Department of Drama

Overview  The mission of this department is to teach the student what it is to be "a person of the theatre." Through exposure to a broad spectrum of theatrical expression and response, the Drama Department's primary aim is to provide a solid grounding in history, theory and practice while secondarily providing opportunities to develop individual talents through concentration in a special area.

Because it is essential that students be involved in every aspect of theatre, the department provides every possible opportunity. Students work as directors, actors, designers, stage managers, technicians, and playwrights. Majors are expected to participate in the production program and to attend all productions. Undergraduate students compete successfully in auditions for roles in main-stage and laboratory theatre productions. They complete studio and course assignment work in every production area. They work on a wide range of projects, from acting in scenes for directing classes to staging work to be taken to classes in other departments, and in some cases, working as a designer on one or more of the main season productions. The B.A. program provides its students with intellectual stimulation and a healthy creative challenge.

The Department of Drama has modern facilities that accommodate all of our classroom, studio, and production activities. The complex includes two theatres: the 595 seat Culbreth, with its large, well-equipped proscenium stage, and the flexible Helms which seats 160-200 people. Large and modern scene, costume, and property shops, as well as offices, rehearsal studios, dressing rooms, and computer labs, complete the facility. An excellent Fine Arts Library is only a few steps away.

Faculty  The department boasts a nationally-known resident faculty with solid experience and an understanding of the demands of the professional theatre in its many manifestations. Guest artists often augment the resident faculty so there is an on-going professional presence which gives the student immediate experience of the ideas and practice in today's theatre. All of the faculty spend much time outside of the classroom working personally with serious theatre students.

Students  At any given time, there are approximately eighty drama majors or undeclared majors.

Requirements for Major  The prerequisite for the major is DRAM 111 and 241. The minimum passing grade for the prerequisite to the major is C. Requirements for the Major:

Core  Required for all majors, without exception: DRAM 301, 305, 306, 353, 360, 361, and 491.

Program Options:  All majors must select two of the following from two different design areas: DRAM 216, 221, 231, 416, 421, 431. In addition, all majors must select one of the following: DRAM 341, 351, 371 or one additional course from DRAM 216, 221, 231, 416, 421, 431.

Program Elective:  An additional course may be selected from the following: DRAM 208, 216, 221, 231, 243, 281, 331, 348, 349, 372, 383, 384, 402, 4l6, 421, 431, 441, 442, 444, 449, 451, 471, 472, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 504, 555, 556, 571, 572.

Practicum:  One course must be selected from the following: DRAM 313, 323, 333.

Students do not declare the Major until after the completion of DRAM 111 and 241.

Requirements for Minor  A minimum of 21 credits in the Department of Drama including DRAM 301; 305 or 306; 353; as well as one course from the following: DRAM 216, 221, 231, 341, 351, 371, 416, 421, 431.

Prerequisite for the minor is DRAM 111 and 241. The minimum passing grade for the prerequisite to the minor is C.

Drama majors and minors are expected to participate in the production program and to attend all theatre productions and departmental meetings. The minimum passing grade is C for all required courses.

Drama Activities  The activities of the Drama Department include the main season of major productions, the Laboratory Theatre Series, and additional events: professional theatre companies, guest artists, ballet troupes, etc. In addition to these activities, the department sponsors each summer the professional Heritage Repertory Theatre. All production activity is presented in the Helms and Culbreth Theatres located within the Department of Drama building on Culbreth Road.

Additional Information  For more information, contact

Lavahn Hoh
Undergraduate Advisor
Department of Drama
Drama Building
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-3326
Drama World Wide Web site
Drama faculty


Note: Course prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor.

DRAM 101 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Theatre
Investigation of theatre arts and their relation to contemporary culture, with emphasis on play analysis, types of production, and the roles of various theatre artists.

DRAM 111 - (4) (S)
Theatre Production and Practice
Introduction to materials, techniques, and tools basic to the development of environment and character in scenic, costume, and lighting design. Lab required.

DRAM 201 - (3) (S)
Oral Interpretation
For non-majors, to enhance the communication skills of the student through basic voice and speech exercises, leading to staged readings of prose, poetry, comedy, and drama.

