Department of Astronomy

Overview  The recent impact of a comet with Jupiter and the dramatic repair of the Hubble Space Telescope were featured in newspapers and popular magazines this past year. Discoveries such as frozen volcanoes and new moons of Neptune, quasars, pulsars, X-ray stars, and the primordial fireball have completely changed our understanding of the universe and ourselves. These discoveries have come about through the study of astronomy, the most rapidly developing physical science of the past quarter century. Astronomically inspired studies of general relativity, elementary particle physics, the origins of life, and the evolution of planets have added to the understanding of the related areas of physics, biology, and geophysics. Other recent developments, notably the serious attempts to contact extraterrestrial civilizations and the discovery of the influence of the sun on weather patterns, have important social implications. The astronomy department offers students the opportunity to become involved in the exploration of these frontier discoveries while at the same time learning fundamental analytical and quantitative skills.

Faculty   The fifteen faculty members of the department are all committed both to teaching and conducting significant research. Several of the faculty have been Fulbright Fellows and the department has received numerous research grants. As the nature of the universe is virtually infinite, it is not surprising that the faculty's interests are wide ranging. The department offers twenty-two courses that are open to undergraduates. Courses range from the history of astronomy from the time of Stonehenge to the search for life beyond earth, from stellar evolution to high energy astrophysics. Faculty members teach the theoretical concepts that allow students to understand astronomical phenomena and at the same time encourage hands-on experience.

Students   There are currently fifteen students majoring in astronomy. This small number means that close contact with the faculty is an integral part of the learning environment; in fact, the ratio of faculty to majors is approximately 1:1 in any given year. Many students work with professors on research projects and much of this work is published in scientific journals. Since a senior thesis is required, each student must do independent work in the senior year. In addition, some students work at the University's observatory and are paid from money allocated from research grants. Advanced students may, with the permission of the instructor, enroll in graduate courses as well.

Students who graduate with a degree in astronomy have numerous career options from which to choose. Some 50 percent of the students go on to graduate work, mostly in astronomy; some go into medicine and have received acceptances at top programs. There are also excellent job openings each year for persons with an undergraduate astronomy background at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (headquarters in Charlottesville), Kitt Peak National Observatory (Tucson, Arizona), and at other observatories and planetariums around the country. Graduates may become telescope operators, planetarium operators, and computer programmers for observatories, NASA, and top corporations in the field.

Special Resources   McCormick Observatory: Located on Mount Jefferson on the western edge of the Grounds, the observatory contains the Clark refractor, which has an aperture of 26 inches. The refractor has been used in an extensive program of stellar photography whose primary goals are to establish the distances of nearby stars and the dynamics of the galactic system. The observatory also maintains a 6 inch refractor and 8 inch reflector for student use. Fan Mountain Observing Station: This station is located 16 miles southwest of the University on an isolated mountain at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The primary instruments housed at the station are a 40 inch astrometric reflector and a 30 inch reflector. The 40 inch is a modified Cassegrain-Schmidt especially designed for stable optical characteristics over a long period of time. This telescope will continue the astrometric program begun by the McCormick 26 inch well into the next century. The 30 inch is presently being used in programs of photoelectric photometry and spectroscopy.

Requirements for Major   The Astronomy Department offers two major programs. The Bachelor of Arts degree in Astronomy, not intended as preparation for graduate study, provides the liberal arts student with a firm grounding in basic astronomy, mathematics, physics, and computer science. The student takes ASTR 211, 212 (or ASTR 101N, 102N), ASTR 313, ASTR 498 (Senior Thesis), and twelve additional credits of 300-500 level Astronomy courses. The student is also required to take MATH 121, 122; CS 182 or 186; and PHYS 231, 232 (or PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252). This program offers considerable opportunities for the student to pursue interests in related subjects and is well suited for inclusion in a double major.

The department also offers, jointly with the Physics Department, a program leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree in Astronomy-Physics. This major prepares the student for graduate study in either astronomy or physics. The student takes MATH 131, 132, 221, 225, 521, 522; CS 182 or 186; PHYS 151, 152, 251, 252, 221, 222, 321, 331, 342, 343, 355; and ASTR 211, 212, 313, 395, 498 (Senior Thesis), and six additional credits of 300-500 level Astronomy courses.

There is a Distinguished Astronomy-Physics majors program for students who maintain a GPA of 3.4 or better. This program has the same requirements as the Astronomy-Physics major described above except that PHYS 356 must be taken, a two-semester Senior Thesis (ASTR 498) must be done, and the six credits of Astronomy elective courses must consist of ASTR 451 and a 500-level course. This program leads to the award of degrees with Distinction, High Distinction, or Highest Distinction.

