University of Virginia

Undergraduate Record 1995-1996

Chapter 4:
Tuition, Fees, Housing, and Dining

Tuition and Fees

University tuition and fees are listed below. They consist of the tuition and required fees, and a student activities fee. The student activities fee subsidizes certain student activities approved by the Student Council such as publications, club sports, and service organizations. In addition, students enrolled in Architecture, College of Arts and Sciences, Commerce, Education, Engineering, and Nursing are required to pay special school fees. These special fees are listed below by school. Tuition charges are based on the student's residency classification as a Virginia student or as an out-of-state student. University tuition and fees are subject to change.

Updated policies and procedures may be viewed on the University's Grounds-Wide Information System and the World Wide Web.

Tuition, Required Fees, and Activities Fee

Academic Year (2 Semesters)
Virginia Students
Tuition and required fees$4,586
Activities Fee28
Out-of-State Students
Tuition and required fees$13,978
Activities Fee28
School Fees Academic Year (2 Semesters)
Students enrolled in the schools listed below will be required to pay a fee in addition to the required tuition, required fees and activities fee listed above.
College of Arts and Sciences4
Engineering and Applied Science10

Waiver of Tuition and/or Fees The following qualified individuals may request a waiver of a portion or all of the tuition and fee costs associated with attendance at the University of Virginia. This waiver of charges must be requested each semester from the Cashiering Section of the Bursar's Office. Individuals obtaining a waiver of fees relinquish their entitlement to use the facility/activity which the fees support, and their student identification card will be deactivated accordingly.

Employee Waiver Program   University of Virginia full-time salaried faculty (9 or 12 month), ROTC faculty, full-time staff and health care professionals, who have been employed for one year or more, may request the waiver of tuition and fees charges for enrollment in one course per semester. This waiver must be requested prior to the end of the registration period for that semester.

This waiver policy (760.800) is not applicable to non-credit or audited courses, non-topical research credits, books or study material costs.

The course for which the charges waiver is obtained must be completed with a passing grade or better. Otherwise, the University must be reimbursed for the waived charges within 30 days of the issuance of grades.

Faculty Spouse   The spouse of a full-time University faculty member may elect to waive either or both of the following components of the required fees: (1) athletics (2) student health.

Registration and Payment of Fees

Fall and Spring Semester Registration are completed by using the ISIS Telephone System each semester. Instructions for registering are available in the Course Offering Directory. Upon completion of the registration process, an individual is classified as a registered student and is therefore liable for the assessment and payment of the appropriate tuition and fee charges for that semester. Not attending classes does not alter the registration status or the assessment of tuition and fee charges. Once registered for a semester, a student may terminate registration only through official withdrawal from the University.

Payment and Late Payment The final date for payment of student account bills for University charges is printed on the bill mailed to the student. The payment due date for the fall semester is August 16, and for the spring semester it is usually in the first week of January. However, failure to receive a bill does NOT waive the requirement for payments when due. Any student who fails to make payment of the amount due by the specified payment due date will be assessed a late payment fee as follows:

Preregistration billing: $50
Postregistration billing: $10 for TAs, RAs, and Veterans

Payment of tuition and fees by a check that is returned from a bank as non-negotiable will cause the appropriate late payment fee to be assessed if the repayment is not received by the published payment deadlines, and a $20 service charge will be assessed.

Postdated checks should not be submitted as the check date will not be scrutinized and the check will be immediately processed for payment regardless of the date of the check.

Students are billed for late fees after registration.

The University does not accept credit card payments for tuition, fees, or University housing and dining charges.

Installment Payment Plan

In conjunction with a private vendor, the University has developed an installment payment plan, which is in place beginning with the fall semester, 1995. For an annual fee of $50, University tuition, fees, housing, and dining charges may be paid in ten monthly installments. Details of the plan are included with the tuition bills which are mailed in July.

Withdrawal from the University

Tuition and Fees In the event a student withdraws from the University, tuition and fees will be charged on a percentage basis based on the school week within which the withdrawal occurs. A school week is defined as the period beginning on Monday and ending on the succeeding Sunday with the first school week of a semester being defined as the week within which the general University registration occurs. The effective date of withdrawal is determined by the dean of the school in which the student is enrolled and is recorded on the official withdrawal form which the student must complete as part of the withdrawal process. The schedule for allocation of tuition and fees between amounts charged and amounts credited is listed below. Please note that this schedule is subject to change.

