In the following descriptions, the expression "Fourth-year Commerce students" is defined as those students who have credit for Commerce 201, 202, 325, 326, 341, 351, 361, 371, 372, and Economics 201-202. A student must have fourth-year commerce status before being permitted to enroll in the required courses of a concentration. (See exceptions in accounting and management information systems concentrations on Course Planning Sheet available in the Office of the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs.) In addition, a student must complete the speech and humanities requirements prior to the fourth-year.

| Accounting | Finance | International Business | Management | Management Information Systems |
| Marketing | Taxation and Law | Commerce Interdisciplinary Courses | Independent Study |


COMM 201 - (3) (S,SS)
Introductory Accounting I

Financial accounting for all University students to introduce them to the language of business. Initially, the focus is on the accounting system which measures, classifies, and reports economic data. Various decision makers are furnished these data in the form of financial statements. The statements are studied in depth to gain an understanding of their underlying assumptions, limitations, and the relationships between financial elements. How the enterprise raises capital and invests it are explored, and accounting for key operating areas such as inventory, accounts receivable, and investments are studied in depth. Finally, parent-subsidiary relationships and consolidated financial statements are studied.

COMM 202 - (3) (S,SS)
Introductory Accounting II

Prerequisite: COMM 201
Continuation of COMM 201. Examines accounting's directing and problem-solving contributions to management. Evaluation of performance, planning, cost behavior, ethics, and special decisions are emphasized.

COMM 311 - (3) (Y,SS)
Intermediate Accounting I

Prerequisite: COMM 202 or written permission of instructor
An intensive study of the generally accepted accounting principles for asset valuation, income measurement, and financial statement presentation for business organizations, and of the processes through which these principles evolve.

COMM 312 - (3) (Y,SS)
Intermediate Accounting II

Prerequisite: COMM 311
Continuation of COMM 311, with emphasis on accounting for the equities of a firm's investors and creditors. Important areas in financial accounting including accounting for leases, pensions, and income taxes.

COMM 314 - (3) (S)
Cost Accounting and Cost Management

Prerequisite: COMM 202
The course emphasizes the role of cost accounting in assisting managers to select and reach their objectives. Although adequate attention is given to data accumulation and reporting, the focus of the course is on cost analysis. Topics covered include responsibility accounting and reporting, flexible budgets, ethics, standard costs, strategic cost analysis, and the role of accounting in total quality.

COMM 521 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Auditing

Prerequisites: COMM 311, 312, and 320
Auditing includes the planning, processes (gathering evidence), and judgments required to render an opinion on an entity's financial statements. The course deals with evidence theory, risk identification, and professional judgment. Audit methodology is examined through study of auditing standards and the concepts and procedures developed to implement the standards. Other topics include professional ethics, auditors' liability, internal control assessment, audit program development, working papers, types of audit tests, and audit reports.

COMM 522 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Auditing

Prerequisites: COMM 421 and COMM 320
This course extends students' exposure to current developments in the field of auditing. Topics include current issues facing the profession, statistical and nonstatistical applications in auditing, the impact of computer processing on the audit process, including the use of computer-assisted audit techniques, and other types of accountant's reports. Students use the concepts learned in this course and from the introductory course to develop an audit plan for a major corporation.

COMM 530 - (3) (IR)
Selected Topics in Commerce

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or graduate student and permission of instructor
Seminar on current issues in commerce.

COMM 531 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Financial Accounting

Prerequisites: COMM 311, 312
This course covers accounting and financial reporting for business combinations (including consolidated financial statements), international accounting issues, foreign currency translation, reorganizations and liquidations, accounting requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, and accounting for partnerships. Emphasis is balanced between conceptual understanding of major issues and technical accounting requirements.

COMM 533 - (1) (Y)
Accounting for Nonbusiness Organizations

Prerequisite: COMM 311, 312
Financial accounting for governmental and not-for-profit organizations. The theory and techniques of accounting and reporting for various funds and groups of accounts is studied.


COMM 273 - (3) (S)
Personal Investment Analysis

Prerequisite: Non-commerce students
A survey of contemporary investment alternatives, tax, and timing considerations required in the general design and revision of an investment portfolio throughout the individual's income life-cycle. Includes guidelines for investment selections, revisions, and management in the areas of stocks, bonds, and mutual funds as well as more speculative alternatives such as options and commodities.

