Corcoran Department of History

Overview  The University of Virginia and the study of history are, in some ways, synonymous. Founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819 as a secular institution, the University represents an historical moment in American education. History, however, is more than the study of historical moments and monuments; it is a vital process that helps people develop the ability to think intelligently about the past. History students also hone their writing skills and learn to assess often radically differing views of the same subject.

With one of the largest faculties in the University, the Department of History is able to offer courses not only in traditional areas such as European and American history, but also in the history of China, Japan, India, Africa, and Latin America. While many of the department's courses deal with public events of political, diplomatic, and constitutional history, a sizable number of faculty members specialize in social, cultural, or economic history and carry their investigations into such topics as the history of villages, cities, witchcraft, gender, literacy, and work. Regardless of their field, all historians seek to explain why people in the past acted and thought differently from the way we act and think today, and to describe the forces behind change over time. The study of history provides students with an opportunity to understand different cultures and ultimately to understand their own culture more fully.

Faculty  The forty-five faculty members of the department are nationally recognized for outstanding teaching and scholarship, several having won major national and international prizes in their fields. Because the department is large, the faculty offers more than 100 courses each year. Many of the faculty have been recipients of the University-wide teaching awards. All of the faculty teach and all are firmly committed to undergraduate education, making themselves easily accessible to students.

Students  History is one of the largest departments of the University. Currently there are more than 600 students majoring in history. The department offers courses in ten general fields of study: African, American, Ancient, East Asian, English, Latin American, Medieval, Modern European, Russian, and South Asian. Courses outside these fields, such as Canadian or Caribbean history or the history of science, are also available but do not constitute a specific field within the department. Most students begin the study of history in either an introductory survey course or in an introductory seminar. Introductory surveys are usually large and are designed to cover a broad topic or era (e.g., The Age of the Renaissance, Colonial Latin America 1500-1824). Seminars, limited to fifteen students, focus on the development of skills in reading, writing, and thinking through the study of a defined historical topic (e.g., The 1960's, El Salvador). Virtually every course in the department, with the exception of discussion sections,is taught by a faculty member. Discussion sections, limited to twenty students per section, supplement all of the large lecture classes and are led by advanced graduate students. Advanced courses generally have enrollments of between thirty and fifty students; fourth year history seminars, a requirement for the major, are limited to twelve students. These seminars focus on historical research and writing; a substantial thesis is required from each student in the class.

Whatever geographical focus or disciplinary emphasis students choose, they learn to focus clearly and to defend opinions supported solidly in fact and theory. These are the skills demanded by employers in government, law, business, and teaching. A significant percentage of students with this major go on to law school; approximately 10 percent go on to graduate work in history, often at top programs; others go to graduate business school. The majority of history graduates, however, go into business: multinational corporations, governmental agencies, foreign service, and public service organizations.

The Major in History  A major in history informs students about the past. It also stimulates thoughtful reading, provokes clear thinking, enlivens critical capacities and promotes good writing. Historical study provides an outstanding preparation for informed citizenship in an increasingly complex and interdependent world and also a firm foundation for many career objectives. To these ends, the department encourages students to work closely with faculty to construct challenging, coherent and integrated programs of study.

The major in history consists of eleven courses. These may be of three or four credits and up to four courses may be taken by transfer from other American institutions or through recognized foreign study programs. The decision of the Director of Undergraduate Studies will be final in matters of transfer credit. Students are expected to declare history majors before the end of their fourth semester at the University and after the completion of at least one history course with a grade of C or better. Students may not declare history as a first major after the end of their fifth semester.

To develop breadth and perspective each student must take one course in each of five areas: European history before 1700; Modern European history; United States history; two from the areas of African, Asian, Latin American and/or Middle Eastern history. These courses may be taken at any level and need not be the first five courses that a student takes.

All students must pursue a particular subject in depth through a seminar or colloquium for which they have been adequately prepared. Preparation normally means at least two courses related to the topic of the seminar or colloquium. Preparatory courses may be taken outside the history department but such courses may not be counted toward the major.

There are a few other basic requirements for the major in history. At least five courses must be numbered 300 or above. No more than six courses (including the seminar or colloquium) may be taken in any single area of history for credit in the major; students may take as many elective courses in history as their schedules and interests permit. History majors must maintain a GPA of 2.0 in their major. All majors are required to consult with their major advisors at least once per semester.

Students with AP credit, earned with scores of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement examination, may apply it for the major as follows: European History credit satisfies the course requirement in Modern European History; American History credit satisfies the course requirement in United States History. All AP credit accepted by the University will apply fully to the 120 hours required for graduation but no student will receive more than one major course credit for AP examination results.