School WeekPercent ChargedPercent Credited

Any refunds due to the student because of withdrawal will first be offset against any other amounts owed to the University.

Residence Hall Rent No refund of residence hall rent shall be made in the event of withdrawal after the fifth class day of each semester. Upon vacating student housing facilities, a student must return the room key to the student accommodation office. The date the room key is returned to the student accommodation office is the effective termination date of the student housing contract.

Dining Services The UVa student identification card is the student's entry into the dining halls. It allows students to use the meals and Plus Dollars in their meal plans, and tells them the current balances. If the card is lost or stolen, the Registrar's Office must be notified immediately at 924-4508 to deactivate the card. A separate card is issued to Continuing Education students.

For information regarding contract meal plans and charges call (804) 982-5142.

Meal Plan Changes  Students may revise their meal plan choice twice during the year. All changes must be made by letter or by filling out an Intent to Change form at the Dining Services Administrative Office.

Changes for fall semester must be requested by September 7, 1995.

Spring change requests must be made by January 18, 1996. Spring semester changes are accepted between December 1, 1995 through the January 18 deadline. They will not be reflected on the Bursar's bill until after January registration. The second semester cancellation is not an option for first year students, residential college students, or non-graduating full grant-in-aid athletes.

There is no fee for changing meal plans; however a $25 administrative fee is applied to all cancellations except for December graduation and Study Abroad students.

Meal plan contracts are annual contracts.

Other Fees and Special Charges

Damage to University Property is charged to the student or students responsible at the cost of repair or replacement.

I.D. Replacement Fee A fee of $10 is charged to replace a lost, stolen or mutilated student I.D. card. Payment must be made at time of replacement.

Returned Check Service Fee The University assesses a $20 service fee for all checks returned by the bank as non-negotiable. All checks are redeposited by the bank before they are returned to the University.

Replacement of Diploma The cost of replacing a lost or destroyed diploma is $10 plus mailing fee.

Transcript Fee A fee of $3 is charged for each transcript of a student's record. Payment must accompany the request.

Late Registration Fee Students who register late within two weeks after the prescribed registration date will be assessed a $25 late registration fee. Students who register more than two weeks after the prescribed registration date will be assessed a $50 late registration fee.

Late Payment Fee Preregistration Billing Any student who fails to make payment by the payment due date specified on the bill will be assessed a $50 late payment fee.

Late Payment Fee for TA/RA/Veterans Teaching assistants, research assistants and veterans who fail to make payment by the due date specified on the bill will be assessed a $10 late payment fee.

Non-Resident Fee Students are charged a fee of $64 for each semester they are on an approved leave of absence or each semester they are not enrolled for courses in a resident school but wish to maintain their matriculated status in the school. Students who are not engaged in any course work during the semester in which they expect to graduate must pay the non-resident fee.

Failure to Pay University Financial Obligations

Enrolled students may be suspended from the University for past due obligations which include dropping of courses and prevention from course enrollment for future terms. Current and former students will have a financial hold placed on their academic transcript. Past due obligations will be reported to the State for offset against State income tax refunds, State vendor payments, and lottery winnings, and may be reported to credit bureaus, referred to third party collection agencies or the State Attorney General, or litigated. Debtors may be assessed collection costs up to fifty percent of their debt.

General Payment Policies

Payment at Registration   Students will be expected to satisfy all outstanding obligations to the University before they will be permitted to complete registration. If outstanding obligations are not satisfied, courses will be dropped after registration. A $50 late payment fee may be assessed for payments received after registration.

Direct Loans  The University subscribes to the federal government's Direct Loan Program. Further information on Direct Loans is available in Chapter 3.

If Students Have University Awarded Loans such as Perkins, Health Professions, Nursing or Institutional loans, they will not receive loan checks at registration. Proceeds from Perkins, HPSL, and NSL will be applied directly to your tuition account. Institutional loans, will be applied first to other outstanding University obligations, then to tuition. Credit balances resulting from these loan proceeds will be refunded to you by October 1 in the fall semester and by February 1 in the spring semester. Once again, undergraduates must be registered for at least twelve credits, and graduates for the number of credits specified on the loan application to be eligible to receive credit from these loan proceeds.