COMM 371 - (3) (Y)
Managerial Finance I

Prerequisites: COMM 201 and COMM 202
The development of managerial theory and decision methodology is emphasized in evaluating the financial function of the firm. Working capital management as well as the concepts and techniques employed in the procurement of resources from financial markets and their allocation to productive investments are analyzed.

COMM 372 - (3) (Y)
Managerial Finance II

Prerequisite: COMM 371
The case method of instruction is utilized to examine financial concepts and problems in contemporary situations. Develops analytical skills and judgmental abilities in finding solutions to financial and managerial problems of business firms, in both domestic and international settings.

COMM 379 - (3) (IR)
Venture Capital and the Emerging Firm

Prerequisite: COMM 371
The course examines the financial concerns of small firms (under $50 million) through empirical field research. Under the supervision of the instructor the students, working in teams, collect and analyze case descriptions of actual business problems and decisions. In addition, the general investment and financial problems of the small firm in its legal and economic environment are studied and analyzed through both discussion and case studies.

COMM 470 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Finance

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 371 and 372 and permission of instructor
A seminar on issues drawing current attention in the finance literature and affecting non-financial business firms, financial institutions or investment management.

COMM 472 - (3) (Y)
International Financial Analysis

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 371, 372, 384, and permission of instructor
A case predominant examination of the financial tools, techniques, and strategies required for understanding the financial management of the firm in the global business environment. Topics include: the multi-national enterprise, forecasting exchange rates, accounting and economic exposure, short and long-term international financial markets, investment analysis, multi-national capital budgeting, and political risk.

COMM 473 - (3) (Y)
Investments: Equity Securities and Markets

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 371 and 372 and permission of instructor
This course is intended to provide students with an understanding of contemporary cash and derivative equity securities and markets. Both investment theory and its practical applications are considered. The primary perspective for most discussions is that of an institutional investor although applications to personal finance are included. Both U.S. and international equity markets are discussed. Topics include: asset allocation, portfolio theory, market efficiency, models of asset pricing, program trading, and equity options and equity-index futures.

COMM 474 - (3) (SS)
International Finance and Banking

Prerequisite: COMM 371
This course is offered in London, England, during the summer session. This course explores the international financial environment in which economic and financial policies and business decisions are made. International monetary relations are covered with an emphasis on the balance of payment measure, forward exchange markets, international capital markets and correspondent networks.

COMM 475 - (3) (Y)
Fixed-Income Securities and Markets

Prerequisites: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 372 and permission of instructor
This course is intended to provide students with an in-depth understanding of fixed-income securities and markets in order to assist them in making informed investment and risk management decisions. Both U.S. and international fixed-income securities markets are examined. Topics include: duration, convexity, realized compound yield, mortgage-backed securities, interest rate swaps, bond immunization, and interest rate futures and options.

COMM 476 - (3) (IR)
Financial Analysis

Prerequisites: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 273 or 473 and permission of instructor
Fundamental security analysis and investment theory is stressed. Alternative strategies related to portfolio objectives and constraints are covered. Contemporary theory and capital market concepts as they impact on portfolio management are studied.

COMM 477 - (3) (IR)
Financial Management of Financial Service Firms

Prerequisites: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 372 and permission of instructor
The course introduces the student to the financial theory and management of the financial service industries. A contemporary orientation, supplemented by frequent practitioner speakers, combined with recent theoretical constructs provide insight into the place of financial service institutions in the international economy. The pedagogy includes lectures, cases and a computer simulation.

COMM 478 - (3) (Y)
Financial Forecasting and Strategy

Prerequisites: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 372 and permission of instructor
The course aims at integrating the problems and opportunities found in the general economy with the financial strategies and policies of actual individual firms for the coming two years. An applied macro-economic approach encompassing a forecast of the gross domestic product together with a similar forecast of individual industries is brought to bear on the financial planning of the firm. The students working in groups apply quantitative and financial techniques acquired in prerequisite courses to analyze and forecast the problems and economic growth in the American economy. Individual research, team work practices and applied quantitative methods are stressed.