DRAM 208 - (3) (Y)
Circus in America
An introduction to the circus, as a form of American entertainment. The course will focus on the development, growth, decline, and cultural influences.

DRAM 216 - (3) (Y)
Lighting Technology
Prerequisite: DRAM 111 or permission of instructor
Basic techniques for moving the lighting design from drafted plot through equipment, dimming and control systems, color theory to finished design. Lab required.

DRAM 221 - (3) (Y)
Scenic Technology
Prerequisite: DRAM 111 or permission of instructor
Basic techniques for moving set design from drawing to finished environment including drafting, carpentry, painting, and dressing. Lab required.

DRAM 231 - (3) (Y)
Costume Technology
Prerequisite: DRAM 111 or permission of instructor
Basic techniques for moving the costume design from drawing to finished character, including costume construction, alteration, patterning, fitting, and accessories. Lab required.

DRAM 241 - (3) (S)
Acting and Directing I
Basic theories and techniques of acting and directing explored through exercises, improvisation, and scenes from contemporary dramatic literature.

DRAM 243 - (3) (S)
Voice for the Theatre
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
To give the drama major a thorough grounding in the voice and speech demands of theatre performance and to launch the student on a life-long investigation of voice and speech production.

DRAM 281 - (3) (Y)
Cinema as Art Form
Theory and aesthetics of cinema concentrating on post 1958 films and film-making. Three hours lecture and weekly screenings.

DRAM 301 (3) (S)
Theatre Art: Creativity and Collaboration
Prerequisite: DRAM 101 or permission of instructor
Examination of the theatre artist's translation of dramatic image into theatrical form through study of the basic tools of the designer and the director in their collaborative process.

DRAM 305 - (3) (Y)
History of Theatre I
The history of theatre as an art form in relation to the development of Western culture from ancient times to the Restoration Period.

DRAM 306 - (3) (Y)
History of Theatre II
Prerequisite: DRAM 305
The history of theatre as an art form in relation to the development of Western culture from the Restoration Period to the present day.

DRAM 313 - (1) (S)
Practicum: Lighting and Sound
Prerequisite: DRAM 111 or permission of instructor
Application of lighting and sound technology in laboratory production projects. May be repeated up to four credits.

DRAM 323 - (1) (S)
Practicum: Scenery and Properties
Prerequisite: DRAM 111 or permission of instructor
Application of scenery and properties technology in laboratory production projects. May be repeated up to four credits.

DRAM 331 - (3) (Y)
History of Dress
The history of dress, from ancient to modern times, as a reflection of the individual's self expression and the relationship to one's culture. Lab required.

DRAM 333 - (1) (S)
Practicum: Costume and Makeup
Prerequisite: DRAM 111 or permission of instructor
Application of costume and makeup technology in production laboratory. May be repeated up to four credits.

DRAM 341 - (3) (S)
Acting II
Prerequisite: DRAM 241; third-year standing
Self to character: Exercises and scene work emphasizing the development of the actor's vocal and physical resources as a means of creating and communicating character, emotion, and relationships.

DRAM 343 - (1) (S)
Practicum: Acting and Directing
Prerequisite: DRAM 241
Application of acting and directing skills in production laboratory. May be repeated up to four credits.

DRAM 348 - (3) (S)
Theatre for Young Audiences
Introduction to performing for young audiences through the creation of an ensemble performance company, employing theatre games as well as the performance of children's poems and stories.

DRAM 349 - (3) (Y)
Acting Out
Prerequisite: By audition and permission of instructor
A select ensemble company rehearses and performs scenes from Shakespeare, classic and contemporary dramatic literature in public performance workshops.

DRAM 351 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisite: DRAM 241 and 301
The development of the director's analytical and rehearsal skills in translating text, actors, and space into valid and effective scenes, drawn from plays in the mode of psychological realism.

DRAM 353 - (2) (S)
Practicum: Performance Management
Prerequisites: DRAM 111, 241, or permission of instructor
Application of performance management skills applied to state management and production staffing. May be repeated up to four credits.

DRAM 360 - (3) (Y)
Modern American Drama
Representative American dramas of the twentieth century, taught in the context of theatre history.

DRAM 361 - (3) (Y)
Modern Drama
Representative dramas from the close of the nineteenth century to the present, taught in the context of theatre history.