Credit Balances on a student's account, which are the result of an overpayment, will first be offset against any other past due amounts owed the University.

Overpayment credit balances of less than $1 are not refunded unless requested. The Bursar's Office will begin refunding credit balances during the fall 1995 semester via direct deposit. The funds will be electronically deposited to students accounts. Further information and a sign-up form will be mailed by the Bursar's Office during the summer.

Direct deposit of credit balances is optional. If not chosen, physical checks will still be issued; however, creation of checks will be a slower process than direct deposit.

Credit balances resulting from a scholarship/fellowship, and University awarded loans, such as Perkins, Health Professions, Nursing or Institutional Loans, will be refunded by U.S. mail to arrive on or about October 1 in the fall and February 1 in the spring, unless direct deposit is in effect.

Bills Are Mailed as Follows:
Undergraduate Students - All bills are mailed to the home address.
Graduate Students - Prior to fall registration, bills are mailed to the home address. After registration, bills are mailed to the local address.

Home and Local Addresses  The Bursar's Office uses the home and local addresses that are on file with the Registrar's Office. It is the students' responsibility to maintain current addresses with the Registrar.

Special Billing Addresses  Students may establish a billing address through the Bursar's Office. Once established, this address will override the Registrar's addresses for billing purposes. This billing address is good through May and must be renewed each school year. Unless renewed, bills will be mailed according to student status (undergraduate or graduate). See above.

Taxability of Scholarships and Fellowships The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax code permits the exclusion of scholarships or fellowships from income up to the amount used for the payment of course-related expenses (i.e., tuition, fees, books, supplies and equipment). The IRS does not consider the cost of room and board to be course-related. Stipends or living allowances paid as part of a scholarship or fellowship are considered taxable income. The University is required to withhold taxes on such payments only to nonresident alien recipients not claiming treaty benefits. However, all recipients are required to report their scholarships and fellowships to the IRS by filing a yearly tax return, and to pay the requisite taxes. These provisions apply to all scholarship and fellowship recipients of domestic source grants, regardless of whether the recipient is an undergraduate or graduate student, a citizen or nonresident alien. Students should retain receipts for tax deductible items. The University cannot provide tax counsel.

Auditing Courses

Students who are currently enrolled for regular or non-topical research courses are not charged for additional courses which they audit. However, individuals not currently enrolled who wish to audit courses at the University must do so through the Division of Continuing Education and are subject to that Division's rate schedule.

Estimated Personal Expenses

A student's total University expenses depend on the school, housing charges, and personal tastes. Estimates for some of these expenses are charted in chapter 3.

It is suggested that students prepare and keep within a budget in order to develop ability to utilize their resources effectively while living within their means. While the amount of money spent in meeting personal expenses at the University will depend largely upon the resources and tastes of the student, it is believed that the estimates given in chapter 3 will be a helpful guide in the preparation of a budget. Instruction in the handling of checks and checking accounts is recommended prior to enrollment.

The estimates given in chapter 3 do not include expenses for clothing, travel, memberships in organizations, or recreation and entertainment. A reasonable allowance should be made for these items.

The University requires that all students carry year-round hospitalization insurance. This cost should be included in a student's estimate of expenses.

Additional Expenses

School of Engineering and Applied Science:   First-year students in this School will have an additional expense of approximately $30 for drawing instruments. An inexpensive hand-held electronic calculator with scientific functions (priced about $30 to $100) is also useful.

School of Architecture:   Students in this school will have an additional expense of approximately $150 for supplies.

School of Nursing:   A detailed explanation of personal expenses appears in the school of nursing chapter.

Veterans' Benefits

The Registrar's Office is the University liaison with the Veterans Administration in matters concerning educational benefits available to veterans and war orphans under the provisions of Chapters 34 and 35 of Title 38 USC (Cold War G.I. Bill). This office provides information and furnishes on request application forms for benefits. Inquiries regarding educational benefits available through the Veterans Administration should be addressed to the Registrar's Office, Carruthers Hall.

Special Arrangements for Students with a Learning Need or Disability

Special tuition arrangements are possible for those students who must take less than nine credits due to a diagnosed learning need or disability. Such students must contact the Learning Needs and Evaluation Center for a review of their situation, and must have their reduced courseload approved by the Dean of their school.

