year, preprofessional degree, where offered, is not accredited by NAAB. The preprofessional degree is useful for those wishing a foundation in the field of architecture, as preparation for either continued education in a professional degree program or for employment options in architecturally related areas.

Path A Curriculum

The Path A program allows students with non-architecture undergraduate degrees to obtain a first professional degree in a minimum of three years plus a summer session. Applicants must hold an approved baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university. At the end of the first year, there is a formal review of studio work to determine which students will be invited to continue in the program. Prior to enrollment it is desirable for students to have completed MATH 121 (Calculus) and a Computer Science course. This is a total of six credits.

Summer Session (9 weeks)
ARCH 501 Architectural Design 3
ARCH 505 Graphics 2
Total 5

ARCH 502 Architectural Design 3
ARCH 544 Intro Computers and Design 2
Total 5

First Year
ARCH 601 Architectural Design 6
ARCH 523 Building Systems 3
L AR 517 Site Planning 3
ARCH 553 Architectural Theory 3
Total 15

ARCH 602 Architectural Design 6
ARCH 524 Structural Design 4
ARCH 525 Site Planning 4
AR H 503 Modern Arch. History 3
Total 17

Second Year
ARCH 701 Architectural Design 6
ARCH 721 Adv. Structural Design 3
AR H 571p History of Urban Form 3
ARCH Elective 3
Total 15

ARCH 702 Architectural Design 6
ARCH Technical Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
Total 15

Third Year
ARCH 80l Architectural Design 6
ARCH 823 Projects in Technology 5
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 2
Total 16

ARCH 802 Architectural Design 6
ARCH 848 Professional Practice 3
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 2
Total 14

Total 102

Path B Curriculum

The two-year Path B curriculum emphasizes the completion of the 4+2 curriculum sequence to obtain a first professional degree in architecture. The course of study is highly professional in content, and elective choices are made on an individual basis in consultation with the Chair. The design studios investigate the making of architecture at varying degrees of scale and complexity and are a synthetic experience involving the engagement of the land with building, theory and the continuity of history. A total of 60 credits are required for graduation. For students entering the Path B curriculum, placement in the design studio sequence is based on a review of past work.

First Year
ARCH 701 Architectural Design 6
ARCH 721 Adv. Structural Design 3
AR H 571 History of Urban Form 3
ARCH Elective 3
Total 15

ARCH 702 Architectural Design 6
ARCH Technical Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
Total 15

Second Year
ARCH 801 Architectural Design 6
ARCH 823 Projects in Technology 5
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 2
Total 16

ARCH 802 Architectural Design 6
ARCH 848 Professional Practice 3
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 2
Total 14

Total 60

After the first year, studio work in ARCH 701 and ARCH 702 will be evaluated and honor students allowed to undertake a thesis or a special studio with consent of the advisor.

Path C Curriculum

The Path C curriculum is for those with a professional undergraduate degree in architecture (B.Arch.). The program provides an opportunity to undertake more advanced studies in architecture. These should be self-initiated studies directed by faculty members and should draw on the resources of the School of Architecture as well as the University. Because of the individualized nature of this program the applicant is encouraged to visit the School of Architecture for an interview. A total of 30 credits will be required for graduation. The course of study may be extended beyond one year with permission of the Chair.

First Year
ARCH 803 Architectural Design 6
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
Total 15

ARCH 804 Architectural Design 6
ARCH Technical Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
ARCH Elective 3
Total 15

Total 30

Option Programs

In addition to the three professional degree programs, the School of Architecture offers special programs or options. These programs may be undertaken by students enrolled in one of the three programs with consent of the Chair and the Program Director. In some cases more time may be needed to satisfy normal program requirements. Students must meet all requirements for admission to and completion of the Master of Architecture program.

The following special programs are available. Interested students should consult with the Chair and the Program Directors.

Historic Preservation Program   The option program in Historic Preservation is open to those students enrolled in Path A, Path B, and Path C. Admission to the Historic Preservation Program is subject to the approval of the Department of Architecture chair, Director of Graduate Studies and the Director of the Program. Students must also meet all requirements for admission to and completion of the Master of Architecture Program. It is expected that the program requirements can be met within the normal curricula of each Path with the exception of Path C which will take an extra semester.