The Minor in History  The minor in history consist of six courses. These must be distributed in at least three areas of history, and at least two courses must be numbered 300 or above. All courses counted for the minor must be taken in residence at the University.

Distinguished Majors Program  Students who seek independent study and directed research may be admitted to the Distinguished Majors Program. The program consists of a two-year course of study. In the fall of their third year participants take a special colloquium available only to them, and follow this with a regular major seminar or colloquium in the spring. Fourth year is devoted to preparation of a substantial thesis and to participation in a year- long seminar. Distinguished majors must meet other requirements for a history major. Applications for admission to the program are normally accepted in April of each year from second-year students who are otherwise eligible to declare history majors. Information on the program can be secured from its directors or from the undergraduate director. Participants are eligible for degrees with distinction, high distinction and highest distinction. Levels of distinction are set by a faculty committee based upon the attainment of a minimum GPA of 3.4 for all courses, the quality of the thesis and the overall quality of a student's academic record.

The American Studies Program  The American Studies Program offers students the opportunity to study the United States in an interdisciplinary context. Students major in the subject of their choice and then concentrate in American studies within their major department. Participants are admitted to the program after a competitive application process that is normally completed at the end of second year. Those accepted take, in their third year, two seminars that are available only to American studies students; American literature; American intellectual and cultural history; and two other courses from any department that focus on the United States. In their fourth year students may elect to prepare a thesis. American studies students should declare a major of their choice, fulfill all of its traditional requirements and set aside enough time to complete the American studies courses as a component of their major.

Requirement for Minor in the History of Science and Technology   Please refer to section on division of Technology, Culture, and Communication in the School of Engineering and Applied Science.


Courses

African History

HIAF 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in African History
An introduction to the study of history intended for first or second year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods. Regardless of a particular seminar's subject matter, its emphasis rests upon enhancing critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIAF 201 - (3) (IR)
Africa Until the End of the Slave Trade (ca. 1800)
The history of African civilizations from the iron age through the era of the slave trade; emphasis on the search for the themes of social, political, economic, and intellectual history which present African civilizations on their own terms.

HIAF 202 - (3) (Y)
Africa From Imperialism to Independence (ca. 1800)
The history of Africa and its interaction with the western world from the mid-19th century to the present; emphasis on continuities in African civilization which transcend the colonial phase of the 20th century.

HIAF 203 - (4) (IR)
The African Diaspora
A history of African peoples and their interaction with the wider world; emphasis on historical and cultural ties between African diasporic communities and the homeland to the mid-19th century. Cross-listed with AAS 101.

HIAF 301 - (3) (IR)
North African History From Carthage to the Algerian Revolution
This survey introduces the main outlines of North African political, economic, and cultural history from the rise of Carthage as a Mediterranean power until the conclusion of the Algerian war for independence in 1962 and the creation of a system of nation-states in the region. It places the North African historical experience within the framework of both Mediterranean/European history and African history. While the main geographical focus is upon the area stretching from Morocco's Atlantic coast to the Nile Delta, also considered are Andalusia and Sicily, as well as ties between Northwest Africa and sub-Saharan regions, particularly West Africa.

HIAF 302 - (3) (IR)
History of Southern Africa
The history of Africa generally south of the Zambezi River, with emphasis on African institutions, creation of ethnic and racial identities, industrialization, and rural poverty, from the early formation of historical communities to recent times.

HIAF 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in African History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIAF 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in African History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia will prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIAF 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in African History
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis. Normally the permission of the instructor is required for enrollment.

HIAF 404 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in African History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.

HIAF 511 - (3) (IR)
Slave Systems in Africa and the Americas
Historical study of the growth and evolution of the systems of "slavery" in Africa, the American south, and Latin America (including the Caribbean).


East Asian History

HIEA 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in East Asian History
An introduction to the study of history intended for first or second year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods. Emphasis rests upon enhancing critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIEA 201 - (3) (IR)
Chinese Culture and Institutions
An introduction to traditional Chinese social, political, economic and military institutions, major literary, artistic and intellectual movements, developments in the medical and culinary arts.

HIEA 203 - (3) (Y)
Modern China: The Road to Revolution
The transformation of Chinese politics, thought, institutions, and foreign relations since the Opium War, with emphasis upon the development of modern nationalism and Communism.

HIEA 205 - (3) (IR)
Korean Culture and Institutions
An introduction to traditional Korean social, political and economic institutions, major literary, artistic, and intellectual movements; Korea as a peninsular expression of East Asian civilization.