COMM 479 - (3) (IR)
Real Estate Investment and Finance

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 371 and permission of instructor
The basic objective of this course lies in the development of an analytical framework by which individuals and institutions can make real estate investment and financing decisions. The primary emphases are theory, concept building, financial modeling, and practical real estate applications. The case method is used throughout to illustrate implementation of the analytical framework.

International Business

COMM 384 - (3) (Y)
Foundations of International Business

An introduction to the field of international business through an examination of the practice and theory of international business focusing on managerial, operational, strategic, ethical, and environmental factors. The student develops an understanding of global trade theory and the various forms of global and regional economic integration; examines the major functions of the management of an international business; becomes familiar with the instruments, procedures, and processes of international business; develops an understanding of the modes of international market entry and of foreign direct investment; develops an appreciation of the importance of culture on international business; and evaluates ethical issues in international business.

See the other academic areas for course descriptions of the other international courses available for a concentration in international business. These courses include:
COMM 451-International Marketing
COMM 469-International Management
COMM 472-International Financial Analysis or;
COMM 474-International Finance & Banking


COMM 361 - (3) (Y)
Organizational Behavior

Prerequisite: Third-year Commerce student or permission of instructor
Focuses on the interpersonal skills that promote individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. Introduces basic concepts, theories, and practices helpful in understanding contemporary organizational behavior. The class activities are varied and interactive, including experiential exercises, discussions, case analyses, and collaborative learning.

COMM 460 - (3) (IR)
Selected Topics in Management

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or permission of instructor
Seminar on current issues in the field of management.

COMM 462 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Organizational Behavior

Prerequisite: COMM 361, fourth year status
A series of courses that each focus on a specific topic in organizational behavior. Course titles include: Group Dynamics, Organizational Structure and Theory, Classic Insights in Behavior and Organization, Negotiation and Dispute Resolution, and Leadership.

COMM 463 - (3) (Y)
Human Resource Management

Prerequisites: COMM 361 and fourth-year Commerce student or permission of instructor
Examines the fundamentals of human resource management. Topics covered include job analysis, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, compensation, and employee and labor relations. Explores the implications of increasing legal pressures (e.g., equal employment opportunity laws, sexual harassment liability) and the complexities of managing a global workforce.

COMM 467 - (3) (Y)
Organizational Change and Development

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or permission of instructor
This course develops an in-depth understanding of key concepts and theories in organizational behavior and organizational development. The focus is on the student's development of the diagnostic skills necessary for the effective management of organizational change.

COMM 468 - (3) (Y)

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or permission of instructor
This course deals with the formation of a new enterprise and certain special aspects of managing a small enterprise. It considers the characteristics of the successful entrepreneur, methods of identifying new opportunity areas, starting a new enterprise, tax and legal aspects of new business, and financing for initial capital and for growth.

COMM 469 - (3) (Y)
International Management

Prerequisite: COMM 361, 384 or permission of instructor
Explores the strong influence of culture on business practices, and develops skills for developing and implementing strategies in multicultural environments. Topics include culture and its implications, interpersonal effectiveness, organizational systems, political and economic environments, and corporate social responsibility.

COMM 485 - (3) (S)
Strategic Management

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student
This course builds upon and integrates the total work of the program; it also introduces new developments in planning. Selected case studies and a management simulation game are used to develop the student's decision-making abilities in the role of the General Manager.

Management Information Systems

COMM 320 - (3) (S)
Business Information Systems

Prerequisites: COMM 201, CS 120 or higher
Provides an overview of information systems concepts and terminology with an emphasis upon the analysis of business problems and the application of information technology in an attempt to solve those problems. Structured analysis and design techniques are studied via a written case and the use of computer-aided software engineering technology. Transaction processing is learned through the use of the COBOL programming language.

COMM 325 - (3) (Y)
Quantitative Analysis

Prerequisites: MATH 112 and CS 120 or higher
This course is designed to develop concepts, techniques, and tools used by business analysts and managers with applications across all functional areas of business (accounting, marketing, finance, operations, personnel, and information systems). Data analysis statistical models, and use of information technology in support of decision making are emphasized.