American Urbanism Program   The Advanced Studies in American Urbanism Program is open to qualified degree candidates in the graduate program as well as persons in mid-career who wish to extend their field of knowledge in this area. Because of the special nature of this program interested candidates are strongly advised to arrange an interview with the Program Director.

Programs Abroad   Architecture students may, with approval, spend a portion of their second or third year in Venice or attend the Summer program in Vicenza.


Master of Landscape Architecture

Admission   Students from two types of academic backgrounds are admitted to the graduate degree program, those without degree backgrounds in Architecture or Landscape Architecture and those with backgrounds in these fields of study. Students with degree backgrounds in Architecture and Landscape Architecture can be granted advanced standing and may complete the degree requirements in four semesters.

Curriculum   The Department offers a first-professional degree program at the graduate level with an emphasis on design. Graduates are prepared for professional work in private offices, teaching, and public service. Design is understood to be the intentional expression of values in built form. To achieve excellence in design, one must respond to basic problems involving aesthetics, ecology, social science, engineering, and ethics. Thus students are required to take a wide range of studios, lecture courses, and reading seminars which address these topics. The heart of the program lies in its design studios, which afford the opportunity for intensive individual instruction. Special attention is given to history and theory as a means of providing a perspective on the design tasks of the present as well as a commitment to responsible stewardship of the land. Each student is required in the last year of the program to complete an independent study project, on a topic of his or her own choosing, which demonstrates an ability to do rigorous research.

Students without a prior background are required to pursue the following course of study. Students are also encouraged to take additional elective courses especially in the last three semesters. These students must satisfy 106 credits to earn the degree.

Summer Session
L AR 501 Intro to LAR Design 3
L AR 503 Landscape Architecture Graphics 2
Total 5

L AR 502 Intro to LAR Design 3
L AR 544 Computer Based Geometrical Modeling 2
Total 5

First Year
L AR 601 Landscape Arch Design I 6
L AR 509 Landscape Arch Graphics 3
L AR 512 History of Landscape Architecture 3
L AR 508 Plants and Environment 4
Total 16

L AR 602 Landscape Arch Design II 6
L AR 535 Intro to Sites 4
L AR 513 History of American Landscape Arch 3
L AR 525 Grading and Drainage 4
Total 17

Second Year
L AR 514 Theories of Modern Landscape Arch 3
L AR 701 Landscape Arch Design III 6
L AR 705 Plants and Design 3
L AR 713 Construction 3
Total 15

L AR 702 Landscape Arch Design IV 6
L AR 714 Site Engineering 4
L AR 804 Professional Practice 3
Elective* 3
Total 16

Third Year
L AR 801 Landscape Arch Design V 6
L AR 825 Principles of Road Designs 4
L AR 821 Research Methods 3
Elective* 3
Total 16

L AR 812 Independent Studio 9
Elective* 6
Total 15

Total 106

* A total of twelve credits of electives are required. This must include two landscape architecture theory electives, one architectural history elective, and one environmental planning or science elective.

Students with Baccalaureate Degrees in Landscape Architecture are admitted with advanced standing and normally complete the degree in four academic semesters. Their programs are tailored to their individual interests and needs. They are required to complete at least 60 hours of course work, which includes three design studios and L AR 812 (Independent Study). The following program is representative but may vary according to individual interest and prior work.

Holders of Undergraduate Landscape
Architecture Degrees: Typical Program
First Year
L AR 601 Landscape Arch Design I 6
L AR Landscape Theory Elective 3
Electives 6
Total 15

L AR 702 Landscape Arch Design IV or Urbanism Studio 6
Landscape Theory Elective 3
Electives 6
Total 15

Second Year
L AR 701 Landscape Arch Design III (or V) 6
Electives 6
L AR 821 Research Methods 3
Total 15

L AR 812 Independent Studio 9
Electives 6
Total 15

Total 60

Students With Baccalaureate Degrees in Architecture are also admitted with advanced standing and may be required to complete 63 hours of course work for the degree, depending on the extent to which technical courses in Landscape Architecture were included in their architectural studies. The following program is representative, but may vary according to individual interest and prior work.

