| Architecture | Architectural History | Landscape Architecture | Planning |

With faculty approval, upper level undergraduate students may be allowed to enroll in graduate courses and offer them for elective credit. These courses are described in the Graduate Studies in the School of Architecture Record, and are offered through all four divisions.

Although ARCH, AR H, LAR, and PLAN courses as described below are professional courses, not all are restricted to School of Architecture students. If students outside the School of Architecture wish to enroll in one of these courses, they should first secure the approval of the faculty member offering that course. Even in professionally-oriented courses some faculty members particularly encourage and welcome such participation.


ARCH 101 - (3) (Y)
Architecture as a Covenant with the World, Again
It is a premise of this course that the study of architecture as a speculation on origins is located at the conjunctive core of any liberal arts curriculum, and serves specifically as the physical armature and conceptual foundation of the University. This course is concerned with the warehouse of the contemporary imagination, attempting to make the discipline of architecture meaningful to a wide range of citizens in its public obligation to be constructive and optimistic in the most profoundly ethical, pragmatic and magical of terms.

ARCH 102 - (3) (Y)
Fundamentals of Design
Introduces those aspects of design that are considered fundamental to an understanding and interpretation of architecture and the visual arts. Involves an introduction of and familiarization with drawing and presentation skills through which the students develop the precision and facility necessary for visual communication.

ARCH 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Architectural Design
Explores the humanistic determinants of form; architecture as both experience and formal proposition; analysis and synthesis in the design process; communication of design intentions.

ARCH 301, 302 - (6) (Y)
Architectural Design
Prerequisites: ARCH 201, 202
Architectural design conceptualization and synthesis. Man and his immediate environment, basic technology and site context as determinants in architectural form. The integration of all disciplines and concerns in the design of a complete building.

ARCH 303 - (4) (Y)
Building I
Introduces the technology involved in the design and construction of buildings, emphasizing the nature of materials and their practical assembly. A parallel intention to Architecture as a Covenant (ARCH 101), and Fundamentals of Design (ARCH 102) it presents a vocabulary that interrelates history, theory, and technology.

ARCH 304 - (4) (Y)
Building II
Examines architectural-technical relationships involving designed thermal and luminous environments. Includes fundamental principles of thermal flow in the natural and built environment through studies of climate, human comfort, building siting and envelope design, and mechanical systems functions. Natural and artificial lighting is examined as a visual experience and correlated to illuminance and luminance measurements.

ARCH 308 - (3) (Y)
Architectural Theory and Ethics
Architectural theory acts as a critical discourse parallel to practice, as its conscience and provocation. Buildings, landscapes and manifestos by architects are scrutinized for significant, recurring themes using methods from aesthetics, philosophy and criticism. Course relies upon reading, writing and argument to develop an analytic approach which bridges the gap between architectural knowledge and other forms of knowledge.

ARCH 324 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Structural Design
This is a first course in structures for undergraduates and for graduate students with degrees in other disciplines. The course seeks to develop analytic and critical skills through both mathematical and visual investigation of structures. Course topics include statics, mechanics of materials, computer-based structural analysis, and design and behavior of basic structural elements and systems. Prerequisites: Physics 203A or approved equivalent college-level physics.

ARCH 401 - (6) (Y)
Architectural Design
Prerequisites: ARCH 301, 302
Architectural design problems of complex programs and intermediate scale emphasizing circulation, formal intent and specialized technology, historic and contemporary urban contexts.

ARCH 402 - (6) (Y)
Architectural Design
Prerequisite: ARCH 401
An architectural studio comprehensive in scope and method, but specialized in content. Topical concentration for the entire semester in the areas of urban design, theoretical analysis, adaptive use of old buildings, architectural design, housing and technology.

ARCH 404 - (3) (Y)
Construction Management
Follows the history of a typical commercial, industrial, or institutional project from selection of architect to final completion of the construction. Topics include: design cost control, cost estimating, bidding procedures, bonds and insurance, contracts and sub-contracts, progress scheduling, fiscal controls, payment requests, submittals, change orders, inspections, overall project administration, and continuing architect-owner- contractor relationships. Lectures and related field trips.