DRAM 371 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting I
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Introduction to the art and craft of playwriting, focused around short exercises and in-class writing assignments.

DRAM 372 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting II
Prerequisite: DRAM 371
A continuation of Playwriting I, focusing on specific craft exercises and the development of an individual style.

DRAM 381 - (3) (SS)
Film Criticism
Extends the work of DRAM 281 by concentrating on the development of a critical perspective in the study of films and film-makers.

DRAM 383 - (3) (Y)
History of Film I
Analysis of the development of the silent film, 1895 to 1928; emphasis on technical and thematic links between national schools of cinema art and the contributions of individual directors. Three hours lecture plus weekly film screenings.

DRAM 384 - (3) (Y)
History of Film II
Prerequisite: DRAM 281 or 383 or permission of instructor
Analysis of the development of film art from the inception of sound to the 1950's. Three hours lecture plus weekly film screenings.

DRAM 402 - (2-3) (Y)
Theatrical Make-Up
Prerequisite: Nine credits in undergraduate acting or costume sequences
A systematic introduction to the art and science of make-up for the stage, the course begins with studies of facial anatomy and color in pigment and progresses through the use of chiaroscuro effects to achieve corrective and character make-ups. Includes the fabrication and use of simple wax and latex prostheses and introduces foamed latex and plastic materials.

DRAM 416 - (3) (Y)
Lighting Design
Prerequisites: DRAM 111 and 301, or permission of instructor
Development of the lighting design from script analysis through concept to completed production. Lab required.

DRAM 421 - (3) (Y)
Scenic Design
Prerequisites: DRAM 111 and 301, or permission of instructor
Development of the scene design as theatrical environment, from script analysis through research to completed ground plan and rendering. Lab required.

DRAM 431 - (3) (Y)
Costume Design
Prerequisite: DRAM 101 and 301, or permission of instructor
Development of costume design as a revelation of character and relationship to the special world from script analysis through research to the completed rendering. Lab required.

DRAM 441 - (3) (Y)
Acting III
Prerequisite: DRAM 341
Creating roles: scripted scenes, exercises, and ensemble work to develop a process that expands the actor's approach to characterization and interpretation within various dramatic genres.

DRAM 442 - (3) (Y)
Musical Theatre Performance
Prerequisite: DRAM 241 and permission of instructor
Integration of song into scene work and the examination of special problems posed for the actor/singer/dancer. Focus is upon a character's song presentation within the context of a musical play.

DRAM 444 - (3) (Y)
Dance for Theatre
Prerequisites: DRAM 241 or permission of instructor
Study and practice of elements of dance, with emphasis on modern technique.

DRAM 449 - (3) (Y)
Stage Combat
Prerequisite: DRAM 241, 341
Examination of the history of human violence and various forms of personal and military combat that are frequently used on stage as well as "comedic violence" such as slapstick, clowning, and commedia. Students learn to safely perform physical aggression that is appropriate and dramatically effective, following the safety guidelines and techniques recommended by the Society of American Fight Directors. Opportunity to earn SAFD Actor/Combatant Certification is an option.

DRAM 451 - (3) (Y)
Directing III
Prerequisites: DRAM 351
Continues the work of Directing II with special attention to the director's organization, scheduling, and efficient use of resources. Students direct a one-act play.

DRAM 471 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting III
Prerequisite: DRAM 371 and 372
An advanced workshop focusing on the development of longer works and the rewriting process.

DRAM 472 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting IV
Prerequisite: DRAM 371, 372, 471
A continuation of Playwriting III.

DRAM 491 - (3) (S)
Senior Seminar
Prerequisite: Fourth year standing and a major in Drama
Seminar discussions and assignments which allow the student to demonstrate knowledge of the theatre as well as artistic, aesthetic, and critical judgment.

DRAM 492 - (1-3) (S)
Special Studies in Drama
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor and advisor
An independent study project conducted under the supervision of an instructor of the student's choice. Instructor determines credit.

DRAM 493 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Performance
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Special topics in performance offered to upper level students.

DRAM 494 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Movement
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Specialized topics in movement offered to upper level students.

DRAM 495 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Voice
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Specialized topics in voice and speech offered to upper level performance students.