COMM 326 - (3) (Y)
Production/Operation Management

Prerequisite: COMM 325
This course focuses on the nature and context of operations management in organizations. Emphasis is on developing skills in the analysis of operations management decisions, understanding the relationship of operations decisions to decisions in other functional areas, understanding the fundamentals of operations planning and control in organizations, and using information technology in analyzing operations management decisions and in making business presentations.

COMM 425 - (3) (S)
Database Management Systems

Prerequisite: COMM 320 or permission of instructor
Focuses on managing the information resources of an organization. This course teaches students how to analyze the database environment of business enterprises, develop data modeling techniques, design databases to rigorous standards of independence and integrity, explore relational and network data models, and build databases and application programs using contemporary database management software at the micro, mini, and mainframe computer levels.

COMM 427 - (3) (Y)
Systems Analysis and Design

Prerequisites: COMM 320 or permission of instructor
Provides a comprehensive treatment of the concepts, methodologies, procedures, and tools necessary for building computer-based information systems. The primary objective is to develop skills in project management, information gathering, communication, structured analysis, design, and implementation. To this end, computer-aided software engineering technology is used extensively to automate many facets of the systems development life cycle.

COMM 428 - (3) (Y)
Information Systems Management

Prerequisites: COMM 427 or permission of instructor
Focuses on contemporary issues and solutions inherent to the successful integration of information technology within an organization. This course is a capstone course and will seek to integrate material from all previous courses by means of projects and case discussions.

COMM 429 - (3) (IR)
Selected Topics in Management Information Systems

Prerequisites: COMM 320 or permission of instructor
This course presents the opportunity to examine new and emerging MIS concepts and techniques or to study a particular MIS area in greater depth than is covered in other courses.

COMM 430 - (3) (IR)
Selected Topics in Operations Management

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or permission of instructor
This course examines the problems encountered in managing both manufacturing and service operations. One or more plant visits are scheduled. Topics covered include production forecasting, aggregate scheduling, materials planning and control, and facility selection.


COMM 350 - (3) (S)
Marketing Elective

Prerequisites: ECON 201, 202

COMM 351 - (3) (S,SS)
Fundamentals of Marketing

Prerequisite: ECON 201, 202
The study of the business and behavioral activities involved in marketing goods and services in both profit and not-for-profit enterprises. Examination and analysis of marketing activities from the planning level to the consumption level. Emphasis on concepts that facilitate understanding of client behavior, marketing practices, and environmental factors.

COMM 352 - (3) (IR)
Marketing Management

Prerequisite: COMM 351
Identifying issues and defining problems, with emphasis on planning and decision making processes in marketing. Business applications are utilized to demonstrate organizational decision making by marketing management.

COMM 353 - (3) (Y)
Marketing Techniques

Prerequisite: COMM 351
Marketing Techniques is the first in a series of three integrated courses designed to develop marketing decision-making skills. Initially focuses on developing skills for formulating and planning marketing strategies to take advantage of marketing opportunities. The course then turns to the art of managerial decision-making, and the development and use of marketing information to reduce uncertainty involved in the decision making process. Discussion, cases and projects are used to emphasize the concepts.

COMM 450 - (3) (IR)
Product Strategy and Management

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 351 and permission of instructor
An examination of the key concepts and issues pertaining to the product strategy element of the marketing mix. New product development, product management, and product portfolio assessment are among topics to be examined.

COMM 451 - (3) (Y)
International Marketing

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 351, 384 and permission of instructor
Examination of marketing managerial processes in international context. Analysis of the impact of international economics, culture and nationalistic governmental policies on trade patterns and marketing decision-making in global firms.

COMM 452 - (3) (IR)
Services Marketing

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 351 and permission of instructor
An examination of the distinctive approaches to marketing strategy, both in development and execution, employed by service industries. Concepts will be illustrated using cases and analysis of specific industries.

COMM 453 - (3) (IR)
Marketing Research

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce students
Examination of the methods and techniques used in conducting research as well as the uses of such information in managerial decision making. Students use real world examples and applications to develop a research proposal.