ARCH 406 - (4)(Y)
Building III
Explores the relationship between the technology of contemporary construction and the social, political and economic forces which form the context of architectural practice. Examines the ethical responsibilities of the architect with respect to the unique tools and knowledge of the discipline.

ARCH 407 - (3) (Y)
Thesis Preparation
Development of an architectural studies thesis topic including literature search, sources and research procedures.

ARCH 485 - (3) (Y)
Teaching Experience
Fifteen to twenty students lead a seminar (of 8 to 10 younger students each) for "Concepts of Architecture." All student assistants attend class lectures (for a second time) and then meet with their seminar groups weekly leading discussions of topics and questions raised by the instructor.

ARCH 509 - (2) (Y)
Figure Drawing
Hones the faculty of seeing and the skill of drawing through drawing the human figure.

ARCH 525 - (4) (Y)
Environmental Systems
Study of the fundamental principles applied to the design of the thermal and luminous environments, as well as the plumbing/drainage and electrical systems. A studio project is selected for additional analysis and design development focusing on the energy conscious building envelope, mechanical systems selection, natural and artificial lighting schemes, and the building services layout.

ARCH 527 - (3) (Y)
Energy Systems
The investigation and comparative analysis of energy consumption patterns before and after energy conserving retrofits were implemented in existing buildings. Current and future development trends in energy conservation technologies are explored. Emphasis is also placed on passive solar analysis and design methodology followed by an application to a studio problem.

ARCH 528 - (3) (Y)
Lighting Design
Development of knowledge and skills in lighting design through the study of exemplary buildings, design exercises, case studies and analysis of lighting design issues and their synthesis through design.

ARCH 532 - (3) (IR)
Analysis of Modern Houses
Investigates important modern houses from 1900 to the present time. Involves the analysis of their architectural character and principles as well as derivation and influence. Among those selected for study are works by Wright, LeCorbusier, Rietveld, Schindler, Kahn, Botta and Ando.

ARCH 533 - (3) (IR)
Construction Materials
A study of the principal materials used in building construction through text, lecture, slides, video, and visits to production facilities and construction sites. Emphasis on selection, suitability, cost availability, erection or installation of various materials.

ARCH 534 - (3) (Y)
Construction and Management
Provides future architects, engineers, lawyers, and developers with an overall understanding of the construction process for commercial, industrial, and institutional type projects. Begins with the selection process for architectural services and by a case study follows the project to final completion.

ARCH 535 - (3) (Y)
Design Construction Drawing
Immerses the students in the process of production of construction drawings by asking them to organize and produce a complete set of drawings that embodies and describes the design intent and construction of a given building. Examines alternative construction techniques, develop details, and produces a set of construction drawings which would yield a well-built structure whose design intent is clear.

ARCH 541/542 - (3) (S)
Computer Aided Architectural Design
Explores design worlds that are made accessible through computer based media. Provides a theoretical framework for computer aided design, describe current and speculate on advanced methods. Workshop exercises focus on computer based 3D geometrical modeling, and also include photo-realistic and abstract methods of rendering, materials simulation, texture mapping, reflection mapping, image-processing, color-table manipulation, photo-montage, lighting, animation, and combined media applications.

ARCH 543 - (1) (S)
Introduction to Solid Modeling
A brief introductory course in computer solid modeling intended to work in conjunction with an architectural design studio course. The eight lectures are sufficient for students to learn to construct solid models; and to use these models for massing studies, perspective view studies, and dynamic visual sequence studies.

ARCH 545 (3) (Y)
Architectural Simulation
Prerequisite: ARCH 541/542 or permission of instructor
Explores the simulation of architecture, urban design and environmental design through movie making. Examines parallels between the treatment of motion in movies and the treatment of motion in design. These parallels include how movie makers and designers may treat the space-time continuum, three-dimensional depth, movement, change over time, lighting and montage. Examines movie making as a medium for design exploration, for architectural aesthetic expression, and for undertaking a critical analysis of design.

ARCH 548 - (3) (Y)
Computables of Architectural Design
A seminar on the computability of design methods. Instructions, exercises and examples of coding in a programming language (LISP) is covered during the first two thirds of the term. Students develop a case study in design methods that extends a CAD system as the basis for a computational project in the last third of the term. It is not assumed that students know any programming. The pace of the subject is individually adapted for any student who has previous experience.