Prospective majors are urged to obtain details of the programs from the undergraduate advisor in their first year at the University.

Requirements for Minor   A minor in Astronomy is also offered. The requirements can be completed in either of two ways. The student can take ASTR 101N, 102N, 103N, and six additional credits of 300-400 level Astronomy courses. Alternatively, the student can take ASTR 211, 212, and nine additional credits of 300-400 level Astronomy courses.

Additional Information   For more information, contact the

Undergraduate Advisor
Department of Astronomy
Kerchof Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-7494
Astronomy World Wide Web site
Astronomy faculty


ASTR 101N - (3) (S)
Introductory Astronomy (Solar System Astronomy)
Primarily for non-science students
Motion of objects in the night sky; telescopes; brief history of astronomy; the sun, planets, satellites, meteors and comets; space exploration; origin of the solar system; the possibility of extraterrestrial life and interstellar contact. Recent results from the space program.

ASTR 102N - (3) (S)
Introductory Astronomy (Stellar and Galactic Astronomy)
Primarily for non-science students
The nature of the stars, stellar evolution, the structure and evolution of our galaxy, other galaxies, cosmology; "high-energy astronomy"; x-ray stars, black holes, pulsars, quasars.

ASTR 103N - (3) (S)
Night Sky Laboratory
Primarily for non-science students; corequisite: ASTR 101N or 102N
Introduction to the constellations and the use of telescopes and associated techniques in the study of stars, planets, nebulae, and galaxies. The course is built around use of binoculars, small telescopes, and photographic equipment at the department's two student observatories. Classes generally meet at night.

Note: ASTR 101N, 102N, and 103N satisfy the Natural Sciences Area Requirement for "N" designated courses. These courses and all other Astronomy courses can also be used to satisfy the requirement for 3 additional credits of Natural Sciences courses. ASTR 101N and 102N cover complementary subject matter. Each is complete in itself, and a student may elect to take either ASTR 101N or ASTR 102N, or both concurrently. ASTR 103N is an elective laboratory course. Students who elect to take ASTR 103N must have already taken ASTR 101N or 102N or be taking one of these concurrently.

ASTR 170, 171 - (1) (SI)
A seminar designed primarily for first and second year students, taught on a voluntary basis by a faculty member. Topics vary.

ASTR 211, 212 - (3) (Y)
General Astronomy
Primarily for science majors; corequisites: MATH 121 or MATH 131, PHYS 151 or PHYS 231, or permission of instructor
A thorough discussion of the basic concepts and methods of solar system, stellar, galactic, and extragalactic astronomy with emphasis on physical interpretation. Recent research developments including black holes, pulsars, quasars, and new solar system observations from the space program.

ASTR 313 - (3) (Y)
Observational Astronomy
Primarily for science majors
Prerequisites: ASTR 211, 212, or permission of instructor
A laboratory course dealing with basic observational techniques in astronomy. Students make use of observational facilities at McCormick Observatory and at Fan Mountain Observatory. Classes generally meet at night.

ASTR 341 - (3) (Y)
Open to non-science students; corequisite: A 100- or 200-level Astronomy course or permission of instructor
A discussion of recent discoveries concerning prescientific astronomy. The astronomical significance of relics such as Stonehenge, Egyptian and Mayan temples, and the "medicine wheels" of the North American Indians is examined. The usefulness of ancient records in the study of current astrophysical problems, such as supernova outbursts, is also discussed. The course uses current literature from several disciplines including astronomy, archaeology, and anthropology.

ASTR 342 - (3) (Y)
Life Beyond the Earth
Open to non-science students; corequisite: A 100- or 200-level Astronomy course or permission of instructor
The possibility of the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life; methods and desirability of interstellar communication; prospects for humanity's colonization of space, interaction of space colonies and the search for other civilizations.

ASTR 346 - (3) (Y)
Development of Modern Astronomy
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
A reading course dealing with the history of astronomy.

ASTR 347 - (3) (Y)
Science and Controversy in Astronomy
Open to non-science students; corequisite: ASTR 101 or ASTR 102
A critical evaluation of controversial topics in science and pseudo-science from the astronomer's perspective. The methods of science and the nature of scientific evidence with their implications for: unresolved astrophysical problems; extraterrestrial life; UFO's; Velikovsky; von Daniken; astrology, etc.