HIEA 207 - (3) (IR)
Japan, From Susanno to Sony
Offers a comprehensive introduction to Japan from the earliest times to the present by highlighting the key aspects of its social, economic, and political history and by illuminating the evolution of popular culture and the role of the military.

HIEA 311 - (3) (Y)
The Traditional Chinese Order, Antiquity-Sixth Century A.D.
A survey of the social, political and economic organization of traditional Chinese society; traditional Chinese foreign policy, major literary, artistic and intellectual movements.

HIEA 312 - (3) (IR)
The Traditional Chinese Order, Seventh Century-Seventeenth Century
A survey of the social, political and economic organization of traditional Chinese society; traditional Chinese foreign policy, major literary, artistic and intellectual movements.

HIEA 314 - (3) (IR)
Political and Social Thought in Modern China
Political and social thought from the early 20th century to the present, as reflected in written sources (including fiction), art, and films.

HIEA 321 - (3) (IR)
Japan's Economic Miracle
Examines the history of Japan since the early 19th century by exploring the causes and consequences of the economic and social changes that have made Japan one of the most important advanced industrial countries in the contemporary world.

HIEA 322 - (3) (IR)
Japan's Political History
Examines the history of Japan since the early 19th century by exploring changes in political ideas, institutions, and behavior among both governing elites and the mass of Japanese citizenry.

HIEA 331 - (3) (Y)
Peasants, Students and Women: Social Movement in Twentieth Century China
Rural revolution, student movements, women's liberation, and the transformation of the social order since the late 19th century.

HIEA 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in East Asian History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIEA 402 - (4) (IR)
Colloquium in East Asia
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia will prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIEA 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in East Asian History
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis. Normally the permission of the instructor is required for enrollment.

HIEA 404 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in East Asia
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.


European History

HIEU 100 - (3) (S)
Introductory Seminar in European History
An introduction to the study of history intended for first or second year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods. Regardless of a particular seminar's subject matter, its emphasis rests upon enhancing critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIEU 201 - (4) (Y)
Western Civilization I
A survey of the fundamental institutions and ideas that have shaped the western world. Great religious and philosophical traditions, political ideas, literary forms, artistic achievements and institutional structures from the world of the ancient Hebrews to the eve of the modern world (c. 3000 BC to 1600 AD).

HIEU 202 - (4) (Y)
Western Civilization
II
A survey of the political and cultural history of the western world in modern times. Emphasis on the distinctiveness of western civilization, on the reasons for the rise of the west to global domination and for the relative decline of the west in recent times.

HIEU 203 - (3) (Y)
Ancient Greece
The political, military, and social history of Ancient Greece from the Homeric Age to the death of Alexander the Great, stressing in particular the development of Sparta and Athens and the interaction between the two.

HIEU 204 - (3) (Y)
Roman Republic and Empire
A survey of the political, social and institutional growth of the Roman Republic, with close attention given to its downfall and replacement by an imperial form of government; and the subsequent history of that imperial form of government, and the social and economic life during the Roman Empire, up to its own decline and fall.

HIEU 205 - (3) (IR)
Economic History of Europe
European economic history from the middle ages to the industrial revolution. Emphasis on the emergence of the market and the rise of capitalism in Great Britain. Cross-listed with ECON 205.

HIEU 206 - (3) (Y)
The Birth of Europe
Ways of life and thought in the formation of western Europe from the 4th century AD to the 15th. A survey of the development of society and culture in town and countryside, the growth of economic, political and religious institutions, and the impact of Muslim and Byzantine civilizations.

HIEU 207 - (3) (Y)
Early Modern Europe, 1500-1815
Political, social, and economic developments from after the Reformation to the fall of Napoleon.

HIEU 208 - (3) (Y)
Modern European History Since 1815
Political, social, and economic developments in Europe from the age of Napoleon to the present.

HIEU 211 - (3) (Y)
History of England to 1688
England and the British Isles from earliest times to the accession of William III.

HIEU 212 - (3) (Y)
Modern England 1688-1945
A broad survey of the history of modern England-its rise and fall-from the late 17th century to the end of World War II.

HIEU 215 - (3) (Y)
History of the Russian Empire 1700-1917
History of Russia from Peter the Great to the Bolshevik Revolution and the establishment of Soviet power.

HIEU 216 - (3) (Y)
History of Russia Since 1917
Lectures and section meetings on the collapse of the Russian Empire and the rise of the Communist state. Emphasis on the social revolution, Stalinism and subsequently "de-Stalinization," national minorities, and the collapse of the Soviet regime.

HIEU 311 - (3) (IR)
Early Medieval Civilization
Early medieval civilization from late antiquity to the 11th century. Emphasis on selected themes in cultural history.