ARCH 551 - (3) (Y)
Cubism and the Nineteen-Teens: The
Infrastructure of Modernism

Centers on four principal aspects of modern architecture's essential intellectual substructure and history: Cubism, Futurism, Formalism, and Neo-Plasticism/De Stijl. A multiplicity of themes are delineated by revealing the importance of the first two decades of the twentieth century with respect to the structure of architecture's relationship to three fundamental things: its own traditions and history, other arts - especially plastic and literary, and nature, which involves the larger problem of art and the double dilemma of representation/abstraction and form/content.

ARCH 552 - (3) (Y)
The Tectonics of Space and Form
Investigates the relationship between space, form and materials as a tectonic construction. Architects don't actually construct buildings, nor supervise the actual construction. The architect's role is to artfully assemble space, form and material representations on paper or in model so they may allude to an architecture yet to be built. Further investigates the methods of spatial formal and material assembly.

ARCH 555 (2) (Y)
Reinventing the Lawn
The Lawn is held as an icon of spatial form and order. What does this mean; what ideas about teaching and learning does the Lawn really reflect? These fundamental questions about meaning are rarely raised in the devoted homage awarded to the aesthetic image of the form. This seminar deals with these questions, giving particular emphasis to consideration of how Jefferson would tackle today's different educational goals, and therefore suggest a different building form.

ARCH 559 (3) (Y)
City Design
Introduces the issues of contemporary city design. Examines methods of analyzing urban form, large scale organizational concepts, aesthetic opportunities, and methods of implementation that may be used to shape the sensuous qualities of our cities. Recognizing that social, economic, and environmental issues often determine city design, the course emphasizes the design opportunities inherent in these concerns. The intent is to understand what we have done to improve what we will do.

ARCH 560 - (3) (Y)
Issues in Colonial Architecture and Urbanism
Examines the didactic relationship between architecture, urbanism and colonial development, specifically focusing on the design and development of European colonial cities in North Africa in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Examined are such topics as: the relationship between architectural imagery and ideology, ideas of "Modernism" and "Universal Culture" and the role of architecture and urban design in the process of colonial development. Although this course examines the relationship between non-Western (Islamic) and Western architecture and urban structure, it is not intended as a survey of Islamic or Modern architecture, but rather seeks to explore their relationship in theory and practice to one another.

ARCH 561 - (3) (Y)
Gulf Coast/I-10 Analysis and Image
Explores the nature of this geography, its cultural and economic conditions, narrative, and in general, those conditions that make up its genus loci.

ARCH 562 - (3) (IR)
Urban Design Theory and Methods
Examines the issues, concepts, and methods of urban design with emphasis given to the visual problems and potential of our contemporary larger-scaled built environments. Among topics discussed are attitudes toward the need for city design, methods of analyzing urban form, larger scale organizational concepts, constituent elements of urban design, examples of current issues, and methods of implementation. While this course is intended as an overview of the field of urban design, references are made to specific examples and to professional case studies.

ARCH 563 - (2) (IR)
Design of Cities
Cities are physical artifacts which are experienced psychologically and socially. Course investigates the theories surrounding these processes so as to reach an understanding of humanistic urban design intentions. Experiential realities are explored through case studies, readings, and mapping exercises.

ARCH 567 - (3) (IR)
Scandinavian Modern Architecture
Scandinavian Modern Architecture: Continuity and Transformation. A seminar (based on Fulbright research in 1988-89) on 20th century Scandinavian Architecture (1900-1965), using reading and writing to develop critical faculties. Thematic topics, criticism, and manifestos by architects are introduced by informal lectures followed by discussions of the assigned readings.

ARCH 568 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Architectural Theory
Readings and lectures cover the period from 1966 to the present, tracing the development of postmodernism, post-structuralism and other current movements in architecture. Reference is made to other disciplines, the influence of criticism, the role of the media, and distinctions between theory, criticism, and style.

ARCH 588 - (3) (Y)
Great Cities of the World
What are the qualities of great cities? Why are they compelling places today, often centuries after their formative periods? What qualities are unique to each and what are common to all? Are these qualities relevant today as we design and plan contemporary cities? How are they as environments in which to live, work, grow up, and seek pleasure? What design strategies have been employed to shape neighborhoods, civic spaces, and movement routes? These are some of the questions addressed in this seminar.