ASTR 348 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Cosmology
Open to first year students; primarily for non-science students
A descriptive introduction to the study of the ultimate structure and evolution of the universe. Covers the history of cosmological speculation, the nature of the galaxies, a qualitative introduction to relativity theory and the nature of space-time, black holes, models of the universe (big bang, steady-state, etc.) and methods of testing them, history of the universe.

ASTR 395 - (3) (S)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
A study of a topic of special interest to the student under individual supervision by a faculty member. May be repeated once for credit.

ASTR 444 - (3) (E)
The Nature of Discovery in Astronomy
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Selected topics concerning the people, ideas, and principles that motivate the advance of twentieth century astronomy.

ASTR 451 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Astrophysics
Prerequisites: ASTR 211-212; PHYS 252 or permission of instructor
Basic concepts in mechanics, statistical physics, atomic and nuclear structure, and radiative transfer are developed and applied to selected fundamental problems in the areas of stellar structure, stellar atmospheres, the interstellar medium and extragalactic astrophysics.

ASTR 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor

ASTR 511, 512 - (3) (O)
Astronomical Techniques
Prerequisites: ASTR 211-212; PHYS 342, 343 or permission of instructor
A survey of modern techniques of radiation measurement, data analysis, and image processing, and their application to astrophysical problems, especially the physical properties of stars and galaxies. Relevant laboratory experiments and observations with the department's telescopes are included. Students are expected to develop a familiarity with FORTRAN programming and other basic computer skills if they do not already possess these.

ASTR 534 - (3) (E)
Introductory Radio Astronomy
Prerequisites: MATH 225, PHYS 210
Fundamentals of measuring power and power spectra, antennas, interferometers and radiometers. Thermal radiation, synchrotron radiation and line frequency radiation. Radio emission from the planets, sun, flare stars, pulsars, supernovae, interstellar gas, galaxies and quasi-stellar sources.

ASTR 539, 540 - (3) (IR)
Topical Seminar
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
A detailed study of a current topic is made by the instructor and the seminar members. The topic to be covered will appear in the academic schedule for the semester in which it is given.

ASTR 541 - (3) (E)
Stellar Atmospheres
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Basic concepts and techniques required to calculate the structure and emergent spectrum of stellar atmospheres are developed.

ASTR 542 - (3) (E)
The Interstellar Medium
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Topics covered include the physics of interstellar gas and grains, the distribution and dynamics of the gas, and cosmic radiation and interstellar magnetic fields.

ASTR 543 - (3) (O)
The Physics of Stellar Interiors
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Basic physical principles required to study the interiors of stars are discussed, including the equations of stellar structure, the thermodynamics of stellar material, sources of opacity, and nuclear reactions. Simple approximations to stellar structure are developed.

ASTR 544 - (3) (O)
Stellar Evolution
Prerequisite: ASTR 543 or permission of instructor
This course describes the evolution of main sequence stars, late stages of evolution, explosive evolution, nucleosynthesis, convective and nonconvective mixing, and numerical techniques.

ASTR 545 - (3) (E)
High Energy Astrophysics
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Introduction to the physics of basic radiation mechanisms and particle acceleration processes which are important in high energy phenomena and space science. Applications to pulsars, active galactic nuclei, radio galaxies, quasars, and supernovae will be discussed.

ASTR 546 - (3) (E)
Binary Stars
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
The determination of orbital elements, the mass-luminosity-radius relation, formation of binary systems, the Roche model, mass loss, mass transfer, circumstellar material, accretion disks, evolution of close interacting binaries, and some special classes of binaries such as cataclysmic variables, RS CVn binaries, Algol-type binaries, and X-ray binaries.

ASTR 571, 572 - (3) (S)
Fundamental Concepts in Astronomy
Prerequisites: Open only to students in School of Education; permission of instructor
Subject matter of these courses is the same as for ASTR 101N, 102N. Students enrolling will be offered special reading assignments and consultation on topics in astronomical education. Offered concurrently with undergraduate section.

ASTR 573 - (3) (S)
Laboratory Concepts in Astronomy
Prerequisites: Open only to students in School of Education; permission of instructor
Subject matter is the same as for ASTR 103N. Students enrolling will be offered special reading assignments and consultation on topics in astronomical education. Offered concurrently with undergraduate section.

ASTR 575, 576, 577, 578 - (3) (S)
General Topics in Astronomy
Prerequisites: Open only to students in the School of Education; permission of instructor
The subject matter of these courses is the same as for ASTR 341, 342, 347, 348, respectively. Students enrolling will be offered special reading assignments and consultation on topics in astronomical education. Offered concurrently with undergraduate section.