HIEU 312 - (3) (IR)
Later Medieval Civilization
A discussion of the intellectual and cultural history, political and social theories, and religious movements from the 11th century to the 16th.

HIEU 313 - (3) (IR)
The World of Charlemagne
Explores the Byzantine, Muslim and European worlds in the 8th and 9th centuries. There are careful comparisons of political, institutional and social history, as well as of the Catholic, Orthodox, and Islamic faiths.

HIEU 314 - (3) (IR)
Anglo-Saxon England
A survey of England and its Celtic neighbors in Wales, Scotland and Ireland from the departure of the Romans in the early 5th century to the Scandinavian conquest in 1016. Emphasis on the human diversity and cultural and institutional creativity of the Anglo-Saxons.

HIEU 315 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Iberia, 411-1469
A survey of Iberian history from the collapse of Roman rules to the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castille in 1469, encompassing the development of regional identities, the interaction of Christian, Moslem, and Jewish cultures, and Iberia's relations with its European neighbors.

HIEU 316 - (3) (IR)
Byzantine Civilization
A survey of the political and cultural history of the Byzantine Empire and of Orthodox Christianity from late antiquity to the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

HIEU 317 - (3) (IR)
Eastern Christianity
Survey of the history of Christianity in the Byzantine world and the middle east from late antiquity (age of emperor Justinian) until the fall of Constantinople. Developments in theology, spirituality and art. Relation of Christianity to Islam. Some consideration of Eastern Christianity in modern times.

HIEU 318 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Christianity
Detailed study of the development of Christianity in the Middle Ages and of how it reflected upon itself in terms of theology, piety, and politics. Cross- listed with RELC 325.

HIEU 321 - (3) (IR)
Medieval and Renaissance Italy
Survey of the development of the Italian city-state between 1050 and 1550 emphasizing the social and political context of Italian culture.

HIEU 322 - (3) (IR)
The Culture of the Renaissance
A survey of the growth and diffusion of educational, literary and artistic innovations in Europe between 1300 and 1600.

HIEU 323 - (3) (IR)
Europe in the Age of Reformation, 1450-1650
A survey of the social, political, economic, and especially the religious changes that came over Europe during the period 1450 to 1650. Readings regularly include Thomas More, Martin Luther, Michel de Montaigne, and other major figures.

HIEU 324 - (3) (IR)
The Religious Reformations
A study of the disintegration of Medieval Catholicism and the rise of Protestant Christianity in the 16th century with special attention to the interaction of religious, social, and political issues. Cross-listed with RELC 326.

HIEU 325 - (3) (IR)
Imperial Spain and Portugal, 1469-1808
General survey of the Iberian peninsula from Ferdinand and Isabella to Napoleon, including the development of absolutism, the enforcement of religious orthodoxy, the conquest of the New World and the Iberian imperial systems, the price revolution, the "decline" of Spain and the Bourbon reforms, with attention to the arts and literature of the Golden Age.

HIEU 326 - (3) (IR)
History of Russia to 1700
History of the formation of the Kievan State, the Appanage period, Mongol domination and the emergence of the Muscovite state; foundations of the first Russian state, evolution of its institutions, cultural influences from the origin to the decline; rise of the successor states and particularly the multi-national state of Moscow.

HIEU 327 - (3) (IR)
Age of Russian Absolutism, 1613-1855
Intensive study of Russian history from the reign of the first Romanov tsar to the defeat in the Crimean War. The course concentrates on the evolution of absolutism in Russia and the effects of the changes introduced by Peter the Great.

HIEU 328 - (3) (IR)
Tudor England
A history of England (and its foreign relations especially with Scotland, France and Spain) from the reign of King Richard III to the death of Queen Elizabeth I. Major themes include the transition from medieval to early modern society and government, the English Reformation and its consequences, the mid- Tudor crisis, social and economic change, and the principal personalities of the period.

HIEU 329 - (3) (IR)
Stuart England
A history of England (and its foreign relations) from 1603 to 1714, with commentary on some major themes of early Hanoverian England to the end of Sir Robert Walpole's ministry. Principal topics include newer interpretations on Stuart monarchy, the background and consequences of the Civil War, restoration ideology and politics in relationship to the Cromwellian Interregnum, the Revolution of 1688, social and local history, and the creation of the first British Empire.

HIEU 330 - (3) (IR)
France Under the Old Regime and Revolution
The history of the Old Regime and the revolutionary period with emphasis on political, social and cultural developments.

HIEU 331 - (3) (IR)
Social History of Early Modern Europe
A survey of social, economic, and demographic structure and change in pre- industrial Europe, with particular attention to social unrest and rebellions.