Senior Citizens

In compliance with the Senior Citizens Higher Education Act, the University offers courses with tuition and required fees waived on a space-available basis. To be eligible, a person must be at least 60 years old and have been legally domiciled in Virginia at least one year before the semester begins, and must gain admission to the University.

To qualify as a full-time or part-time student for credit, the senior citizen's taxable income (for federal income tax purposes) the year prior to enrollment must not have exceeded $10,000.

There is no income requirement if the senior citizen wants to audit a course offered for credit or to enroll in a non-credit course. No more than three courses per semester may be taken on this basis, but there is no limit to the number of semesters a senior citizen may be enrolled. Instructors have the option of determining whether students may or may not take their courses on an audit basis. Those who have completed 75 percent of their degree requirements may enroll for courses at the same time as tuition-paying students, rather than waiting until regular registration is completed.

Academic Common Market

The Academic Common Market (ACM) is an interstate agreement among southern states for sharing unique academic programs at both the baccalaureate and graduate levels. Students who are non-Virginia residents may qualify for the in-state tuition rate if (1) their home state is a member of the ACM, (2) their specific degree program is not available at a public institution in their home state, and (3) the departmental advisors at the University of Virginia agree to admit their degree program to the ACM. Participating states are: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.

To enroll as an Academic Common Market student, you must (1) be accepted for admission as a full time student into a degree program to which your state has obtained access for its residents through the ACM, and (2) obtain certification of residency from the ACM coordinator in your home state. Contact your state coordinator for certification criteria and information regarding the current availability of courses. Please note, applications for admission should be made directly to the institution offering the degree program.

In order to qualify for in-state tuition rates under the auspices of the Academic Common Market program, the University of Virginia's ACM Institutional Coordinator must receive written notification from the student's home state advising of their eligibility to participate in a specific degree program. These certification letters must be dated on or before October 31, 1995, for the 1995 Fall semester and dated on or before March 31, 1996, for the 1996 Spring semester.   This entitlement to tuition assessment at the Virginia resident rate will continue as long as the student remains in a qualified ACM degree program. Should the student change from a degree program having ACM certification to one which does not, they will be charged tuition at the non-Virginia resident rate commencing with the academic term for which the degree program change was effective.

Students participating in the Academic Common Market will continue to be assessed student fees at the out-of-state rate.

Questions about the Academic Common Market program should be directed to the University of Virginia's Institutional Coordinator, Office of the Vice President and Provost, Madison Hall, (804) 924-3728.

Classification as an In-State Student

Entitlement to in-state educational privileges, including in-state tuition rates, must be demonstrated in accordance with Section 23-7.4 of the Code of Virginia  reprinted below.

Applicants for admission apply for in-state status by completing the Application for Virginia In-State Educational Privileges and returning it with the admission application.

Currently enrolled students apply for changes in residency status through the Committee on Virginia Status, P.O. Box 9017, Charlottesville, VA 22906. Applications must be submitted at least 30 days prior to the semester for which in-state tuition rates are sought.

Students classified as non-residents in current degree programs should contact the Committee on Virginia Status for information about requirements for residency status in connection with their applications for admission to other degree programs.

Section 23-7.4. Eligibility for in-state tuition charges.

  1. For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply:
    Date of the alleged entitlement means the first official day of class within the term, semester, or quarter of the student's program.
    Dependent student means one who is listed as a dependent on the federal or state income tax return of his/her parents or legal guardian or who receives substantial financial support from his/her parents or legal guardian.
    Domicile means the present, fixed home of an individual to which he/she returns following temporary absences and at which he/she intends to stay indefinitely. No individual may have more than one domicile at a time. Domicile, once established, shall not be affected by mere transient or temporary physical presence in another jurisdiction.
    Domiciliary intent means present intent to remain indefinitely.
    Emancipated minor means a student under the age of 18 on the date of the alleged entitlement whose parents or guardians have surrendered the right to his/her care, custody and earnings and who no longer claim him/her as a dependent for tax purposes.
    Full-time employment means employment resulting in, at least, an annual earned income reported for tax purposes equivalent to 50 work weeks of 40 hours at minimum wage.
    Independent student means one whose parents have surrendered the right to his/her care, custody and earnings, have ceased to support him/her, and have not claimed him/her as a dependent on federal and state income tax returns for at least 12 months prior to the date of the alleged entitlement.
    Special arrangement contract means a contract between a Virginia employer or the authorities controlling a federal installation or agency located in Virginia and a public institution of higher education for reduced rate tuition charges as described in paragraph G of this section.
    Substantial financial support means financial support in an amount which equals or exceeds that required to qualify the individual to be listed as a dependent on federal and state income tax returns.
    Unemancipated minor means a student under the age of 18 on the date of the alleged entitlement who is under the legal control of and is financially supported by either of his/her parents, legal guardian or other person having legal custody.
    Virginia employer means any employing unit organized under the laws of Virginia or having income from Virginia sources regardless of its organizational structure, or any public or nonprofit organization authorized to operate in Virginia.