Department of Biology

Overview  The Biology Department offers a diversified program that serves students with a breadth of interests and will ultimately enable them to pursue careers in many areas of the biological sciences including education, medicine, and research. Put simply, of course, biology is the study of the most extraordinarily complex of all known things--life itself. In part, that helps to explain why we are innately interested in this discipline, for in it there are questions and answers about us and all living creatures. How does the fertilized egg develop into a multicellular organism? Why do some cells become senescent while others remain proliferative? How do cells communicate with one another? How does the monarch butterfly know when and where to make its astonishing migration? These and many others are the questions of today. We approach these problems with exciting new technologies and creative approaches undreamed of even a decade ago. During this "golden period" of biological research we have been brought close to a complete understanding of many fundamental biological processes. Our dissections probe not only into cells, but to the very molecular fabric of living things. As we do so, we learn about our past and how we have evolved. We gain, too, an ever increasing appreciation for living things and the delicate balance of the ecosystem that we share.

Faculty  The thirty-four members of the faculty include professors who are nationally and internationally recognized in their fields. The research activities within the department are currently supported by over forty investigator-initiated research grants totalling more than $4 million awarded annually from the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation and other government agencies or private foundations. This commitment to excellence in research complements and enhances the department's dedication to outstanding teaching and provides the resources to promote creative and original research by our students. The department participates in University-wide programs in biological timing, biophysics, cell and molecular biology, developmental biology, and neuroscience.

Students  There are currently more than three hundred students majoring in biology. Upon graduation, many biology majors have spent the better part of two years assisting in nationally-funded research projects and working on their own experiments. Students can work with some of the best biologists in the country, take part in experiments, and use the most advanced equipment available. The department has expanded and modernized its research laboratories, making it easier for students to take advanced classes early in their academic careers. Students who have been graduated with a B.A. in biology have been admitted to the most outstanding graduate schools in the country. The acceptance rate of biology graduates to first-rate medical schools is exceptionally high.

Special Resources  The department offers a modern research environment equipped with the most advanced scientific instrumentation available for biochemical, biophysical, cellular, molecular, and behavioral research. These include a confocal microscopy facility, two light microscopy-image processing facilities, transmission and scanning electron microscopes, and a high-performance liquid chromatography laboratory. An Ethernet interconnects and accesses mainframe and microcomputers, which provide scientific software such as DNA and protein sequence analysis programs and sequence databases. The Center for Biological Timing: Graduate and undergraduate summer fellowships at the Center are available on a competitive basis. Mountain Lake Biological Station: Information about undergraduate and graduate level summer courses may be obtained from the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Department of Biology, Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904.

Requirements for Major  Students selecting biology as their major subject are required to have completed the lower-level introductory courses BIOL 201, BIOL 202, BIOL 203 and BIOL 204 unless exempted by examination or placement. Students exempted from BIOL 201/202 must take BIOL 203/204 unless they have completed laboratory courses equivalent to BIOL 203/204. In addition, students must complete 22 credits of upper-level Biology courses (300 and above) that include BIOL 311 (Genetics), BIOL 301 (Cell Biology), and at least one upper-level laboratory course. The laboratory requirement can also be satisfied by a three credit departmental course in field or marine biology or by two consecutive semesters of independent research (BIOL 495/496/497/498) conducted in one laboratory. (Summer research does not apply unless enrolled in BIOL 495-498.) The overall grade point average for courses presented for the major must be 2.0 (C) or better. Majors are required to complete CHEM 141, 142, 141L, and 142L. CHEM 161, 162, 161L, 162L, also satisfy this requirement. Majors are also required to complete one course in either calculus (e.g., MATH 121, 122, 131, or 132) or statistics (e.g., MATH 112 or PSYC 301L. Students anticipating a career in the biological sciences are strongly advised to also take two semesters of organic chemistry with lab (CHEM 241, 242, 241L, 242L), two semesters of physics with lab (PHYS 201, 202, 201L, 202L) and at least one additional math course. Sixteen of the 22 credits of upper-level courses required for the major must be chosen from courses offered by the Biology Department at the University of Virginia.

Requirements for Minor  Students selecting biology as their minor subject are required to complete the lower-level introductory courses BIOL 201, BIOL 202, BIOL 203 and BIOL 204 unless exempted by examination or placement. Students exempted from BIOL 201/202 must take BIOL 203/204 unless they have completed laboratory courses equivalent to BIOL 203/204. In addition, three upper-level Biology courses (300 and above) of three credits each are required. The grade point average for all courses presented for the minor must be C or better.