DRAM 496 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Directing
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
An intensive study of specific topics offered to the upper level student.

DRAM 497 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Design
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
An intensive study of specific topics in theatre design offered to the upper level student.

DRAM 498 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Design Technology
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
An intensive study of specific topics offered to the upper level student.

DRAM 499 - (1-3) (S)
Special Topics in Playwriting
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Specialized topics offered to upper level students.

DRAM 504 - (3) (O)
Early American Drama
Prerequisites: DRAM 305, 306, graduate standing, or permission of instructor
An examination of the American theatre (both the dramatic literature and significant productions) prior to O'Neill. Course focuses on the development of a uniquely American drama and the ways in which the theatre reflected the era in which it was created.

DRAM 555 - (3) (Y)
Performing Arts Management
Prerequisites: Graduate standing; 12 credits in Drama and/or business related courses; or permission of instructor
An examination of the principles and practices of managing the not-for- profit performing arts organization. Using the theatre as a model, the course focuses on the responsibilities of the top manager within the organization, and the relationship to the artistic staff and the board of trustees.

DRAM 556 - (3) (Y)
Marketing the Arts
Prerequisites: Graduate standing, 12 credits in Drama and/or business related courses, or permission of instructor
An examination of the special problems involved in marketing the not-for- profit performing arts organization and the application of marketing principles and practices in solving these problems. Special emphasis is given to marketing tools which make maximum use of very limited financial resources.

DRAM 571 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting V
Prerequisite: DRAM 371, 372, 471, 472
Intensive workshop for advanced students.

DRAM 572 - (3) (Y)
Playwriting VI
Prerequisites: DRAM 371, 372, 471, 472, 571
Continuation of DRAM 571; workshop for advanced students.

James Wilson Department of Economics

Overview  Economics is the social science that studies how individuals make choices in the face of scarcity. In a market economy these choices are made by heads of households and managers of firms. Hence, microeconomics deals with the decisions by households and firms that determine the quantities and prices of goods and services. In contrast, macroeconomics emphasizes the aggregate performance of economic institutions, as measured by unemployment, inflation, and levels of real income. Fruitful applications of this core theory of economics can then be made to the study of the public sector, international trade, urban problems, non-market exchange, the financial system, and many other areas. Economics is valuable not only for the topics it treats, but also for its rigorous methods of analysis.

Faculty  The twenty-five full-time faculty members of the economics department are recognized as good teachers and are among the elite of professional economists.

Students  Currently, there are about 300 economic majors at the University. The main sections of the introductory economics lecture courses are quite large (over 400) but are supplemented with small weekly discussion sections led by teaching assistants. Other smaller sections of the introductory courses are also offered. Most of our courses have between 30 and 50 students and, except for some lower-level courses, are taught by regular faculty. Faculty are willing to supervise independent studies for good students on topics that are close to their own interests and expertise.

Since the study of economics enhances one's skills in problem solving, economics majors have, upon graduation, successfully followed various educational and employment paths. About one-fourth of U.Va.'s economics majors choose to attend law school, and almost as large a fraction have enrolled in graduate business schools, sometimes after working for several years. Each year, a few majors continue their study of economics at the graduate level, and several attend medical school. Economics majors who have chosen to work immediately upon graduation have found employment in financial institutions, manufacturing corporations, consulting firms, and state and federal government agencies.

Requirements for Major  Students intending to elect economics as their major subject should complete ECON 201, 202 by the end of their second year. In order to declare a major in economics, a student must be in good standing in the College, must have completed at least one course in economics, and must have attained at least a 2.0 cumulative average in all economics courses at the University. To graduate with a major in economics, a student must complete the five required core courses named below, plus fifteen credits of additional economics courses, of which at least twelve credits must be earned in courses numbered 300 or greater. The five required courses are ECON 201, ECON 202, ECON 301 or 311, ECON 302, and an approved statistics course. The approved statistics courses are ECON 371, ECON 381, MATH 312, and APMA 312. These required courses must be completed prior to the student's fourth year, except by permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies, which will be granted only in extraordinary circumstances. In addition, each major is required to complete a three-credit calculus course by the end of the first semester after the major is declared. The calculus may not be taken on a credit/no credit basis. Majors must maintain a 2.0 cumulative average in economics.