ARCH 589 - (3) (Y)
Environmental Choices
A multi-disciplinary, basic environmental education course open to everyone in the University concerning the many-dimensioned and deeply rooted nature of our environmental dilemma. Students attend two hours of lecture per week contributed by representatives of various disciplines and points of view. There is one hour of small group discussion.

Consult the table of Architecture Courses that May be Taken for Elective Credit.

Architectural History

AR H 100 - (3) (Y)
History of Architecture: Survey
Traces the development of western architecture from prehistoric times to the present. The historical context within which this development occurred is stressed as architecture is studied as a response to, and mirror of the society which produced it.

AR H 101 - (3) (Y)
History of Architecture: Ancient and Medieval
Traces the development of western architecture from prehistoric times to the end of the middle ages. The historical context within which this development occurred is stressed as architecture is studied as a response to, and mirror of the society which produced it.

AR H 102 - (3) (Y)
History of Architecture: Renaissance and Baroque
Prerequisite: AR H 100 or 101
The history of European and allied arts from the fifteenth to the middle of the eighteenth century. Topics include the re-establishment of classicism, French uses of classicism, and German and English new classicism.

AR H 150 - (3) (Y)
Thomas Jefferson's Architecture
A survey of Jefferson's architectural world with special emphasis on the Lawn.

AR H 203 - (3) (Y)
Modern Architecture
Prerequisite: AR H 100 or 102
A survey of Modern Architecture and architectural theory from 1750 to the 1960s, focusing mainly on the architecture of France, Germany and England, but also including architecture of the United States.

AR H 351 - (3) (Y)
Early American Architecture
A survey of American architecture from the first European contact to the death of Jefferson. Lectures and field trips.

AR H 352 - (3) (Y)
Later American Architecture II
Survey of American architecture from the death of Jefferson to today. Lectures and field trips.

AR H 353 - (3) (Y)
Nineteenth Century American Architecture
A survey of American architecture from 1776 to 1914.

AR H 354 - (3) (Y)
Twentieth Century American Architecture
A survey of American architecture emphasizing the development of modernism.

AR H 361 - (3) (Y)
Nineteenth Century European Architecture and Theory
A study of major European architects and theorists and their relation to intellectual and social conditions. Lecture.

AR H 371 - (3) (Y)
History of Urban Form
A review of city building with special emphasis on the relationship between political theory and architectural and urban form. Limited to western development, and is meant to provide a background for understanding current theory and practice.

AR H 382 - (3) (Y)
East-West Architecture
A study of cultural exchanges and interactions in architecture between East and West. Major events and master architects like F.L. Wright and L. Kahn who contributed to the exchanges are discussed. The forms and meaning of East-West architecture are compared.

AR H 489 - (3) (SI)
Independent Studies in Architectural History
Prerequisite: Approval of instructor
Advanced work on independent research topics by individual students. Divisional approval of the topic is required.

AR H 580 - (2-3) (IR)
Selected Topics in Architectural History
Prerequisite: Approval of instructor
Special topics pursued in a colloquium.

AR H 581 - (3) (Y)
Architecture of East Asia
A survey and introduction of traditional architecture and allied arts in China, Japan and Korea. Study of the main features, major monuments of East Asian architecture and landscape architecture.

AR H 585 - (3) (Y)
World Buddhist Architecture
The history of Buddhist architecture and allied arts in the Buddhist world which includes east, south and southeast Asia. Lecture starts from the Indian stupas and ends in Japanese Zen gardens.

AR H 587 - (3) (O)
Modern Japanese Architecture
The history of architecture in modern Japan from Meiji period to contemporary. Focus on the post-WWII development. The major influential architects like Tange, Kikutake, Maki, Isozaki, Kurokawa and Ando are discussed.

AR H 590 - (3) (Y)
Historic Preservation Theory and Practice
Surveys the history of preservation focusing upon the changing nature of preservation ideals and practice. Preservation is discussed in the context of cultural history and the changing relationship between existing buildings and landscapes and attitudes toward history, memory, and invented tradition.