Academic Information  Hourly credit for Independent Research can be applied toward the 22 upper-level credits required for the major. Three credits are granted for two semesters of Independent Research (BIOL 495/496/497/498) and six credits are granted for four semesters of Independent Research.

Students who score a 4 or a 5 on the AP biology examination will receive six credits for BIOL 201 and BIOL 202. AP credit does not exempt students from either BIOL203 or BIOL 204. However, students whose AP Biology course included a laboratory comparable to either BIOL 203 or 204 may take an upper level laboratory course instead of either introductory lab. A list of upper level lab courses that students with AP credit can substitute for either BIOL 203 or 204 may be obtained from the Biology Department.

Students may petition to have upper-level transfer credits count toward the biology major. One-half credit will be granted for each credit up to a maximum of six credits. Unique courses that broaden the undergraduate experience (i.e., field courses, marine biology, studies abroad, research opportunities, etc.) can receive full transfer credit. Note: Cell Biology (BIOL 301) and Genetics (BIOL 311) are required courses in the department. Courses in these subjects at other institutions may not be accepted. In all cases, prior approval should be arranged with the Undergraduate Committee.

Six credits from the following environmental sciences courses may be applied towards the biology major: EVSC 320, EVSC 320L, EVSC 421, EVSC 423, EVSC 426, EVSC 431, EVSC 431L, EVEC 521, EVEC 522, EVEC 523, EVEC 523L. Students who complete both CHEM 441 and CHEM 442 may apply three credits towards the biology major.

Students are urged to broaden their biology training by taking courses from several biology subdisciplines, including development, evolution, physiology, and behavior.

Students with special academic requirements or backgrounds may seek relief from these regulations by petitioning the Undergraduate Committee of the Biology Department.

Distinguished Majors Program in Biology
Eligibility  Students with a cumulative grade point average of 3.4 or higher after five semesters may apply to enter the Distinguished Majors Program (DMP). Application for the DMP must be made prior to the beginning of the seventh semester. Provisional admission to students with cumulative grade point averages below 3.4 but above 3.2 will be granted in exceptional cases. Administration of the DMP is the responsibility of the Undergraduate Committee.

Course Requirements:

  1. Completion of 27 credits in upper level courses approved for the Biology major, beyond BIOL 201, 202; 203, 204. An AP Biology score of 4 or 5 could be submitted in lieu of BIOL 201, 202. (Requirements 2 and 3 are counted toward this requirement.)
  2. One semester of BIOL 385 or 386, Selected Topics in Biology (see discussion below).
  3. A full year's study in Introduction to Independent Research, BIOL 495, 496 with a member of the Biology Department faculty.
  4. Achieving a minimum grade point average of 3.4 in all Biology courses and overall in the University.
Research Requirements  The research work done under BIOL 495, 496 must be described in written form. The faculty research supervisor and the Undergraduate Committee will judge the work and the report. This research project is intended to foster independent thought and to develop the student's critical ability in formulating and conducting scientific research. The written report must be submitted to the research advisor and Undergraduate Committee during the student's last semester in residence.

In addition to a written report, the student is required to present an oral report of the research project at the Richard D. Katz Biology Undergraduate Research Symposium held by the Biology Department and the Undergraduate Biology Association in late April/early May each year.

Certification  The Undergraduate Committee will assume the responsibility for evaluation of both the written report of the research project and the oral presentation. On the basis of their evaluation, the Undergraduate Committee will recommend to the Chairman and Faculty of the Biology Department that the degree be awarded:

(a) with no distinction
(b) with distinction
(c) with high distinction
(d) with highest distinction

The decision of the Biology faculty regarding each candidate will be forwarded to the Committee on Special Programs and to the University Registrar at least ten days before commencement.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the

Department of Biology
229 Gilmer Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 982-5474.
Biology World Wide Web site.
Biology faculty


BIOL 102N - (3) (Y)
Implications of Biology
For non-science majors
Prerequisite: BIOL 101 or permission of instructor
An exploration of selected biological problems currently facing humans. Genetic manipulation, developmental abnormalities and population pressures are representative topics.

BIOL 112N - (3) (Y)
Forensic Biology
Introduction to the courtroom, "old" forensics, structure of DNA, and analysis of specific cases. Focus on the revolution in anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and ecology created by DNA analysis, as well as exploration of future trends in forensics.