Holders of Undergraduate Architecture
Degrees: Typical Program

First Year
L AR 701 Landscape Arch Design III 6
L AR 508 Plants and Environment 4
L AR 512 History of Landscape Arch 3
L AR 514 Theories Mdrn Landscape Arch 3
Total 16
L AR 702 Landscape Arch Design IV 6
L AR 535 Intro to Sites 4
L AR 513 History of Am. Landscape Arch 3
L AR 525 Grading and Drainage 4
Total 17

Second Year
L AR 821 Research Methods 2
L AR 801 Landscape Arch. Design V 6
L AR 705 Plants and Design 3
L AR 825 Road Design 4
Total 16
L AR 812 Independent Studio 9
L AR 804 Professional Practice 3
L AR Elective 3
Total 15

Independent Studio and Collaborative Options The final semester of design course work provides the student with the opportunity to investigate an area of special interest, independent study, or collaborative study with students from other disciplines as arranged between the student and a selected faculty advisor. Options for study are available in many topics, and particularly the following: historic sites preservation, design theory, rural landscapes, landscape aesthetics, planting design, and urban design.

Historic Preservation Program   Admission to the Historic Preservation Program is subject to approval by the Chair of the Department of Landscape Architecture and the Director of the Program. Students must also meet all normal requirements for admission to and completion of the Master of Landscape Architecture program. Successful completion of the certificate program in Preservation may require an additional semester and/or summer coursework.

American Urbanism Program   The Advanced Studies in American Urbanism Program will be open to qualified degree candidates who wish to extend their field of knowledge in this area. Because of the specialized nature of this program, interested candidates should confer with the Chair of the Department and arrange an interview with the Program Director. See the section on option programs for a description of the program and the criteria for admission.

Accreditation   The Graduate Program in Landscape Architecture is accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board.

Programs Abroad   Landscape students may, with approval, spend a portion of their Fall Semester of their third year in Venice or attend the Summer program in Vicenza.


Master of Planning

Admission   Students from a wide range of academic backgrounds are admitted to the Master of Planning Degree Program. Applicants with an accredited Bachelors Degree in the social sciences, engineering design and liberal arts have done well and have contributed to the vitality of the program.

Those applicants whose previous course work has not included a university level course in statistics must complete such a course prior to enrollment in the graduate program, or take such a course at the University during the first semester of study.

Curriculum   The University of Virginia's graduate program leading to a Master's Degree in Planning is designed to develop the understanding, sensitivity, and capabilities necessary for a career as a professional planner. Planning is a pervasive process within public policy-making and private development. The number of roles from which planners make contributions and the range of problems and social concerns which they address continue to expand. The objectives of the planning curriculum are to enable students to:

  1. Understand theories of planning intervention and practice and be able to apply them in appropriate contexts;
  2. Identify and analyze urban and environmental problems with special emphasis on understanding the interdependence between natural and social processes;
  3. Develop an ability to use planning techniques which extend beyond the quantitative and extrapolative tools to generating alternatives, negotiation, and public involvement;
  4. Communicate effectively through oral, written and graphic means;
  5. Develop plans, programs, and analyses;
  6. Create implementation strategies.

Two full years of resident graduate work, normally a total of 50 credits and a summer internship are required for successful completion of the program.

Total 64
The Core Courses Required of All Students
Planning Information and Analysis (PLAN 601)
Legal Aspects of Planning (PLAN 604)
Quantitative Planning Analysis (PLAN 605)
Urban Theory and Public Policy (PLAN 607)
Planning Theory and Practice (PLAN 609)

Planning Application Courses   In addition to these required courses all students will take at least two Planning Application courses. A Planning Application course combines theory and application, with emphasis on application, through a project approach. These Planning Application courses are designated each semester in the class schedules. The subject matter of these courses encompasses land use planning, housing, community development, environmental impact analysis, social planning, transportation planning, neighborhood analysis and other subjects.

Planning Concentrations   The core courses provide the common curriculum for all students. Students meet with their advisors to plan a course of specialized study. These curriculum plans are called Planning Concentrations (PC's). Their purpose is to design a coherent program with considerable depth. The formal Planning Con centrations listed below should not be viewed as mutually exclusive program compartments. Rather, they should be viewed as umbrella categories which assist students to focus their interests. Within these categories, sub-specialties may be developed for individual students. The PC's overlap, combine, and reinforce each other. The PC's suggest the type of programs we emphasize at the University of Virginia, but the definition of each PC is flexible. Land use planning is an important component of two PC's, Environ mental Planning and Urban Develop ment. Prospective land use planners can pursue their career objectives through either of these two PC's or by using the Land Use PC.