  2. In order to become eligible for in-state tuition, an independent student shall establish by clear and convincing evidence that for a period of at least one year immediately prior to the date of the alleged entitlement, he/she was domiciled in Virginia and had abandoned any previous domicile, if such existed.

    In order to become eligible for in-state tuition, a dependent student or unemancipated minor shall establish by clear and convincing evidence that for a period of at least one year prior to the date of the alleged entitlement, the person through whom he/she claims eligibility was domiciled in Virginia and had abandoned any previous domicile, if such existed.

    In determining domiciliary intent, all of the following applicable factors shall be considered: continuous residence for at least one year prior to the date of alleged entitlement, state to which income taxes are filed or paid, driver's license, motor vehicle registration, voter registration, employment, property ownership, sources of financial support, location of checking or passbook savings accounts and any other social or economic relationships with the Commonwealth and other jurisdictions. Domiciliary status shall not ordinarily be conferred by the performance of acts which are auxiliary to fulfilling educational objectives or are required or routinely performed by temporary residents of the Commonwealth. Mere physical presence or residence primarily for educational purposes shall not confer domiciliary status.

    Those factors presented in support of entitlement to in-state tuition shall have existed for the one-year period prior to the date of the alleged entitlement. However, in determining the domiciliary intent of active duty military personnel residing in the Commonwealth, who voluntarily elect to establish Virginia as their permanent residence for domiciliary purposes, the requirement of one year shall be waived if all other conditions for establishing domicile are satisfied.

  3. The domicile of a married person shall be determined in the same manner as the domicile of an unmarried person.

    The domicile of an emancipated minor shall be established in the same manner as any other independent student.

    Any alien holding an immigration visa or classified as a political refugee shall also establish eligibility for in-state tuition in the same manner as any other student. However, absent congressional intent to the contrary, any person holding a student or other temporary visa shall not have the capacity to intend to remain in Virginia indefinitely and, therefore, shall be ineligible for Virginia domicile and for in-state tuition charges.

    The domicile of a dependent student shall be rebuttably presumed to be the domicile of the parent or legal guardian claiming him/her as an exemption on federal or state income tax returns currently and for the tax year prior to the date of the alleged entitlement or providing him/her substantial financial support.

    A matriculating student who has entered an institution classified as out-of-state shall be required to rebut by clear and convincing evidence the presumption that he/she is in the Commonwealth for the purpose of attending school and not as a bona fide domicile.

    For the purposes of this section, the domicile of an unemancipated minor or a dependent student 18 years of age or older may be either the domicile of the parent with whom he/she resides or the parent who claims the student as a dependent for federal and Virginia income tax purposes for the tax year prior to the date of the alleged entitlement and is currently so claiming the student. If there is no surviving parent or the whereabouts of the parents are unknown, then the domicile of an unemancipated minor shall be the domicile of the legal guardian of such unemancipated minor unless there are circumstances indicating that such guardianship was created primarily for the purpose of conferring a Virginia domicile on the unemancipated minor.

  4. It is incumbent on the student to apply for change in domiciliary status to become eligible for such change. Changes in domiciliary status shall only be granted prospectively from the date such application is received.

    A student who knowingly provides erroneous information in an attempt to evade payment of out-of-state fees shall be charged out-of-state tuition fees for each term, semester or quarter attended and may be subject to dismissal from the institution. All disputes related to the veracity of information provided to establish Virginia domicile shall be appealable through the due process procedure required by paragraph H below.