BIOL 201, 202 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Biology
An intensive introduction to modern biology designed for natural science majors. Biological structure and function at various levels of organization, cell biology, genetics, development and evolution are covered. These courses are required for all biology majors and are prerequisites for most upper level biology courses.

BIOL 203, 204 - (2) (Y)
Introduction to Biology Laboratory
Corequisites: May be taken independently, or in conjunction with BIOL 201, 202
Laboratory exercises in introductory biology to illustrate experimental techniques and strategies used to elucidate biological concepts. These courses are required for all biology majors and are prerequisites for most upper level biology courses.

BIOL 206 - (3) (Y)
Human Physiology and Anatomy
Designed for pre-professionals in the health sciences, HPA I covers body organization, tissues, the integument, the skeletal system, the muscle system, and the nervous system.

BIOL 207 - (3) (Y)
Human Physiology and Anatomy II
Designed for pre-professionals in the health sciences HPA II covers the endocrine system, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, the digestive system, the urinary system and the reproductive system.

BIOL 301 - (3) (S)
Cell Biology
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204; CHEM 141, 142, 141L, 142L
Examines fundamental principles of eukaryotic cell biology at the molecular level. Topics include: protein localization, structure, assembly and function of the plasma membrane and organelles, signal transduction pathways, cell-cell interactions and the perturbations of these processes in diseases such as cancer. Experimental approaches in modern cell biology are emphasized. Required for all biology majors.

BIOL 305 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisite: BIOL 301
Specific adaptations and organization of cells as they function in tissues and organs.

BIOL 308 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204, or permission of instructor
A discussion of the molecular basis of bacterial and animal virus life cycles; properties of host cells; and viral-induced neoplastic diseases, including AIDS. Designed for science majors.

BIOL 311 - (4) (S)
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204
Four aspects of genetics are considered: the transmission of genes from one generation to the next, the nature of the genetic material, the manner of replication, and the action of genes, including the utilization of the information encoded in the genetic material. Lectures and discussions. Required for all biology majors.

BIOL 312 - (3) (Y)
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204, or permission of instructor
A molecular approach to the structure and function of microorganisms. Emphasizes the diversity of bacteria; importance of microorganisms for genetic engineering, fermentation, energy production, environmental protection, mining; pathogenic bacteria and pathology; AIDS.

BIOL 313 - (3) (Y)
Genetics Laboratory
Prerequisite or corequisite: BIOL 311
Experimental techniques and organisms used to elucidate genetic concepts.

BIOL 318 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Botany
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202 or permission of instructor
Introductory laboratory course to examine the basic principles of plant structure, development, classification, and physiology. Laboratory exercises demonstrate these concepts with emphasis on cells and cellular function, structure and organization of higher plants, and a survey of plant and related organisms.

BIOL 322 - (3) (IR)
The Biology of Molluscs
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204
An introduction to the Phylum Mollusca. Topics include systematics, ecology, physiology, and their economic importance to man. Three lecture hours.

BIOL 325 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Animal Behavior
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204
Comparative aspects of animal behavior from a neuro-ethological approach; mechanisms employed in generating and guiding behavior.

BIOL 345 - (3) (Y)
Biology of Reproduction
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204
Covers reproductive endocrinology, gametogenesis, development of the reproductive system, sex determination, and mechanisms underlying reproduction in males and females.

BIOL 385, 386 - (1-3) (SI)
Selected Topics in Biology
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Tutorial or seminar course that allows intensive study of the literature in a particular area of biology under the guidance of a faculty member from the Department.

BIOL 395 - (3) (S)
Recent Advances in Biology
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Consists of weekly lecture/discussion sessions on recent advances in biology as reported through articles in the current literature and in research seminars presented within the University. Required for DMP students.

BIOL 401 - (3) (Y)
Evolutionary Biology
Prerequisites: MATH 131 and BIOL 201, 202, or permission of instructor
An evolutionary approach to population ecology, animal behavior, and genetics. Topics include the principles of natural selection and the evolution of the phenotype, population regulation and life history evolution, mating systems, foraging behavior, speciation and phylogeny reconstruction. Includes a weekend field trip to Mt. Lake Biological Station. This course is cross- listed as EVSC 401.

BIOL 402 - (3) (Y)
Ecological Genetics
Prerequisites: BIOL 311 or permission of instructor
Origins, maintenance and decay of natural populations. Genetic polymorphism, polygenic inheritance, adaptation, natural selection (especially frequency- dependent selection), mimicry, gene flow, and speciation.