Urban Development   This Planning Concentration stresses (1) urban forms of land development and provision of public and private services to establish viable communities, (2) urban land reuse and redevelopment, and (3) urban economic development. Housing is a key element in each. Different emphases are feasible depending on whether one's interest is primarily physical, economic, or social. Substantial opportunities are provided to explore private land development and public/private development partnerships as well as to concentrate on urban design and preservation planning. Organization, equitable, and participatory aspects of communities are considered, though more courses are offered in the Department of Planning on economic and physical aspects than on the social aspects of community development.

Environmental Planning   Environmental planners assess the impact of land development on the biophysical environment and recommend policies to conserve the natural bases of life (air, water, land, energy, and minerals). The courses in this PC provide students with (1) a general understanding of how biophysical systems function, (2) a more detailed understanding of the methodologies and techniques commonly used in natural resource and regional land use planning, and (3) an ability to apply ecological knowledge to practical problems of environmental management, drawing on an understanding of environmental economics, environmental law, and environmental policy. Environmental planning embraces many settings, ranging from urban environments to wilderness areas to agricultural ecosystems.

Land Use Planning   Land use planners confront diverse issues. Land use is considered as an outcome (many non-land use decisions have land use consequences), as an object to be planned (such as the decisions reflected in land use plans), and as a stimulus affecting other variables (such as the effect public improvements may have on the ecological stability of a sensitive environment). Courses reflect this diversity of issues and the scale (regional, local, or project) appropriate to them. Courses central to this PC include growth management, comprehensive planning, land development, plan implementation, and housing and community development. Many other courses supplement these five.

Policy Planning   Policy planning describes the function of planners who serve as general program/policy planners, either within traditional planning agencies or within executive or legislative offices as advisors to managers or elected officials. The recommendations of these planners need to reflect a general understanding of the political and economic system and to embody a substantial level of analytical skill. Substantive knowledge also is important. Planners usually will be assigned to policy problems that combine their substantive knowledge, analytical skills, and general political and economic understanding.

The breadth of the policy planning function means that there are many acceptable paths to preparation for it. Students choosing this PC work closely with faculty members in the Department of Government. In addition to the five required core courses, the Policy Planning PC requires courses in methods and analysis, policy-making processes, and substantive planning. A large number of courses from throughout the University, in addition to those in Planning and Government are available for consideration.

Special PC's   Although the four PC's described above permit a substantial degree of flexibility for individual students, students are also free to develop planning specialities outside these categories. Students might wish to develop specializations in urban design, preservation, transportation planning, or social program planning. Before being admitted to the Preservation Studio required for the Preservation Certificate, students lacking design education prior to admission will be required to take either design studios in the summer, two undergraduate design studios (fall and spring) or an introductory Urban Design course. Students desiring a Planning Concentration in Urban Design who lack undergraduate design education should follow this same path to maximize the value of the graduate curriculum.

Internship   The internship is an approved assignment in an agency or firm engaged in planning activities during ten weeks of the summer between the first and second years of study for which no course credit is given and no tuition is charged.

Two-Year Program Summary

A typical two-year program leading to the Master of Planning degree would follow this general pattern:

First Year
PLAN 601 Plan Info & Analysis 4
PLAN 607 Urban Theory & Public Policy 3
Planning Concentration Course 3
Planning Elective 3
Total 13

PLAN 604 Legal Aspects 3
PLAN 605 Quantitative Planning Analysis 4
Planning Concentration Course 3
Planning Elective 3
Total 13

Summer Session
Internship in a Planning Agency (no-credit)

Second Year
PLAN 609 Plan Theory & Practice 3
PLAC Applications Course 3
Planning Concentration Course 3
Planning Elective 3
Total 12
PLAC Applications Course in
Planning Concentration
3
Planning Concentration Course 3
Planning Concentration Course 3
Planning Elective 3
Total 12

Program policy permits as many as six hours of credit to be gained by work on approved projects or in work experience which is judged appropriate for credit. These hours will be granted only when the work or subject has been approved in advance by the faculty. Normally, these credit hours will include periodic faculty review, appropriate readings, and a final report which may be an analytical paper or a case study.

Credit also can be given, with appropriate faculty approval, for individual study. The option for individual study will require a faculty sponsor and general faculty approval in advance of registration.