Students who wish to declare a major in economics should obtain the Undergraduate Studies brochure from Rouss Hall 114 and follow the instructions therein.

Requirements for Distinguished Majors Program  The department has a Distinguished Majors Program for majors who wish to be considered for a degree with high or highest distinction in economics. Students in this program must enroll in the course "Topics in Advanced Microeconomics," ECON 411, in the fall of their fourth year, take ECON 372 either before entering the program or the fall of their fourth year, and write a DMP thesis under faculty supervision, enrolling in ECON 496. The thesis is due by April 15. Third-year economics majors with a cumulative grade point average of 3.6 or better are eligible to apply; application forms and additional information can be obtained in Rouss Hall 114.

Requirements for Minor  Students who wish to minor in economics must satisfactorily complete ECON 201, ECON 202, ECON 301, or ECON 311, an approved statistics course, and nine credits of additional economics courses with a cumulative grade point average of 2.0 in these courses. The approved statistics courses are ECON 371, ECON 381, MATH 312, and APMA 312. At least six of the nine credits of optional courses must be in courses numbered 300 or greater. Additional economics courses may be taken but only the best three grades will be used in determining a minor's economics GPA.

Students who wish to declare a minor in economics should obtain the Undergraduate Studies brochure from Rouss Hall 114 and follow the instructions therein.

Prospective Graduate Students  Any student seriously considering graduate work in economics should take ECON 372. Several mathematics courses, in addition to the required semester of calculus, will be extremely useful for gaining admission to and financial aid from a graduate school and for completing the graduate program on schedule. An additional course in calculus such as MATH 132 or 132A and a course in linear algebra such as MATH 351 are essential. Beyond these basic courses, the more useful for economics are MATH 205, 221, 225, 300, 311 and 312.

Additional Information  For more information, contact the

Director of Undergraduate Studies
Department of Economics
114 Rouss Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-3177
Economics World Wide Web site
Economics faculty


ECON 201, 202 - (3) (S)
Principles of Economics: Microeconomics, Macroeconomics
ECON 201: Microeconomics: The study of demand and supply, consumer behavior, the theory of business enterprise, the operation of competitive and monopolistic markets, and the forces determining income distribution.

ECON 202: Macroeconomics: The study of the determinants of aggregate economic activity, the effects of monetary and fiscal policy upon national income, and economic policy toward unemployment and inflation.

A full introduction to economic principles warrants completion of both ECON 201 AND 202. Students planning to take both semesters of economic principles are advised to take ECON 201 first, though this is not required. The department recommends ECON 201 to students intending to take only one semester of principles.

ECON 205 - (3) (Y)
European Economic History
European economic history from the neolithic age to the twentieth century, with emphasis on concepts used by historians and economists to explain past economic changes (for example, feudalism, capitalism, imperialism).

ECON 206 - (3) (Y)
American Economic History
A survey of American economic history from colonial origins to the present. Cross-listed with HIUS 206.

ECON 301 - (4) (S)
Intermediate Microeconomics
Prerequisite: ECON 201 and one semester of calculus
The theory of prices and markets; an analysis of the forces that determine the allocation of economic resources in a market economy.

ECON 302 - (3) (S)
Intermediate Macroeconomics
Prerequisite: ECON 202 and 301 or 311, or permission of instructor
Macroeconomic theory and policy; analysis of the forces that determine employment, income and the price level.

ECON 303 - (3) (S)
Money and Banking
Prerequisite: ECON 202
Monetary standards. The role of money in an economic system. Operation and evolution of central banking systems.

ECON 304 - (3) (IR)
The Economics of Education
Prerequisite: ECON 201
Analysis of the demand for and supply of education in the United States; governmental policies regarding education; and proposed reforms.

ECON 305 - (3) (Y)
The Economics of Welfare Reform
Prerequisite: ECON 201
Critical evaluation of the arguments used to justify welfare programs such as AFDC, Medicaid, food stamps, and public housing. Theoretical analyses and empirical evidence on the intended and unintended effects of these programs. Reforms of the welfare system that might lead to better achieving its goals.