  5. A nonmilitary student whose parent or spouse is a member of the armed forces may establish domicile in the same manner as any other student. However, a nonmilitary student, not otherwise eligible for in-state tuition, whose parent or spouse is a member of the military stationed or residing in the Commonwealth pursuant to military orders and claiming a state other than Virginia on their State of Legal Residence Certificate, shall be entitled to in-state tuition charges when the following conditions are met:
    1. if the student is a child of a member of the armed forces, then the nonmilitary parent shall have, for at least one year immediately prior to the date of alleged entitlement for in-state tuition charges, resided in Virginia, been employed full time and paid individual income taxes to Virginia. Such student shall be eligible for in-state tuition charges only if the nonmilitary parent claims him/her as a dependent for Virginia and Federal income tax purposes; or
    2. if the student is the spouse of a member of the armed forces, then such student shall have, for at least one year immediately prior to the date of alleged entitlement for in-state tuition, resided in Virginia, been employed full time and paid individual income taxes to Virginia; or
    3. if the student is the child or the spouse of a member of the armed forces, then the student shall be entitled to in-state tuition charges for the first year that the military parent or spouse is stationed or residing in the Commonwealth pursuant to military orders.
    (Note: Appropriations for this subsection (iii) were recently reconsidered by the General Assembly. Eligible applicants should contact the Virginia Status Office for current information on this provision.) Any student whose spouse or parent is a member of the armed forces shall be eligible for in-state tuition charges for so long as these conditions continue to be met. Military dependents provided in-state tuition for the first year of residence in Virginia shall be counted as out-of-state students for admissions, enrollment and tuition and fee revenue policy purposes.

  6. Students who live outside this Commonwealth and have been employed full time inside Virginia for at least one year immediately prior to the date of the alleged entitlement for in-state tuition shall be eligible for in-state tuition charges if such student has paid Virginia income taxes on all taxable income earned in this Commonwealth for the tax year prior to the date of the alleged entitlement. Students claimed as dependents for federal and Virginia income tax purposes who live outside this Commonwealth shall become eligible for in-state tuition charges if the nonresident parent claiming him/her as a dependent has been employed full time inside Virginia for at least one year immediately prior to the date of the alleged entitlement and paid Virginia income taxes on all taxable income earned in this Commonwealth for the tax year prior to the date of the alleged entitlement. Such students shall continue to be eligible for in-state tuition charges for so long as they or their qualifying parent are employed full time in Virginia, paying Virginia income taxes on all taxable income earned in this Commonwealth and the student is claimed as a dependent for Virginia and federal income tax purposes.

  7. Public institutions of higher education may enter into special arrangement contracts with Virginia employers or authorities controlling federal installations or agencies located in Virginia. The special arrangement contracts shall be for the purpose of providing reduced rate tuition charges for the employees of the Virginia employers or federal personnel when the employers or federal authorities are assuming the liability for paying, to the extent permitted by Federal law, the tuition for the employees or personnel in question and the employees or personnel are classified by the requirements of this section as out-of-state.

    Please contact the Committee on Virginia Status for further information regarding special arrangement contracts.

  8. Each public institution of higher education shall establish an appeals process for those students who are aggrieved by decisions on eligibility for in-state tuition charges. The Administrative Process Act (9-6.14:l et seq.) shall not apply to these administrative reviews.

    An initial determination shall be made. Each appeals process shall include an intermediate review of the initial determination and a final administrative review. The final administrative decision shall be in writing. A copy of this decision shall be sent to the student. Either the intermediate review or the final administrative review shall be conducted by an appeals committee consisting of an odd number of members. No person who serves at one level of this appeals process shall be eligible to serve at any other level of this review. All such due process procedures shall be in writing and shall include time limitations in order to provide for orderly and timely resolutions of all disputes.

    Any party aggrieved by a final administrative decision shall have the right to review in the circuit court for the jurisdiction in which the relevant institution is located. A petition for review of the final administrative decision shall be filed within thirty days of receiving the written decision. In any such action, the institution shall forward the record to the court, whose function shall be only to determine whether the decision reached by the institution could reasonably be said, on the basis of the record, to be supported by substantial evidence and not to be arbitrary, capricious or otherwise contrary to law.