Students are encouraged to take courses within their PC's from throughout the University. The Law School, the Engineering School, the Business School, several departments within the College of Arts and Sciences, and other academic departments within the University offer a variety of courses appropriate for degree requirements.

Other Opportunities

Advanced Standing   Graduates of accredited undergraduate planning programs will be considered for advanced standing in special cases. A minimum of 30 graduate credits in addition to the undergraduate degree must be completed at the University of Virginia. This must be constructed so that combined with the undergraduate program each of the requirements for the Master of Planning Degree are met, including the core courses, planning application courses, planning concentration, and internship. The advanced standing opportunity is intended for students with strong undergraduate records and at least a 3.5 GPA in planning courses.

Joint Degrees   Joint degree programs are available with various departments of the College, including public administration and environmental science. Joint degree programs are also possible with the Law School, the Graduate School of Business Administration, and the School of Engineering and Applied Science. The joint programs depend upon admission to each program under the appropriate requirements. Joint degrees permit the joint use of credit to shorten the requirements for attaining both degrees.

Off-Grounds Degree Program   The Master of Planning Degree also is offered in the Northern Virginia area through the Department of Continuing Education, Northern Virginia, for qualified students in that area who are unable to attend the Charlottesville program on a full-time basis. After admission at either location students may transfer between Charlottesville and Northern Virginia. All full-time faculty in Charlottesville also teach in the Northern Virginia Program. Students at either location may take courses at the other location in any semester. Some courses are at times offered on weekends in Northern Virginia to facilitate access for students based in Charlottesville.

Programs Abroad   Planning students may, with approval, spend the fall semester of their second year at the program in England or Venice or participate in the summer program in Vicenza.

Environmental Negotiation   Negotiation, mediation, and other interactive and consultative problem solving approaches are being relied on with increasing frequency and effectiveness in land use and environmental planning and policy making and in the resolution of development controversies. The Institute of Environmental Negotiation, which is affiliated with the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning, is a major resource for the provision of these conflict resolution skills to the state and the region. The Institute sponsors lectures by mediation practitioners, offers a course in negotiation skills, and provides training opportunities through graduate research assistantships. The Mediatorthe newsletter of the Institute, is available upon request. No degree in negotiation or mediation is offered independent of the School's regular degree offerings.

Historic Preservation Program   Admission to the Historic Preservation Program is subject to approval by the Chair of the Department of Planning and the Director of the Program. Students must also meet all normal requirements for admission to and completion of the Master of Planning program.

Students may undertake the preservation option within the context of the Urban Development PC; or they may choose Historic Preservation as a PC. With the approval of the Planning Department Chair, one of the two planning application course requirements may be satisfied by an appropriate preservation course.

Accreditation   The Graduate Program in Urban and Environmental Planning is accredited. The Planning Accreditation Board is sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Certified Planners and the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning


Master of Architectural History

Admission   Applicants must hold an approved baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university. Admission to graduate study will normally require an average of B or better and a command of at least one foreign language. Candidates admitted to the program must, before beginning their work for the degree, have taken the equivalent of AR H 101-102 (Survey of Western Architecture) and two semesters of architectural design studio (ARCH 201-202). These prerequisites may be satisfied by taking AR H 111-112 and ARCH 203-204 during the School's summer session or the equivalent. (Students will not normally enter the program in the Spring semester although this will be permitted in special circumstances following the approval of the Chair.

Curriculum   The program's purpose is to equip the student with a sound background in architectural history including its principles and interpretation. The degree requires a minimum of 36 credit hours at the graduate level.

The degree requirements may be considered as a minimum core program. Architectural History is the primary vehicle for students who wish to obtain the Certificate in Preservation. Others may wish to explore interests in fields related to the history of architecture. Thus, the student should expect to take more than the required minimum of courses during the normal four semesters of residency. Qualified students interested in Preservation can complete the requirements for the Certificate in Preservation and the Master of Architectural History within a two-year period.

Placement Examination   Many students from different disciplines apply for the program. For those students who lack adequate undergraduate preparation in the field, the curriculum has been structured to allow deficiencies to be remedied.

Upon entry into the program candidates will take a placement examination composed of three parts, one in Ancient and Medieval Architecture, one in Renaissance and Baroque Architecture, and one in architecture since 1700 including American. Students who fail in one or more of these fields will be required during the first year to take the appropriate course or courses (AR H 501, 502, and 503). Only one such course may be used to satisfy the degree requirements; it would take the place of the free elective.

