Woodrow Wilson Department of
Government and Foreign Affairs

Overview  It should come as no surprise that, at the University of Virginia, Government and Foreign Affairs is one of the most popular and prestigious departments. After all, Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, also founded this University to educate citizens and to prepare them for participation in the governance of this country.

The department studies government, public law, and politics of the national, state and local levels, and among states in international relations. Its course offerings are divided into four fields: American government, comparative government, international relations, and political theory. These fields permit two undergraduate majors. The government major emphasizes American government, while the foreign affairs major emphasizes international relations. Both degree programs require study in all four of the department's fields; at the same time, they are designed to allow each student latitude in selecting of courses that meet specific interests.

The department's orientation is toward developing a critical understanding of the practical and theoretical dimensions of national and international governmental processes and institutions, as well as providing students with the necessary analytical and methodological skills. Rather than narrow specialization or vocational training, the department's programs are designed to prepare students for teaching and research, public service at all levels of government, and for other careers in fields such as business, foreign affairs, journalism, and public affairs.

Faculty  With more than thirty-five faculty members, the department offers students access to a diverse group of internationally recognized scholars and teachers. The group includes a former Vice President of the American Institute of Iranian Studies, who now serves as a consultant to the White House, Departments of State and Defense and United Nations Secretariat, a vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation, who holds nine honorary doctorates, a recipient of Fulbright, Rockefeller, N.E.H. and American Council of Learned Societies fellowships, and a Rhodes Scholar, who is a frequent political commentator on "Face the Nation" and "Nightline." The faculty has published numerous influential books.

Students  More than 650 students are currently seeking a degree in one of the two majors available in the Department. This large number means that introductory lecture courses are large (200-plus students). These courses are designed to give students an overview of a large topic ("National Government of the United States"). After these large courses, the student can pick from upper level courses and seminars which focus on more specific topics: Virginia Government and Politics, Japan in World Affairs, or Marxist Theories. Upper- level courses average thirty to forty students; seminars are limited to fifteen students. The department offers approximately 100 courses each year. In courses with large enrollments, teaching assistants lead discussion sections, which are limited to twenty students. Advanced students may enroll in graduate course work or pursue independent study topics.

Most students who receive a degree in government and foreign affairs go immediately into the work force. Corporations from around the country come to the University to recruit students. An increasingly large percentage of students, however, goes on to graduate work. Law is the most popular option, at Virginia's law school or other top schools such as Harvard and Stanford. Others choose graduate work in international relations, foreign affairs, or business.

Special Resources  Internships: Several internship programs are available to students through various research centers located within the University. These include the Center for Middle East Studies, the Center for Slavic and Russian Studies, and the Miller Center for Public Affairs. In addition, there also are internships available through state agencies and in Washington, D.C. These are to be approved by the Internship Coordinator at the Center for Public Service, then approved by the Undergraduate Advisor.

Requirements for Major  Students planning to major must see an Associate Undergraduate Advisor regarding admission and assignment to a faculty advisor. Prerequisites: Completion of at least three credits of work in this Department with no grade below "C" and a cumulative grade-point average (GPA) of 2.0 are prerequisites for majors in Government or Foreign Affairs.

Government  The major concentration in Government requires 30 credits of coursework, as specified below, including the three prerequisite hours. At least nine of those credits must be earned in courses at the 400 and 500 levels. No more than nine credits taken at the 100 and 200 levels may be counted toward the major.

The Government concentration requires the following minimum distribution of courses among the four fields:

The remaining nine credits required for the Government major may come from departmental offerings in any of the four fields, depending upon student interests and objectives.

In addition to the 30 credits required in the Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, 12 credits of courses in closely related disciplines such as history and economics, and, in appropriate cases, in other related subjects, are required, no more than six credits of which should be taken at the 100 and 200 levels. The other six credits should be in advanced courses. The students should seek to construct their related course "package" in such a way that it will contribute to their major subject field in as direct a fashion as possible.