ECON 306 - (3) (Y)
Law and Economics
Prerequisite: ECON 201
Application of microeconomic theory to the analysis of legal rules and institutions: the effect of economic forces on the development of law, and the effect of laws on the allocation of resources.

ECON 308 - (3) (IR)
The Colonial Economy
Prerequisites: ECON 201,202
This course will examine the American Economy from 1600 until 1820. Topics will include demography, slavery, growth, development, and international trade.

ECON 311 - (4) (Y)
Mathematical Microeconomics
Prerequisites: ECON 201 and two semesters of calculus
This course covers the same topics as ECON 301 using differential calculus through constrained maximization of functions of several variables. Credit will not be given for both ECON 301 and ECON 311.

ECON 333 - (3) (IR)
Public Choice
Prerequisite: ECON 201
The study of politics using economic analysis: the theory of voting rules, of regulation, taxation, and interest groups; the growth of government; and the design of constitutions.

ECON 351 - (3) (Y)
Economic Development
Prerequisites: ECON 201 and 202
The peculiar problems of economic growth in underdeveloped countries of the world, with emphasis on public policies, both for the countries themselves and for the more developed countries and international agencies.

ECON 352 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Economics
Prerequisites: ECON 201 and 202
Analysis of nature, performance and problems of market and non-market economies with emphasis on post World War II experience.

ECON 353 - (3) (IR)
Soviet-Type Economics in Transition
Prerequisite: ECON 201 and 202
Analysis of the nature, performance and problems of the nonmarket economies of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and their transition to market economies.

ECON 371 - (4) (S)
Introduction to Statistical Analysis
Prerequisites: MATH 121 or equivalent
Introduction to the probability and statistical theory underlying the estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses in economics. Simple and multiple regression analysis. Students will use computers to analyze economic data. Three hours of lecture; one hour of discussion.

ECON 372 - (3) (S)
Introductory Econometrics
Prerequisites: ECON 201, 202 and 371 (or equivalent) and one semester of calculus
The application of statistical methods to the testing and estimation of economic relationships. Special emphasis on applied econometric studies and the problems that arise when analyzing time series and cross section data by means of stochastic linear models.

ECON 381 - (4) (IR)
Mathematical Statistics for Economists
Prerequisites: ECON 201, 202, and two semesters of calculus
This course covers the same topics as ECON 371 using differential and integral calculus. Credit will not be given for both ECON 371 and ECON 381.

ECON 411 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Advanced Microeconomics
Prerequisites: ECON 301 or 311; a course in probability or statistics; and permission of instructor
Applications of and further topics in microeconomic theory. Required for Distinguished Majors but open to any advanced student who has been successful in economics. Specific topics vary from year to year. Examples are applications of decision-making under uncertainty to insurance, portfolio choice, and saving by households; applications of game theory to bargaining, contracts, and oligopoly; the economics of information; welfare economics and applications to public policy.

ECON 412 - (3) (Y)
Evolution of Economic Thought
Prerequisites: ECON 201, 202
The history of the development of economics as a systematic body of thought with special reference to the period 1750-1900. Readings from the leading economists of this period.

ECON 413 - (3) (IR)
Topics in the History of Economic Thought
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, and 302, or permission of instructor
Detailed study of the development of modern economic thought. Subject matter may change from year to year but will normally relate to the post-1870 period: i.e., the marginalist revolution or the Keynesian revolution.

ECON 415 - (3) (Y)
Economics of Labor
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311, and 371 or its equivalent, or permission of instructor
Economic analysis of employment and wages, including the economics of education, unemployment, labor unions, discrimination and income inequality.

ECON 416 - (3) (Y)
Economics of Health
Prerequisite: ECON 301
Microeconomic theory is used to examine the demand for health services and medical care, the market for medical insurance, the behavior of physicians and hospitals, issues pertaining to malpractice, and government policy.

ECON 418 - (3) (IR)
Economics of Regulation
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311
Analysis of the methods and institutions of industry regulation. Examines include electricity, natural gas, portation and television. Regulation that involves many industries, such as product safety, occupational safety, and environmental protection, is considered.

ECON 419 - (3) (S)
Industrial Organization
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311
Industrial organization is the study of market structure, firm strategy and market performance. An economic analysis of strategic interactions among firms and of business practices like mergers and acquisitions, price discrimination, advertising, product selection, innovation, vertical restraints, cartels, and exclusionary conduct.