AR H 592 - (3) (Y)
Community History Workshop I
Undertakes an in-depth historical analysis of the architecture, urban form, and planning of a selected community. The investigation focuses upon the historical significance of the built landscape as an element in and an expression of the social and cultural life of the community.

AR H 593 - (3) (Y)
Community History Workshop II
A continuation of the analysis initiated in AR H 592.

ARCH 512 - (3) (Y)
Architectural Surveys
Identification of the location of early roadways in Albemarle County has defined a context that provides clues to the documentation of the material culture or architectural pattern (e.g., plantation houses, barns and outbuildings, taverns, mills, churches, schools, stores, depots) associated with it through time.

ARCH 513 - (4) (Y)
Measured Drawings
Prerequisites: ARCH 201/202 or 501/502
Graphic recording techniques as employed by the Historic American Buildings Survey along with archival research.

ARCH 514 - (4) (Y)
Architectural Conservation
A study of the problems of older buildings and the architectural techniques employed in restoring and preserving them. The course examines the principles and methods of building conservation (and restoration) as practiced by the restoration architect. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of physical problems, corrective techniques, and the development of building restoration programs.

ARCH 515 - (3) (Y)
Technology, Materials and Conservation of Traditional Buildings
Principles of inspection, diagnosis, and treatment of older buildings from an engineering perspective. Emphasis is on materials and structural behavior of masonry, concrete, wood, and metals. Lectures and field work.

ARCH 516 - (4) (Y)
Preservation of Jeffersonian Architecture
Examines the Jeffersonian buildings on the grounds within the restoration program now underway in the Academical Village. A hands-on study of the buildings and their care, which examines the buildings within the context of their own historical origins and life span, then broadens that literary and cultural understanding with intensive site investigation, otherwise known as building archaeology. Where problems have arisen or where changes in the buildings must be made, alternative solutions are explored.

ARCH 517 - (3) (Y)
Regional Architecture
Examines regional Virginia architecture through slide lectures and field trips with emphasis on stylistic and technical features. Serves as an overview of Virginia architecture while concentrating in detail on the Piedmont region.

ARCH 519 - (3) (Y)
History of Building Technology
The seminar traces changes that have occurred through time in the making of buildings, and relates those changes to advances in tools, materials and processes that throughout history have made new architectural ideas possible. Surveys major technical ideas in building from prehistory to the 20th century, concentrating on traditional building materials: timber, stone, brick and iron.

ARCH 522 - (3) (Y)
Victorian Technology
A survey of the dramatic changes in building, transportation, and communications technology that occurred in America between 1870 and 1920. Developments such as steel, reinforced concrete, electricity, telephones, etc., directly affected building design and construction.

ARCH 536 - (3) (Y)
Performance of Building Materials
Study of the performance of materials as influenced by their properties and the environment. Topics include the following: characterization of materials as elements, compounds, and minerals; mechanical properties of materials; physical properties of materials; moisture movement in materials; characteristics and performance of wood, masonry, concrete, metals, reinforced concrete and glass.

ARCH 711P - (3) (Y)
Industrial Revolution Seminar
Examines technology history in general and building technology history in particular emphasizing the forces set in motion during the 18th and 19th centuries by the Industrial Revolution.

Landscape Architecture

L AR 312 - (3) (Y)
History of Landscape Architecture
Examines landscape architecture as an expression of cultural values. Focuses on the specific tasks confronting landscape architects in a given culture and the manner in which these tasks were expressed in practical forms. Particular emphasis to the 16th-Century Italy, 18th-Century Britain, 19th-Century America, and 17th-Century Japan.

L AR 313 - (3) (Y)
History of American Landscape Architecture
Study of the historical evolution of the American landscape from the seventeenth century to the present with emphasis on the spatial organization of elements in the landscape: farms, transportation networks, towns, residences, recreation areas, factories and new forms of collective settlements.

L AR 514 - (3) (Y)
Theories of Modern Landscape Architecture
This lecture course seeks to interpret modern built landscapes as cultural products-with their own materials, codes and concerns-and, at the same time, to underscore landscape architecture theory's interlocking relationship with changing societal constructions of nature, environmentalism and the city. Focuses on exemplary built works of landscape architecture and their impact on, and debt to, specific design treatises or manifestos as well as broader cultural and theoretical practices.

Consult the table of Landscape Architecture Courses that May be Taken for Elective Credit.