Foreign Affairs  The major concentration in Foreign Affairs requires 30 credits of coursework, as specified below, including the three prerequisite hours. At least nine of those credits must be earned in courses at the 400 and 500 levels. No more than nine credits taken at the 100 and 200 levels may be counted toward the major.

The Foreign Affairs concentration requires the following minimum distribution of courses among the four fields:

The remaining nine credits required for the Foreign Affairs major may come from departmental offerings in any of the four fields, depending upon student interests and objectives.

In addition to the 30 credits required in the Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, 12 credits of courses in closely related disciplines such as history and economics, and in appropriate cases, in other related subjects, are required, no more than six credits of which should be taken at the 100 and 200 levels. Students should seek to construct their related course "package" in such a way that it will contribute to their major subject field in as direct a fashion as possible.

In order to assist students in selecting departmental and related courses which meet their interests, the department has outlined several clusters of courses on forms available in the department office.

Both Majors  A grade of C or better is necessary in any course counted toward the major. Students who earn a grade of C- or lower in three courses in the Department or who drop below a 2.0 GPA in the Department will not be allowed to continue as a major.

The 18 credits offered to fulfill the basic field requirements of the major must be taken in this Department. Ordinarily, six of the remaining nine credits required for the major may be transferred from other institutions, with the approval of the departmental Undergraduate Advisor. Such approval is not automatic.  In order to be counted toward the major, work done elsewhere must be of a suitable nature and quality and must be offered in compliance with departmental rules available from the Undergraduate Advisor. Students already enrolled at the University of Virginia who wish to take courses at other institutions (including foreign ones) must obtain advance approval from the Dean of the College and, for courses to be counted toward the major, from the departmental Undergraduate Advisor as well. Students who transfer to the University may transfer the three credits for the required prerequisite and up to six of the nine credits not specified as fulfilling basic field requirements for the major after proper validation.

Under no circumstance may advanced placement credit count toward fulfilling the major.

Requirements for Minor  A minor program in Government and Foreign Affairs shall consist of at least 15 credits of course work taken at the University in at least two of the four fields of the Department, with a grade of C or better. At least nine credits must be in one field. Of the 15 credits, no more than six credits may be taken at the introductory (100 and 200) level, but only one introductory course may be taken in a field. At least three credits must be taken at the 400 or 500 level. No AP credit is allowed for a minor.

Students taking the minor in Government or Foreign Affairs should fill out a minor application in the Department's academic office (Cabell 240). At the beginning of their last semester before graduation, students should receive a PACE form which serves as the degree application. The PACE form must have a departmental advisor's signature. Students taking the minor program have access to the Undergraduate Advisor and may attend departmental guest lectures and informal seminars. The Department's rules for satisfactory standing apply.

Honors Program  The Bachelor of Arts with honors, high honors, or highest honors may be awarded to students who follow a special course of study during the third and fourth years. It combines Honors seminars and a thesis with independent as well as ungraded study in this department and others. Written examinations are given at the end of each year and a general oral examination is conducted by an independent examining committee at the end of the fourth year. The John White Stevenson Prize may be awarded annually for the best Honors thesis.

Students of unusual academic distinction and promise may be selected for participation. They should consult with the department's Honors Program Advisor at the time of declaring a major. Before admission to Honors study, they should complete with superior grades at least three courses distributed among the fields of American Government, Comparative Government, International Relations, and Political Theory.

The Distinguished Majors Program  Students of high academic achievement are eligible for the Department's Distinguished Majors Program. Students completing the program graduate with distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction. A prerequisite of three credits of course work in the Department and departmental and University GPA's of 3.4 or above are required for admission. Students wishing to apply should submit an application form, a statement of interest in the DMP, a copy of their current transcript, and two sealed letters of recommendation from faculty members. Students may apply in the second semester of their third year. Application deadline is February 1.