BIOL 404 - (3) (Y)
Biology of Plants
Life processes, structure and evolutionary relationships of higher plants. Laboratory work includes histology, vegetative propagation, greenhouse techniques and tissue culture.

BIOL 405 - (3) (Y)
Developmental Biology
Prerequisite: BIOL 311 or permission of instructor
Developmental process in plants and animals, emphasizing the experimental basis of contemporary knowledge in embryogenesis, morphogenesis and in cell and tissue differentiation. Lecture and occasional evening discussions.

BIOL 406 - (3) (Y)
Laboratory in Bacterial Genetics
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, BIOL 311 recommended
An integrated lecture-laboratory study of classical and modern concepts of bacterial physiology and genetics. Mastery of basic bacteriological techniques and quantitative analysis of data are stressed. Lecture and open laboratory.

BIOL 408 - (3) (IR)
Mechanisms of Animal Behavior
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204
Animal behavior is approached from a mechanistic point of view. Topics covered include: introduction to classical ethology, neuronal mechanisms underlying behavior, hormonal control and regulation, animal navigation and orientation, genetic basis of behavior, and the evolutionary origins of behaviors. Topics are illustrated with examples from classical and current experiments on both vertebrates and invertebrates. The experimental basis of our present understanding of animal behavior is stressed. Three lecture hours.

BIOL 409 - (4) (Y)
Invertebrate Zoology
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, or permission of instructor
The morphology, physiological adaptations, life histories and evolutionary relationships of invertebrates. Lectures, laboratory and field investigations.

BIOL 410 - (4) (Y)
Vertebrate Zoology
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202 and204, or permission of instructor
Vertebrate groups, their structure, function, origins, relationships, special adaptations and representative organisms. Selected topics in vertebrate biology: flight, molecular evolution, size, thermoregulation, colors, tails, rumination. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 414 - (3) (Y)
Plant Cell Physiology
Prerequisites: BIOL 301 or permission of instructor
An in-depth analysis of cell structure and metabolic activity during plant cell growth and differentiation. Emphasis is placed on an understanding of the biochemical and molecular genetic factors regulating important plant and cellular physiological activities.

BIOL 416 - (4) (IR)
General Zoology
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204
Acquaints the student with animals from the Protozoa to the Mammalia. The underlying themes of the course are structural- functional relationships, adaptational strategies, and evolutionary trends. The lab is designed to supplement and reinforce facts and concepts introduced in lectures and readings.

BIOL 417 - (3) (Y)
Cellular Neurobiology
Prerequisite: BIOL 301 or permission of instructor
A cellular approach to the study of the nervous system. Major topics: the structure and function of ionic channels in cell membranes; the electrochemical basis of the cell resting potential; the generation and conduction of nerve impulses; synaptic transmission; the structure and function of representative sensory receptors; function of neuronal ensembles in perception and in the generation of animal movements; and the cellular and molecular basis of neuronal modulation by neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and hormones. Three lecture and demonstration/discussion hours.

BIOL 419 - (3) (Y)
Biological Clocks
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
An introduction to biological timekeeping as used by organisms for controlling diverse processes including: sleep-wakefulness cycles, photoperiodic induction and regression, locomotor rhythmicity, eclosion rhythmicity and use of the biological clock in orientation and navigation.

BIOL 420 - (1) (S)
Field Biology
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203, 204 and permission of instructor
Application of field techniques for biological studies.

BIOL 422 - (3) (IR)
Human Genetics
Prerequisites: BIOL 311
Mendelian inheritance of genetic errors; polygenic traits and behavioral genetics; genetic polymorphism and race formation; mutation; methods of molecular genetic research on man and in genetic counseling.

BIOL 423 - (3) (Y)
Animal Physiology
Prerequisites: Six credits of upper division BIOL courses or permission of instructor
Discussions concentrate on selected vertebrate organ systems with some consideration of other systems where relevant.

BIOL 424 - (2) (IR)
Neurobiology Laboratory
Prerequisites: BIOL 417 and permission of instructor
Laboratory experiments in neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. Four laboratory hours.

BIOL 427 - (3) (Y)
Exploration of Animal Behavior
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor; BIOL 325 recommended
Direct experience in approaches used to study animal behavior. Each lab concentrates on a particular aspect of behavior. Students perform experiments that relate to the following topics: central nervous systems; sensory perception; sign stimuli, feeding behavior; social behavior; reproductive behavior; biological timing; animal observation in the laboratory and field.