COMM 454 - (3) (Y)
Marketing Analysis

Prerequisite: COMM 353
Marketing Analysis, the second course in the required three course sequence, is designed to analyze the characteristics and buying decision process of both the consumer and industrial markets. Project or field studies are used to emphasize the concepts.

COMM 455 - (3) (Y)
Marketing Strategies and Tactics

Prerequisite: COMM 454
This third course in the required three course sequence applies strategies and tactics to solving marketing problems with emphasis on implementation strategies. The creation of new and innovative strategies and tactics is encouraged. Students use real world examples and applications to emphasize the concepts.

COMM 456 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Marketing

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 351 and permission of instructor
A seminar on issues drawing current attention in the marketing literature and the business community which affect marketing management.

COMM 457 - (3) (IR)
Promotional Aspects of Marketing

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 351 and permission of instructor
The planning, organizing, implementing and controlling of persuasive communication, including analysis of such topics as the communication process, advertising, publicity and public relations. Examination of the agency relationship and the use of research in advertising decisions.

COMM 458 - (3) (IR)
Marketing and Consumer Behavior

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 351 and permission of instructor
An examination of the acts of individuals or groups directly involved in obtaining and using goods and services. Consumer decision processes are emphasized including those that precede, influence, accompany and follow the purchase and/or usage of a product. External and internal influences on consumer decision making are examined.

COMM 459 - (3) (IR)
Sales Management

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student or COMM 351 and permission of instructor
An examination of the concept describing the functions of the position of the sales manager in contemporary interorganizational systems. Sales organization, deployment, action, training, legal and ethical considerations, compensation, evaluating and motivating a sales force will be studied.

Taxation and Law

COMM 341 - (3) (S,SS)
Commercial Law I

Basic legal principles applicable to ordinary commercial transactions, with special emphasis on contracts, agencies, and partnerships. May be taken prior to third year.

COMM 342 - (3) (S,SS)
Commercial Law II

Prerequisite: COMM 341
The functioning and growth of law as an institution in relation to business, with particular emphasis on corporations, property, and the Uniform Commercial Code.

COMM 444 - (3) (Y)
Tax Factors in Business Decisions

Prerequisite: Non-accounting concentrator
A course for non-accounting concentrators who want to learn enough about the federal tax system to recognize the tax problems and planning opportunities inherent in common business and financial transactions.

COMM 445 - (3) (Y)
Federal Taxation I

Prerequisite: COMM 202 or permission of instructor
An analysis of the federal income tax law and its application to individuals. A study is made of problems covering personal and business tax situations. A comprehensive case is assigned for which the student prepares illustrative tax returns.

COMM 446 - (3) (Y)
Federal Taxation II

Prerequisite: COMM 445 or permission of instructor
An analysis of the federal income tax law and its application to corporations, shareholders, partnerships, partners, and estate and gift transactions. From this, basic concepts and tax attributes relating to the alternative forms of operating a business are considered. The course is also designed to provide the student with the basic skills required to do tax research.

Commerce Interdisciplinary Courses

A 380/480 series of courses that cut across area boundaries.

COMM 380 - (3) (Y)
Business, Government, and Society

Prerequisites: ECON 201, 202
A review of some of the ways in which business and government, particularly at the federal level, are related to each other and to the larger society of which they are a part.

COMM 381 - (3) (IR)
Business Ethics

An examination of major moral issues in contemporary business through the understanding and application of foundational concepts from philosophical ethics. Emphasis is on directed discussion of case studies and readings from business and non-business literature.

COMM 382 - (3) (Y)
History of International Business

An examination of international business history focusing on the individual business firm.

COMM 383 - (0) (Y)
Career Management

Prerequisite: Third-year Commerce student
Provides a systematic approach to making career-related decisions, setting goals and developing action plans to achieve goals.

COMM 485 - (3) (S)
Strategic Management

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student
See course description under Management area.

Independent Study

COMM 499 - (1) (S)
Independent Study in Commerce

Prerequisite: Fourth-year Commerce student
The student is expected to conduct independent study under the supervision of a Commerce professor willing to offer such supervision. A project directly related to business must be submitted to and approved by the supervising professor prior to the Commerce add date. Students may take COMM 499 only once and for only one credit.