HIEU 332 - (3) (IR)
The Scientific Revolution, 1450-1700
A history of modern science in its formative period (including the revolutions in astronomy, physics, and physiology, new ideas on scientific method, and the integration of theory and experiment) treated against the backdrop of classical Greek science and in the context of evolving scientific institutions and changing views of religion, politics, magic, alchemy, and ancient authorities.

HIEU 333 - (3) (IR)
Intellectual History of Early Modern Europe
Main currents of European thought in the 17th and 18th centuries. Emphasis on major social movements and cultural changes.

HIEU 334 - (3) (IR)
Society and the Sexes in Europe From Late Antiquity to the Reformation
Changing constructions of gender roles and their concrete consequences for women and men in society, explored through primary texts and secondary studies, from late antiquity through the Reformation.

HIEU 335 - (3) (IR)
Society and the Sexes in Europe From the 17th Century to the Present
Changing constructions of gender roles and their concrete consequences for women and men in society, explored through primary texts and secondary studies, from the 17th century to the present.

HIEU 337 - (3) (Y)
The Impact of Printing, 1650-1900
The impact of the printing press on western European culture.

HIEU 340 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth-Century Europe
A survey of the major social, economic, and political trends between the defeat of the Napoleonic Empire and the First World War. The course will particularly stress the developments in Western Europe as industrialization, democracy, nationalism, and representative institutions took root.

HIEU 345 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century Europe
Main developments in European history from the turn of the century to the eve of the Second World War.

HIEU 346 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century Europe
Main developments in European history from the outbreak of the Second World War to the present.

HIEU 350 - (3) (IR)
France Since 1815
French politics and society from the defeat of Napoleon to De Gaulle's republic.

HIEU 351 - (3) (IR)
Modern Italy
A history of Italy from the era of the French Revolution to the present.

HIEU 356 - (3) (IR)
The Making of Victorian England, 1760-1855
A history of England from the age of revolutions-American, French, industrial-in the late 18th century to the height of her prosperity, power and influence in the mid-Victorian era.

HIEU 357 - (3) (IR)
The Decline of England, 1855-1945
The history of England during one of the most troubled periods in her national experience, from the age of equipoise in the mid-Victorian era to the age of total war in the first half of our own century.

HIEU 361 - (3) (IR)
Age of Reform and Revolution in Russia, 1855-1917
Intensive study of the changes brought about in the wake of reforms following the Crimean War. The course deals with the social and political effects of efforts to modernize and industrialize Russia, which led to the growth of political and revolutionary opposition and the overthrow of the monarchy.

HIEU 362 - (3) (Y)
Russian Intellectual History in the 19th Century
The background of Westernization, rise of intelligentsia, development of radical and conservative trends, and the impact of intellectual ferment on Russian culture and politics to 1917.

HIEU 363 - (3) (Y)
Russia in the 20th Century
Lectures and discussion on the fall of the tsarist regime, the revolutions of 1917, the Leninist-Stalinist tyranny, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Gorbachev, Yeltsin and the Revolution of 1991. Special attention to national minorities, diplomatic and social history, Christianity and Islam.

HIEU 364 - (3) (Y)
National Minorities of Russia
Prerequisite: At least three credits of modern Russian, Chinese, South Asian, or Middle Eastern studies
The ethno-historical origins and development Soviet minorities of the USSR from the earliest times to the present. Special attention to the Uzbek, Turkmen, Kirgiz, Kazakh, Uigur, and Azeri peoples. Three hours of lectures and discussion per week.

HIEU 365 - (3) (Y)
Russian and Soviet Diplomatic History, 1850-Present
From the foreign policy legacy of the Russian Empire to the present. Emphasis on World War I, foreign intervention in Russia, the Comintern, the Second World War and after, the Cold War, the expansion and decline of world communism, the collapse of the Soviet empire, current Russian prospects.

HIEU 366 - (3) (Y)
Europe From the Atlantic to the Urals Since 1945
Analyzes relations between European states-from the Atlantic to the Urals-since 1945; the movement toward European unity from 1945 to the present; the realignment of nations and ideologies in Eastern Europe and the USSR since 1985; reintegration of Eastern Europe and USSR successor states into Europe; and challenges to and opportunities for free-market democracies-particularly the USA and Japan-arising from European unification.

HIEU 373 - (3) (IR)
European Social History, 1770-1890
A study of the evolution of private life from the era of early capitalism to the end of the nineteenth century. Special attention to family life, work experience, material conditions, women's roles, childhood, and youth.

HIEU 374 - (3) (IR)
European Social History, 1890-1980
A study of the evolution of private life from the end of the nineteenth century to the present day. Special attention to family life, work experience, material conditions, women's roles, childhood, and youth.