Language Qualification   Candidates are required to demonstrate a reading knowledge of one foreign language, preferably French, Italian, or German. This requirement may be satisfied by earning the grade of B or better in an intermediate level university course in the language within two years of admission, or by a score of at least 550 on an ETS Graduate School Foreign Language Test, or by a departmental reading test.

Course Distribution   Three credits must be in AR H 700 (Methods in Architectural History) and three hours in thesis credit. In addition, each student must have at least nine hours at the 700 level or above, and at least one course from each of the following distribution areas: Ancient and Medieval Architecture; non-Western architecture; Renaissance and Baroque Architecture; European Architecture since 1700; and American Architecture.

Major and Minor Areas   Each Student must complete a major of nine credits and a minor of six credits selected from among the distribution areas listed above. Students enrolled in the historic preservation certificate may select historic preservation as their 6 credit minor.

Of the 36 credit hours required for the degree, 33 must be in AR H courses although in extraordinary circumstances and by prior approval of the Department Chair, the student may substitute other courses, e.g., in art or history.

Comprehensive Examination   The examination will be given during the spring semester and will require mastery of the discipline of architectural history including its less familiar aspects. The preparation required for this examination should be kept in mind when selecting courses, conducting student-run seminars, pursuing outside reading, and attending additional courses informally.

Thesis   The thesis is a major piece of independent work undertaken under the supervision of an advisor from the Department. It represents three credit hours which will normally be taken during the student's fourth semester. It is possible to explore the thesis topic more broadly by enrolling for an independent research course in conjunction with the thesis course.

Total 50
Typical Program of Study
First Year
AR H 700 Methods in Arch History 3
AR H Major Area 3
AR H Other Distribution Areas 3
Elective 3*
Total 12

AR H Elective 3
Other Distribution Areas 3
Elective 3*
Elective (AR H 50-if required) 3
Total 12

Second Year
AR H Major Area 3
AR H Minor Area 3
AR H Minor Area 3
Elective 3*
Total 12

AR H Major Area 3
AR H Thesis 3
AR H Elective 3
Elective 3*
Total 12

Total 48

An asterisk (*) indicates a course beyond those required to satisfy the minimum requirements for the degree. These elective courses can be used to explore interests in related fields or, if necessary, to satisfy the requirement of a second or third preparatory course from among AR H 501, 502, or 503.

The Preservation Program requirements for students in the Department of Architectural History are given in the description of the Program in Preservation.

Architectural History students may, with approval, spend the Spring Semester of their first year in Venice or attend the Summer program in Vicenza.


Doctor of Philosophy in the History of Architecture

The Doctor of Philosophy in the History of Architecture prepares students to teach at the university and college level both in traditional art history and humanities programs and in professional schools. Holders of the degree may also engage in any number of other fields of activity, for instance in preservation, writing and publishing, in curatorial work in museums, and in the practice and teaching of architecture.

The degree is offered through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences while the program is located in the Department of Architectural History in the School of Architecture. In addition to the requirements for the School's Master of Architectural History, the doctorate's requirements include an additional year of course work, competence in at least one more foreign language, successful completion of field examinations, and the successful defense of a dissertation. Limited financial aid is available, some of which requires teaching.

Admission   Required for admission into the doctorate program is the equivalent of the School of Architecture's Master of Architectural History. Students lacking that preparation should apply for admission to the Master of Architectural History program with a clear indication of the interest in the Ph.D. program. Admission to the doctorate program is a separate procedure pursued through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Admission is based on the student's record in graduate architectural history courses and other graduate level work as revealed in the official transcript and letters of recommendation (at least two are required), on the Graduate Record Examination scores, and on the form and content of the statement of intent submitted as part of the application. An interview is useful but not required.

Curriculum and Course Distribution   In addition to the requirements for the MArchH degree, the doctorate program requires an additional 18 credit hours of graduate course work and 18 credit hours of non-topical research.

The additional courses must satisfy the following expansion of the MArchH requirements (the five areas are expanded to six by separating Ancient and Medieval into two distinct areas) to comprise: a total of five courses in a major area; two courses in each of two minor areas; one course in each of two additional fields; and five electives. In addition, five non-topical research courses are required.