In addition to the prerequisite, a DMP student is required to take 30 credits in the Department. These must include at least 15 credits at the 400 and 500 levels. These courses must also satisfy the general departmental distribution rules. The DMP student is also required to write a thesis of high quality for which six credits may be earned as part of the 33 credit total. Students complete their theses while enrolled in GFAD 496, which is a year long course. Thesis work is done under the supervision of an individual faculty advisor.

Departmental recommendations for levels of distinction, high distinction, and highest distinction are based on (1) the quality of the student's thesis; (2) overall work in the major field of study; and (3) the student's overall College record.

Conferences and Special Activities  Students and faculty of the department meet frequently in informal and off-the-record conferences throughout the session at which discussions are led by visiting authorities from government, business, and educational institutions. Speakers of distinction are also brought to the Grounds by student organizations, including those consisting primarily of students in the department. Field trips are organized when appropriate to study the operation of government and international relations at first hand in nearby Richmond, Washington, and the United Nations.

The Quincy Wright Library (Cabell Hall 211) is the Department's special reference collection. It is available to undergraduates as a supplement to their explorations in Alderman and Clemons Libraries.

Additional Information  For more information, contact

Larry Sabato
Director of Undergraduate Advising
Department of Government and Foreign Affairs
240 Cabell Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-3604
Government and Foreign Affairs World Wide Web site
Government and Foreign Affairs faculty

Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service

The Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service was created in 1987 by the merger of the former Institute of Government and portions of the former Tayloe Murphy Institute. With research programs in government, public policy, business and economics, and demographics, the Center brings multiple perspectives to the study of Virginia. It assists both state and local governments in the Commonwealth with research into specific issues, management expertise, planning, and social and economic data. The Center also sponsors professional education programs for government managers and elected officials, through the Virginia Institute of Government, and it hosts the Virginia Institute of Political Leadership. In all its work, the Center aims to apply the University's resources to improving the public life of Virginia.

Senior staff members are University faculty who frequently teach courses in their respective fields. The Center employs both work-study students, who serve as office staff, and graduate research assistants, who gain firsthand experience in research and government by participating in Center projects. The Center's publications program makes readily available a wealth of data on Virginia to supplement students' coursework in political science, economics, history, and sociology. Besides its central offices in Charlottesville, the Center maintains a Southwest Virginia office in Wise County and a Richmond office.

White Burkett Miller Center of Public Affairs

The Miller Center is an institute of independent thought and inquiry at the University of Virginia. Its research and study program is dedicated to scholarly investigation into the American presidency. Its three major points of focus are examination of the nature and purpose of the presidency, of particular problems in which the presidency is deeply involved, and of individual presidencies. It has an extensive outreach program including the sponsorship of national commissions on urgent problems. University faculty and advanced students participate in its weekly forums as do community leaders.

Additional Information For more information, contact

Kenneth W. Thompson
Director of the Miller Center
2201 Old Ivy Road
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-7236


Departmental Seminars

GFAD 100 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Seminar in Government and Foreign Affairs
Open to first and second year students. Only one GFAD seminar per student.
An introduction to the discipline of political science through intensive study of the political dimensions of a selected topic.

GFAD 496 - (6) (Y)
Thesis for Distinguished Majors Program
Students must be previously admitted into the Department's Distinguished Majors Program.

American Government

GFAG 101 - (3) (S)
National Government of the United States
An introduction to the political institutions and processes of the national government of the United States, focusing particularly on the Congress, presidency, and courts, and on their interrelationships. Attention is also given to public opinion, suffrage and elections, political parties, and interest groups. There is as well some consideration of significant problems and issues of national policy, such as civil rights, governmental regulation, and foreign relations.

GFAG 321 - (3) (Y)
Political Parties and Group Politics
An introduction to the roles of parties, interest groups, public opinion, and elections in democratic government.

GFAG 322 - (3) (Y)
President and Congress
The political bases, structures, and functions of Congress and the institutionalized Presidency, and their interaction in political leadership and policy making.