HIEU 375 - (3) (IR)
Evolution of the International System,
1815-1950
Evolution of great-power politics from the post-Napoleonic Congress of Vienna and the systems of Metternich and Bismarck to the great convulsions of the twentieth century and the Russo-American Cold War after World War II.

HIEU 376 - (3) (IR)
Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World
The study of this once taboo subject offers a unique perspective on the emergence of a distinct subculture (more recently of a reform movement) within western society, and on the response-usually hostile, often savagely repressive-of society at large to that subculture. Its primary focus is on that tense relationship and on the light it throws on many facets of cultural, social, and political history in Europe and the United States.

HIEU 377 - (3) (IR)
Science in the Modern World
The development of scientific thought and institutions since 1700, emphasizing the increasing involvement of science in economic, social, political, and military affairs and its relations with philosophical and religious thought.

HIEU 379 - (3) (IR)
Intellectual History of Modern Europe
Main currents of European thought in the 19th and 20th centuries. Emphasis on major social movements and cultural changes.

HIEU 380 - (3) (IR)
Origins of Contemporary Thought
Selected themes in intellectual history since the mid-19th century, focusing on Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud, Heidegger, and other thinkers, with considerable attention to the intellectual contexts out of which they came and to which they contributed.

HIEU 381 - (3) (IR)
Marx
Introduction to the social theory of Karl Marx. What Marx said, why he said it, what he meant in saying it, and the significance thereof. Situates Marx's writing in the context of 19th century intellectual history. Some attention is given to the coherence and validity of the theory, and to its subsequent history.

HIEU 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in European History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIEU 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in European History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia will prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIEU 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in European History
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis. Normally the permission of the instructor is required for enrollment.

HIEU 404 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in European History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.

HIEU 501 - (3) (IR)
Archaic Greece
Prerequisite: HIEU 203 or equivalent
The rise of Greek civilization. A political and constitutional history of the development of the Greek city-state with emphasis on classic Athens.

HIEU 502 - (3) (IR)
Greece in the Fifth Century
Prerequisite: HIEU 203 or equivalent
Examines the political, diplomatic, and social history of Greece from the end of the Persian Wars in 479 B.C. to the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404/3 B.C. Its primary purpose is to investigate the origins, course, and importance of the latter war, the major watershed in classical Greek history.

HIEU 503 - (3) (IR)
Greece in the Fourth Century
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent
An advanced course in Greek history that examines in detail the social and economic history of Greece from the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 B.C. to the defeat of the Greek city-states at Chaeronea in 338.

HIEU 504 - (3) (IR)
Roman Republic
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent
The expansion of Rome from city-state to world empire to the death of Caesar.

HIEU 505 - (3) (IR)
Roman Empire
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent
The founding and institutions of the Principate, the Dominate and the decline of antiquity.

HIEU 506 - (3) (IR)
Roman Imperialism
Prerequisite: HIEU 204 or equivalent
An examination of Roman transmarine expansion to determine how and why it happened, and what consequences it had, both in Rome and abroad.

HIEU 510 - (3) (IR)
Early Christian Thought
Prerequisite: RELC 205 or permission of instructor
Intensive consideration of a selected issue, movement or figure in Christian thought of the second through fifth centuries.

HIEU 511 - (3) (IR)
Early Medieval England
A documentary history of English society from the late Saxon period to the reign of King John.

HIEU 512 - (3) (IR)
Later Medieval England
A documentary history of English society from the reign of King John to the death of Richard II.

HIEU 513 - (3) (IR)
Medieval France
Societies and governments in medieval Francia from the 11th century to the 14th.

HIEU 516 - (3) (IR)
The Medieval Church
The history of the western church within the development of medieval society, from the time of Constantine through the 13th century, based on a study of selected texts.

HIEU 517 - (3) (IR)
Medieval Society: Ways of Life and Thought in Western Europe
An introduction to the social and intellectual history from Charlemagne to Dante.

HIEU 518 - (3) (IR)
Historians in the Middle Ages
A discussion of the ways in which important Latin writers of the medieval period looked at the past.

HIEU 519 - (3) (IR)
War and Society in the Middle Ages
A documentary history of warfare in western Europe from the ninth century to the 16th with a discussion of its effect on the political, economic, social and religious development of the emerging nation states.

HIEU 521 - (3) (IR)
Early Modern Germany, 1350-1750
Late medieval politics, economy, and culture-the Reformation, Counter- Reformation, and Wars of Religion; pietism and the baroque.

HIEU 526 - (3) (IR)
Russian History to 1700
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Readings and discussion on selected topics in the evolution of the Russian peoples to the reign of Peter the Great.