ECON 420 - (3) (Y)
Antitrust Policy
Prerequisite: ECON 201
Government regulation and control of business, through public policies designed to promote workable competition.

ECON 421 - (3) (Y)
International Trade: Theory and Policy
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311
The nature and determinants of international trade and factor movements. The effects of international trade on prices of goods and factors. The consequences of tariffs, quotas, customs unions and other trade policies and agreements, national or international. International trade and the balance of payments.

ECON 422 - (3) (Y)
International Monetary Relations: Theory and Policy
Prerequisite: ECON 302
Fixed and floating exchange rate systems. Determinants of a nation's balance of international payments. Macroeconomic interdependence of nations under various exchange-rate regimes and its implications for domestic stabilization policies. The international coordination of monetary and stabilization policies.

ECON 431 - (3) (S)
Economics of the Public Sector
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311
Justifications for government activities; principles of policy analysis; analyses of major expenditure programs and taxes; economic theories of political activities.

ECON 432 - (3) (Y)
Economics of Urban Areas
Prerequisites: ECON 301 or 311, and ECON 371 or equivalent
Spatial arrangement of economic activities. Topics: forces of agglomeration and deglomeration; agricultural and residential land use; location of business firms; determination of land rents; transportation economics, congestion, and cost-benefit analysis applied to investments in transportation infrastructure; migration between cities; optimal city size; the economics of housing; and local public finance.

ECON 434 - (3) (Y)
The Theory of Financial Markets
Prerequisites: ECON 301 or 311, and ECON 371 or its equivalent
Theory and operation of financial markets. Role of financial assets and institutions in the economic decisions of individuals, firms and governments.

ECON 440 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Economic History
Prerequisites: ECON 302, or ECON 201 and 202 and permission of instructor
The historical development of selected advanced economies (for example,the United States, England, Japan, continental Europe). Comparative studies of historical growth. The nations covered will vary with instructor.

ECON 442 - (3) (IR)
Macroeconomic Policy
Prerequisite: ECON 302
An integrated analysis of public policies (including monetary, fiscal, debt-management, foreign exchange, and incomes policies) designed to cope with fluctuations in national income, employment, and the price level and to influence the rate of economic growth. Attention is devoted to policies adopted during specific historical episodes as well as to the theory of macroeconomic policy.

ECON 443 - (3) (IR)
Energy and the Environment
Prerequisite: ECON 301 or 311
Application of economic analysis to problems in energy use and environmental quality. Topics covered include environmental consequences of energy decisions and policy options for dealing with the scarcity of natural resources.

ECON 471 - (3) (Y)
Economic Forecasting
Prerequisite: ECON 371 or 381 or MATH 312 or APMA 312
The theory and practice of forecasting economic variables using models for linear stochastic processes: specifying, estimating, and diagnosing models of economic time series.

ECON 482 - (3) (Y)
Experimental Economics
Prerequisites: ECON 301 or 311; a course in statistics; or permission of instructor
The use of laboratory methods to study economic behavior. Experimental design, laboratory technique, financial incentives, and analysis of data. Emphasis on applications: bargaining, auctions, market price competition, market failures, voting, contributions to public goods, lottery choice decisions, and the design of electronic markets for financial assets.

ECON 489 - (3) (Y)
Majors Seminar
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Reading, discussion and research in selected topics in economics. Since topics vary from instructor to instructor, this course may be taken for credit more than once.

ECON 495, 496 - (1-3) (S)
Supervised Research
Prerequisite: GPA of 3.3 in U.Va. economics courses
Research under the direction of a regular faculty member.

ECON 507 - (3) (IR)
British Economic History Since 1850
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Structure, performance and policy in the British economy since 1850, focusing on the causes and consequences of Britain's relative economic decline.

ECON 509 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Mathematical Economics I
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus and permission of instructor
Topics in univariate and multivariate calculus and linear algebra. Applications to the theories of economic statics.

ECON 510 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Mathematical Economics II
Prerequisite: ECON 509 or permission of instructor
Topics in the theories of difference and differential equations and dynamic optimization. Applications to the theories of economic dynamics.