BIOL 436 - (3) (Y)
Biology and Culture
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Examination of well-known, current critiques of science, especially (but not exclusively) of biology. Arguments concern such topics as: holism vs. reductionism; "deep ecology" vs. conservationism; animal behavior vs. human behavior, and the assessment of cognitive performance; sex vs. gender; origins of human language; the validity of sociobiology; the "mastermolecule-DNA paradigm;" developmental neurobiology and consciousness; cultural vs. biological evolution; the social construction of biological knowledge.

BIOL 441 - (3) (Y)
Molecular Biology of the Gene
Prerequisite: BIOL 311
The structure and regulation of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and viral genes will be examined at the molecular level. Experimental approaches in molecular biology that address mechanisms of replication, transcription, RNA processing and translation will be emphasized. Current advances in genetic research will be discussed.

BIOL 442 - (3) (IR)
Principles of Molecular Evolution
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Pattens of biological pro esses and macomolecular structures in order to infer their evolutions. These results lend insights into underlying mechanisms as well as into the evolutions of organisms.

BIOL 444 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisites: Six credits of upper division BIOL courses or permission of instructor
Mechanisms of hormone action: the structure, synthesis and physiology of hormones from endocrine systems concerned with metabolism, ion and water balance, growth and development, reproduction, etc.

BIOL 449 - (2) (IR)
Advanced Drosophila Genetics
Prerequisite: BIOL 311 or equivalent
Translocation heterozygotes in the generation of segmental anueploids; compound chromosomes and half-tetrad analysis of gene conversion events; methods for making mosaics and for P-element induced mutagenesis (including site-directed mutagenesis); P-element mediated transformation; use of enhancer traps. Cross-listed as BIOL 849.

BIOL 450 - (3) (IR)
Genetics and Development
Prerequisites: BIOL 311 and BIOL 405, or permission of instructor
Genetic dissection of a complex developmental process; isolation of mutants and identification of participating genes, characterization, establishment of a hierarchy of regulation.

BIOL 486 - (3) (IR)
Molecular Biology of the Cell Cycle
Prerequisites: Coursework in Cell Biology or Biochemistry
The mechanisms by which chromosomes are separated in cell division; those by which cells cleave once the chromosomes separate; control of cell division as part of the cell cycle. Emphasis on genetic techniques and in vitro  reconstructed systems.

BIOL 495, 496 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Independent Research
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Independent research for qualified undergraduates under the direction of one of the staff. Nine laboratory hours.

BIOL 497, 498 - (3) (S)
Independent Research
Prerequisites: BIOL 495, BIOL 496 and permission of instructor
Independent research carried out by the student under the guidance of a departmental faculty member. Students who have completed BIOL 495 and BIOL 496 may enroll for BIOL 497 and BIOL 498 as a "second year" of independent research. Nine laboratory hours.

BIOL 501 - (4) (Y)
Prerequisites: Organic chemistry or permission of instructor
Structure and function of the major constituents of cells-proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates-and the relationship to cellular metabolism and self-replication. Lectures and discussion.

BIOL 509 - (2) (SI)
Current Topics in Plant Molecular Biology
Prerequisites: BIOL 301 or permission of instructor
A discussion of current literature and selected topics on the biochemical and molecular genetic basis for plant cellular growth and differentiation. Weekly readings and student presentations.

BIOL 512 - (3) (Y)
Comparative Biochemistry
Prerequisites: Organic chemistry, BIOL 301 or 501, and permission of instructor
Examines the biochemical adaptations that have arisen in organisms in response to physiological demands. Topics are drawn from recent advances made in elucidating molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation.

BIOL 517 - (3) (SI)
Electronics for Biologists
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Consideration of electronics and electronic design for the laboratory. Analog and digital circuits utilized with emphasis on design of equipment for biological laboratories.

BIOL 536 - (3) (Y)
Techniques in Light and Electron Microscopy
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Topics include elementary theory of light and electron optics, theory and practice of specimen preparation, interpretation of micrographs, scientific photography, and use of specialized techniques such as tracer methods, immunocytochemistry, morphometric analysis, and image enhancement techniques. Laboratory sessions demonstrate techniques and instruments available in the department.

BIOL 540 - (3) (IR)
Sensory Neurobiology
Prerequisite: BIOL 417/817, or equivalent
In depth examination of the organization and physiology of the diverse sensory systems found in vertebrate and non-vertebrate animals. The philosophical thrust of the course will focus upon the functional rationale for receptor organization and the manner in which the central nervous system processes incoming sensory information. Visual, auditory, somatosensory, and electrosensory information processing, primarily in vertebrates, will be stressed.