HIEU 527 - (3) (IR)
The Age of Russian Absolutism, 1613-1855
Intensive study of Russian history from the reign of the first Romanov tsar to the defeat in the Crimean War. Concentrates on the evolution of absolutism in Russia and the effects of the changes introduced by Peter the Great.

HIEU 545 - (3) (IR)
The History of Twentieth Century Europe, 1900-1941
A systematic and intensive study of the monograph literature dealing with the first half of the 20th century, concentrating on a list of major problems which have been the subject of scholarly controversy.

HIEU 546 - (3) (IR)
The History of Twentieth Century Europe, Since 1941
An intensive study of the monographic literature dealing with controversial issues in European history since World War II.

HIEU 555 - (3) (IR)
The German World After 1918
Problems in German Politics and society, including those of Austria, Switzerland, and such border areas as Alsace-Lorraine, Luxemburg and the German regions of Czechoslovakia.

HIEU 556, 557 - (3) (IR)
British History Since 1760
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Readings and discussion on selected topics in British history since the reign of George III.

HIEU 559 - (3) (IR)
The British Economy Since 1850
Structure, performance and policy in the British economy since 1850, focusing on the causes and consequences of Britain's relative economic decline. Cross listed as ECON 507.

HIEU 561 - (3) (IR)
The Age of Reform and Revolution in Russia, 1855-1917
Intensive study of changes brought about in the wake of reforms following the Crimean War. Deals with the social and political effects of efforts to modernize and industrialize Russia, which led to the growth of political and revolutionary opposition and the overthrow of the monarchy.

HIEU 562 - (3) (IR)
Russia Since 1917
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Readings and discussion of the causes for the collapse of the Tsarist regime and the triumph of the Bolsheviks, and intensive examination of the development of the Soviet state.

HIEU 564 - (3) (IR)
Russian and Soviet Diplomatic History
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Intensive examination, through readings and discussion, of aspects of Soviet diplomatic history between the wars, attempts by the revolutionary regime to overthrow the capitalist states and to coexist with them, and the road to World War II.

HIEU 566 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth Century Russian Intellectual History
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Readings and discussion of seminal Russian intellectuals and their ideas under the later Romanov Tsars.

HIEU 567 - (3) (IR)
Russian Social History
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Readings and discussion on selected topics in Russian social history during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

HIEU 573 - (3) (IR)
European Social History
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Reading and discussion of the evolution of private life, emphasizing methodology and the interpretation of sources in social history.

HIEU 577 - (3) (IR)
History of Modern Science
Reading and discussion on selected topics in the history of the natural and social science since 1600.

HIEU 578, 579 - (3) (IR)
European Intellectual History
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Reading, discussion, and papers on selected topics in European intellectual history since the 17th century.

HIEU 580 - (3) (IR)
Postmodernism: Contexts and Anticipations
Prerequisites: Some modest prior background in intellectual history, philosophy, literature, art, architecture, or music
Explores the notions of postmodernism and postmodernity. The names are recent and are much in dispute, but the various phenomena that they designate seem interesting and important. An attempt is made to play postmodernism off against modernism in its several senses (aesthetic, sociological, philosophical), and to examine earlier anticipations of the recent intellectual conflict.


Latin American History

HILA 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in Latin American History
An introduction to the study of history intended for first or second year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods. Regardless of a particular seminar's subject matter, its emphasis rests upon enhancing critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major history.

HILA 201 - (3) (Y)
Colonial Latin America, 1500-1824
An introduction to major developments and issues in the study of Latin American history from native American societies on the eve of the Spanish Conquest to the wars of national independence in the early 19th century.

HILA 202 - (3) (IR)
Modern Latin America, 1824 to Present
An introduction to the history of Latin America from national independence in the early 19th century to the present.

HILA 301 - (3) (IR)
Spanish Frontiers of the American Southwest
The history of the Spanish and Mexican borderlands of the American Southwest (California to Texas) from the 16th century to 1848. The course concentrates on the timing and differences in exploration, occupation, settlement patterns, role of the church and the military, and Spanish/Indian and Spanish- Mexican/English-American relations in various provinces.

HILA 303 - (3) (IR)
Mexico From Conquest to Nation
Mexican history from 1519 to 1854, emphasizing Spanish/Indian relations, problems of periodization in cultural, economic, and social history, the state and the church in public life, the significance of national independence, and regional variation in all of these subjects.

HILA 304 - (3) (IR)
Mexico, Revolution and Evolution, 1854 to Present
Mexican history since the wars of reform in the 1850s. The Revolution, 1910-1920, its origins and meaning for modern Mexico, is the centerpiece. Topics include political ideas, church and state, the growth of nationalism and the state, economic changes, urbanization, land reform, and the intractable problem of inequality in the 20th century.