PLAN 103 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Community Planning
City and regional planning in the United States; the planning process; planning as a response to urban and metropolitan problems.

PLAN 105 - (3) (Y)
Image of the City in Film
Examines significant film works that tell us about the human experience in the city to inform us about what is good in cities, what needs to be changed, and how changes might be designed to maximize human satisfaction. Review of film works can also assist us in comprehending the statistics of the harder urban sciences with a new sensitivity.

PLAN 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
Introduction to Urban Design
Principles of design. The architecture of cities and urban design. Perception of space and visual analysis. Graphic presentation, including mapping techniques. Inventories, information storage, retrieval and use.

PLAN 204 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Environmental Planning and Policy
Principles and processes; concepts of environmental protection and resource conservation through planning.

PLAN 211 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Computers in Planning
The fundamental skills for using computers in planning are developed through lectures and workshops. The programming of spreadsheets employs principles of computation, data storage, file management, macro programming and application development. Presentation and drawing tools are explored using computer assisted graphing and mapping. Other topics such as Geographic Information Systems, Computer Assisted Design, and impact of information technology on society and work places are introduced.

PLAN 303 - (3) (Y)
Urban and Regional Theory
Exploration of theories and concepts of economic, social, and cultural forces which influence urban and regional spatial structure.

PLAN 305 - (3) (Y)
Urban Planning Analysis
Theory and application of methods used in quantitative investigations of urban and regional settings for planning purposes. Topics include: population forecasting, demographic, and housing, and economic analysis, urban activity models, and program and plan evaluation. The laboratory portion of the course requires computer skills.

PLAN 306 - (3) (Y)
Legal Aspects of Planning
Introduces major legal issues surrounding land-use and development planning. Emphasizes developing application skills in terms of zoning, subdivision, and other land-use regulatory powers. (May be taken prior to fourth year.)

PLAN 404 - (3) (Y)
Planning Processes
Examines the role of planning in government decision-making. Emphasis is on local government, but intergovernmental aspects of planning that influence local decisions are also stressed. Transportation, community development, and social planning are examples of planning processes that are studied.

PLAN 481, 483, 484 - (1-4) (SI)
Special Study
Elective courses of one credit offered at the request of faculty or students to provide an opportunity for internships, fieldwork, and independent study.

Note: Third and fourth year undergraduate students may, with permission of the instructor, enroll in selected graduate level courses. A partial list is included below.

PLAN 501 - (4) (SI)
Urban Design
Methods of urban design analysis, stressing observational and representational methods, are applied, with special emphasis on relationships among the public and private buildings, spaces, and transportation corridors in commercial centers.

PLAN 512 - (3) (Y)
Computer Applications to Urban Problems
The use of the computer as an urban management and urban research tool is explored. Implications for various planning, engineering, and administrative functions of the public sector is reviewed. Problems in geographic data processing, statistical analyses, and simulation requires some previous computer programming ability.

PLAN 524 - (3) (O)
Negotiating Public Policy Issues
Examines the processes by which policy is and ought to be negotiated, focusing on three principal elements: (1) general negotiation theory and skill development, including the concept of "principled" negotiation; (2) the conflict landscape, including government and non- government organizations; and (3) negotiation resources and opportunities, including organizations, processes, and enabling legislation.

PLAN 530 - (3) (Y)
Preservation Planning
Deals with the economics, legal and technical aspects of historic districts and landmarks.

PLAN 534 - (3) (IR)
Neighborhood Revitalization
Problems and potentials encountered in planning for older established urban neighborhoods are explored. These may range from market decline and physical decay to intense private reinvestment and displacement. Major topics include neighborhood change processes, the role of private lending institutions in neighborhood change, techniques for identifying economically sound housing and business opportunities in older neighborhoods, neighborhood commercial and residential revitalization techniques, financing neighborhood improvement programs, and historic and architectural preservation as a component of neighborhood revitalization.

PLAN 536 - (3) (SI)
African-American Community Development
Investigates a process of community development for its application to urban African-American districts. Seeks to achieve the general purpose through fulfillment of the following specific objectives: (1) develop a model for urban African-American district community development; and (2) discuss the various roles of participants in the community development process.