Language Qualification   The doctorate calls for a reading knowledge of at least one more foreign language than the one required for the MArchH usually selected from among French, German, and Italian (although Latin or some other language may be substituted by permission). This requirement may be satisfied in the same way as the one specified for the MArchH degree.

Examinations   The Ph.D. field examination normally is held in the student's second year and consists of written and oral segments that will be taken consecutively over a three-four day period. The written portion is two days in length, the first devoted to the major area and will take about six hours to write, the second consisting of two three-hour written segments, in the student's two minor areas. The faculty will read the examination and the segment oral examination will follow on either the third or fourth day and will consist of one hour on the major area and one-half hour on each of the minor areas. The student will be expected to demonstrate familiarity with buildings and other works related to architecture, the methods used for dealing with that knowledge, and the history and bibliography connected to it. Attention will also be directed to the economic, intellectual, and social history that surrounds specific architectural history questions.

Dissertation   A dissertation, normally prepared in the third year of doctorate study, is meant to make an important contribution to knowledge. It is to be prepared under the direct supervision of a director with at least two additional people serving on the committee that conducts the oral defense.

Typical Program of Study

Note that a MArchH or equivalent degree is required for admission to the program. Not included here are courses required for that degree and various additional required non-topical research courses.

First Ph.D. Year
AR H Major Area 3
AR H Minor Area 3
AR H Additional Area 3
AR H Non-Topical Research 6
AR H Major Area 3
ARTH Art Hist (or other) Elective 3
AR H or ARTH (or other) Elective 3
AR H Non-Topical Research 6

Second Ph.D. Year
Field and Written Examinations
AR H Non-Topical (diss.) Research 3
AR H Non-Topical (diss.) Research 3

Third Ph.D. Year
Dissertation Defense

The Graduate Arts and Sciences Admissions Catalog also contains information about the Ph.D. program and its requirements. It may be obtained from the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 437 Cabell Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903. Students seeking admission to the program who have, or are completing, the School of Architecture's Master of Architectural History degree or its equivalent should apply for admission directly to the Graduate School at that same address.


Interdisciplinary Programs

Historic Preservation Program   The interdisciplinary program in Historic Preservation offers masters degree candidates in architecture, architectural history, landscape architecture and urban and environmental planning the opportunity to expand their professional studies through specialized training in the ethics and practice of historic preservation. Preservation has grown increasingly important in defining a civic sense of place, buttressing sustainable communities, conserving urban neighborhoods, protecting rural and scenic areas and in enriching public understanding of social, cultural and architectural history. The program provides the opportunities for graduate students to develop the skills and expertise of the preservation practitioner within their own discipline while at the same time studying the breadth of preservation work in related fields. Courses in preservation are taught by faculty from all four departments in the School of Architecture and by distinguished visiting practitioners.

Admission Students wishing to enter the Historic Preservation Program must first be admitted to one of the four graduate departments in the School of Architecture. Admission to the Historic Preservation Program requires the approval of the Department Chair and the Director of the Historic Preservation Program. Students who complete the required 24 credits of preservation coursework receive a Certificate in Historic Preservation in addition to their department's masters degree. Students will normally be able to complete the coursework during the same period required for completion of their departmental program.

Historic Preservation Certificate Curriculum The Historic Preservation Program courses are grouped into three general areas of study.

  1. Foundations of Preservation Core is made up of five courses that provide an ethical and conceptual overview of preservation. Certificate candidates will take four of the five courses (12 credits):
    1. Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
    2. Preservation Planning and Law
    3. Design Approaches to an Existing Context
    4. American Arch. Through Jefferson or Later American Architecture
    5. Technology, Materials and Conservation of Traditional Buildings

  2. Community History, Design and Planning Core is a year-long interdisciplinary research, design and planning project that focuses on preservation-related projects in a single community (6-9 credits).
    1. Community History workshop (3 credits, fall semester, for all Certificate candidates) and one of the following:
      1. Community Preservation Studio (6 credits, spring semester, for architecture and landscape architecture students)
      2. Community Public History Seminar (3 credits, spring semester, for architectural history students)
      3. Community Cultural and Environmental Planning (3 credits, spring semester, planning students)

  3. Specialized Courses in Historic Preservation permit students to pursue work in their own particular discipline with greater depth (3-6 or more credits).