HILA 305 - (3) (IR)
Modern Central America
The history of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador from 19th century fragmentation, oligarchic, foreign, and military rule, to the emergence of popular nationalisms.

HILA 311 - (3) (IR)
Public Life in Modern Latin America
A thematic introduction to the forces that shape the emerging nations of Latin America since independence with an emphasis on the dynamic reproduction of hierarchies that correspond to the patrimonial, aristocratic and populist legitimization of social, cultural and political relations in city life.

HILA 401 - (4) (IR)
Seminar in Latin American History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HILA 402 - (4) (IR)
Colloquium in Latin American History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the colloquium. Colloquia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia will prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HILA 403 - (4) (IR)
Topics in Latin American History
Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis. Normally the permission of the instructor is required for enrollment.

HILA 404 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study in Latin American History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.

HILA 501 - (3) (IR)
Colonial Latin American History
Prerequisite: Advanced undergraduates with consent of instructor and graduate students with reading knowledge of Spanish
An intensive reading program in the historiography of major issues of the colonial field, in preparation for graduate-level research.

HILA 502 - (3) (IR)
Modern Latin American History
Prerequisite: Advanced undergraduates with consent of instructor and graduate students with reading knowledge of Spanish
An intensive reading program in the historiography of major issues of the modern field, in preparation for graduate-level research.


Middle East History

HIME 100 - (3) (IR)
Introductory Seminar in Middle East History
An introduction to the study of history intended for first or second year students. Seminars involve reading, discussing, and writing about different historical topics and periods. Regardless of a particular seminar's subject matter, its emphasis rests upon enhancing critical and communication skills. Several seminars are offered each term. Not more than two Introductory Seminars may be counted toward the major in history.

HIME 201 - (4) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca. 570-ca. 1500
Traces the historical evolution of the Middle East and North Africa from the birth of Islam to the establishment of the Ottoman state in the early 16th century. While the primary emphasis is upon the "core lands" of the Islamic Middle East-the Fertile Crescent, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Iran/Persia, and the Arabian Peninsula-also considered are Andalusia (Muslim Spain), North Africa, Anatolia, and Central Asia. The aim of the course is to study the elaboration of Islam as a religious system, way of life, and world civilization; thus, the historical development of Islamic institutions-cultural, social, legal, and political-is considered.

HIME 202 - (4) (Y)
History of the Middle East and North Africa, ca.
1500-Present
As a continuation of HIME 201 (which is not a prerequisite), this course surveys the historical evolution of the Middle East and North Africa, i.e., the region stretching from Moroco to Afghanistan and from the Balkans and Anatolia to the Arabian Peninsula. After an introduction to the main political configurations of the area from the birth of Islam until the Mongol aftermath, it begins with the rise of the "gunpowder Empires" of the 16th century-the Ottoman and Safavid (Iran) states and ends the survey with an examination of the modern nation-state systems of the present century, ca. 1980. The dominant political, religious, economic, social, and cultural features of Middle Eastern peoples and societies are examined as are relationships between the region and other parts of Eurasia, particularly Western Europe.

HIME 319 - (3) (IR)
Christianity and Islam
Study of Christianity in the Middle East in the centuries after the rise of Islam. Cross-listed with RELC 329.

HIME 401 - (4) (Y)
Seminar in Middle East and North Africa History
The major seminar is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topic of the seminar. The work of the seminar results primarily in the preparation of a substantial (ca. 25 pp. in standard format) research paper. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIME 402 - (4) (Y)
Colloquium in Middle East History
The major colloquium is a small class (not more than 15 students) intended primarily but not exclusively for history majors who have completed two or more courses relevant to the topics of the colloquium. Colloguia are most frequently offered in areas of history where access to source materials or linguistic demands make seminars especially difficult. Students in colloquia will prepare about 25 pages of written work distributed among various assignments. Some restrictions and prerequisites apply to enrollment. See a history advisor or the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

HIME 403 - (4) (Y)
Topics in Middle Eastern History

Topics courses are small, discussion-oriented classes available to any student with sufficient background and interest in a particular field of historical study. Offered irregularly, they are open to majors or non-majors on an equal basis. Normally the permission of the instructor is required for enrollment.

HIME 404 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study in Middle Eastern History
In exceptional circumstances and with the permission of a faculty member any student may undertake a rigorous program of independent study designed to explore a subject not currently being taught or to expand upon regular offerings. Independent Study projects may not be used to replace regularly scheduled classes. Enrollment is open to majors or non-majors.