PLAN 540 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Housing and Community Development
Provides a basic introduction to the housing and community development area of planning practice. Topics include the housing and development industries, housing production and distribution systems, housing demand and supply, housing market dynamics, neighborhood change processes, housing and real estate finance, social aspects of housing and development, and housing and development programs and policy issues.

PLAN 542 - (3) (O)
Problems in Community Development
Specific problems selected vary each semester. Problems which may be explored include urban redevelopment, urban economic development, large-scale land development, site design, and new communities, among others. Planning and research reports may be prepared for real or simulated situations.

PLAN 543 - (4) (Y)
Land Development
Process of land development is examined from the point of view of the private land developer interacting with local governments. Includes development potential analysis, site analysis, traffic analysis, land planning, development programming, public and private services to accommodate new development and public regulation of land development.

PLAN 544 - (3) (SI)
State and Local Housing Policies
Role of local and state government in providing housing is discussed. This includes how to formulate and implement a housing plan. Various other topics such as syndication, public housing, rehabilitation, rent control, tenant landlord legislation and other topics may be covered.

PLAN 547 - (3) (Y)
Development Dynamics
The process of land development is explored. The roles of developers, investors, designers, planners, and others are examined identifying the objectives each have in the development decision process. The interplay and communications of what constitutes sound economics and good design are discussed.

PLAN 550 - (3) (Y)
Natural Systems and Environmental Planning
Integrating knowledge of natural systems into local planning processes is the focus of this course. A basic understanding of how natural systems function, the impacts that urban and land development have on their integrity and community-wide approaches to planning for a managing urban development to reduce or mitigate these impacts are topics that each receive equal treatment.

PLAN 553 - (3) (O)
Environmental Policy and Planning
Contemporary environmental policy and practice is examined including exploration of the normative-philosophical debate surrounding environmental issues. Understanding the political and institutional framework for establishing policy and programs and exploring the action approaches to environmental planning including moral suasion, regulation, public investment and public incentives, receive major attention. Case studies of environmental planning at the federal, state and local levels are undertaken.

PLAN 554 - (3) (IR)
Environmental Values and Ethics
A detailed exploration of the normative debate surrounding environmental issues. Foundations of environmental economics, questions about the value of endangered species, concerns of future generations, appropriateness of a sustainable society, notions of stewardship and obligations toward equity receive attention.

PLAN 555 - (3) (IR)
Environmental Impact Assessment
Explores the environmental assessment process from both a theoretical and applied perspective. The philosophy and statutory base of the assessment process are reviewed. The integration of the assessment process with the broader planning processes for a jurisdiction receive emphasis.

PLAN 560 - (3) (O)
Land and Community
Explores the role of land as a resource, commodity, property right, community asset, as an environmental medium intimately connected with water and air, and as a source of ideological and political and even military conflict. The aim is to provide a fuller understanding of the current context of public policy and public policy dialogue on land allocation processes.

PLAN 562 - (3) (Y)
Comprehensive Planning Problems
Explores the comprehensive planning process by employing it in an actual study of a Virginia jurisdiction.

PLAN 565 - (3) (Y)
Growth Management
Examines issues related to recent attempts to regulate the rate and location of development activity. Land use, fiscal, economic, social, environmental, political, and legal considerations in growth management strategies are compared to the alternative of non-managed growth. Efforts at economic development are treated as one type of growth management. Case studies and the growing body of literature on growth management techniques employed in a number of jurisdictions are discussed.

PLAN 571 - (3) (Y)
Landscape Preservation
Examines the legal and practical issues involved in the conservation of rural landscapes including the settings of historic structures. Reviews the justification for landscape preservation, and the various planning strategies which could be employed to preserve landscapes, including land use regulations, tax incentives, and conservation easements, among others. Case studies of successful landscape preservation programs are presented and discussed.

PLAN 577 - (3) (O)
Plan Implementation
Use of zoning and subdivision regulations to implement comprehensive plans is emphasized. Some attention is paid to capital facilities programming and building codes.

PLAN 589 - (3) (Y)
Environmental Choices
A survey of current environmental concerns, considering traditional and modern views of man's physical and spiritual place in nature. Explores the challenging ethical problems which now confront planners, landscape architects, architects, historians and others at the Professional level as well as at the personal level.