A required internship permits students to obtain valuable experience in preservation-related work. Inquiries should be addressed to: Director, Historic Preservation Program, School of Architecture, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 22903.

American Urbanism Program   The program of Advanced Studies in American Urbanism provides opportunities for the rediscovery and examination of the fundamental symbolic and pragmatic values that underlie American urban form. In an interdisciplinary setting students explore the application and adaptation of these values to contemporary aspirations, beliefs, and conditions. Architects, landscape architects, planners and historians independently and jointly investigate the interacting influences and spatial strategies by which cities take on form and meaning.

The core of the program is the studio where initial efforts involve the analysis of significant examples of American urbanism as unique phenomena particular to their new world mythology, as displaced and transformed sets of European ideals and forms, and as responses to the dominant entrepreneurial view of land as a commodity to be individually owned and controlled. This is followed by investigations of specific urban contexts through analyses and design with the intention of defining generic issues and solving local problems. Concurrent seminars deal with basic operational mechanisms of the city such as building and land-use regulation, transportation and development economics, as well as urban history and theory.

Admission Admission to the program is limited to eight to ten students each year, and is open to qualified graduate students in the School of Architecture's four departments, and to professionals in practice who seek to expand their understanding of urban form and processes. Satisfactory completion of the 24 credit hour program leads to the Certificate in American Urbanism. Graduate students in the School will normally be able to complete the Urbanism requirements and earn the Certificate within the time required for their graduate degree program. For professionals pursuing the Certificate only, it is expected that the requirements can be completed within two semesters.

To be eligible for admission to the Program of Advanced Studies in American Urbanism, graduate students in Architecture, Path B and C and graduate students in Landscape Architecture, Planning, and Architectural History must have exceptional academic records and at least two years experience working in a field related to the planning, development, conservation and renewal of the city.

Working professionals will be admitted based on consideration of their academic and professional backgrounds which should include evidence of interest in and experience with the fields cited above. Outside applicants should write to the director expressing their interest and intentions and include a resume of their education and experience. Inquiries should be addressed: Director, American Urbanism Program, School of Architecture, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.

American Urbanism Certificate Curriculum Enrollment in the two semester, 12 credit urbanism studio is required of all candidates for the Certificate. The remaining 12 credits will be made up of some appropriate combination of research and coursework which will reflect the background and interests of the candidates and be determined in consultation with the program's director.


Programs Abroad

Fall Program in London or Bath, England   The program is open to fourth year undergraduate architecture students and graduate students in History of Architecture and Planning for study at either the School of Architecture, University of Bath, or at the Bartlett School of Architecture and Planning, University College, London.

Students participating in this program are on leave of absence from the University and are directly enrolled in either of the two schools. They will participate in the regular curricula offerings of the two schools for academic credit to be transferred to the University of Virginia at the end of the semester.

Fall Program in Venice, Italy   This program is a regular University semester program offered in Venice. It is mainly oriented toward graduate students in architecture and landscape architecture. For a limited number of students in Architectural History and in Urban and Environmental Planning there are special studies.

Courses are offered in Architecture Design Studio (six credits), History of Art and Architecture (three credits), and History of Urban Development (three credits). These courses are taught by faculty members from the University of Virginia and the University of Venice. Knowledge of Italian language is strongly recommended.

Summer Program in Vicenza, Italy   This program is open to all students in the School of Architecture. The program carries no credit other than three optional credits for Independent Study. Extensive field trips to explore the art, architecture, and urbanism of the region are a prominent part of the program. Instruction is provided by University of Virginia and adjunct indigenous faculty members. Knowledge of Italian language is strongly recommended.

Summer Program in Beijing, China   This course, entitled Chinese History and Architecture: 14th-20th Centuries, introduces students to major developments in the history of Chinese architecture since the late Yuan Dynasty. Lectures on the historical context of each major period are followed by extensive and, in some cases, multiple visits to such sites as the Temple of Heaven, the Forbidden City, the Ming Tombs and the Great Wall. Faculty members include members of the University of Virginia Department of History and School of Architecture, and specialists from Beijing.

Students receive six credits for the course, and may register for Department of History credit (HIEA 801/802) or School of Architecture credit (ARCH 530/531).

Fellowships are available from the Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation. Limited travel funds are available through the Weedon East Asian Travel Grant competition sponsored by the East Asian Center.