GFAG 327 - (3) (Y)
Public Opinion and the Political Process
The nature of public opinion and its relationship to politics and public policy.

GFAG 335 - (3) (Y)
Gender Politics and Public Policy
Examines the ways in which gender affects political participation and the development of relevant public policies. Also examines the suffrage movement, ERA, as well as more contemporary issues.

GFAG 341 - (3) (Y)
State and Local Government
The structure, powers, and functions of state and local government in the United States.

GFAG 344 - (3) (Y)
Urban Government and Politics
An analysis of the structure, politics, and problems of American cities. The meaning and scope of "urban crisis" receive extensive attention. The growing ties between the federal government and cities, central city-suburban conflict, machine politics, and welfare and housing policies are other topics given special treatment.

GFAG 351 - (3) (Y)
Minority Group Politics
Examination of the problems and politics of minority groups in the United States. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of minority group politics will be treated, including their comparative experience in the U.S.

GFAG 355 - (3) (Y)
Gender Politics
Examines the legal and political status of women, and the politics of changes in that status. How are gender identities forged, and how do they affect law, public policy, political rhetoric, and political movement? The course explores, more generally, the clash between "difference" and "equality" in democratic societies, using gender as a case-study.

GFAG 361 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Public Administration
The role of public administration in contemporary government, with emphasis upon administrative structure, control, and relations with other branches of government.

GFAG 424 - (3) (S)
Seminar: Special Topics in American Government
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
An intensive study of a selected issue in American government or American political development.

GFAG 426 - (3) (IR)
Special Topics in Public Policy or Public Administration
An intensive analysis of selected issues in public policy or public administration.

GFAG 430 (3) (Y)
Modern Political Analysis
Encompasses basic issues in the design, execution, analysis and interpretation of political research. Familiarizes students with practical tools, such as statistics and computing skills, which enable them to carry out an original research project.

GFAG 431 - (3) (Y)
American Presidency
Prerequisite: Three hours in American Government, constitutional or political history, or permission of instructor
An examination of the power, purposes, and problematics of the Presidency as a role of national leadership in the American and political constitutional system. While the emphasis will be on the modern presidency (1933-present), attention will be given to the historical development of the presidency.

GFAG 434 - (3) (Y)
American Political Leadership
Prerequisite: GFAG 101 or the equivalent
The theory and practice of political leadership at the national level of government with comparisons to state, local, and foreign government. Includes leadership in different institutional and policy settings, techniques of leadership, types of leaders, bargaining among leaders, experience of specific leaders, and conditions and opportunities of leadership.

GFAG 435 - (3) (Y)
American Congress
Prerequisite: Three hours in American Government, constitutional or political history, or permission of instructor
The course focuses on the contemporary organization and workings of the United States Congress. Special attention is paid to elections, the committee system, political parties, staff, and the law-making process. The role of Congress in the national policy making system is also treated.

GFAG 436 - (3) (Y)
Campaigns and Elections
Prerequisite: Enrollment limited; permission of instructor required
This seminar will concentrate on a review and analysis of the techniques and technologies of modern American election campaigns.

GFAG 438 - (3) (Y)
The Politics of the Policy Process
Prerequisite: GFAG 101
The course focuses on cross-institutional and inter-level (federal/state/local) public policy processes. Primary emphasis is on domestic policy issues-how they are defined and treated in government by executive and legislative units. Interest group involvement will also be emphasized.

GFAG 471 - (3) (Y)
Values, Resources, and Public Policy
Prerequisite: At least two courses in government, economics, philosophy, or religious studies
An examination of the political, economic, and ethical content of enduring domestic policy issues.

GFAG 481 - (3) (Y)
Constitutional Interpretation: Structure and Powers ofthe Federal Government
Prerequisites: Two courses in American Government or permission of instructor
The legislative, executive and judicial branches and the functional and territorial distribution of powers as reflected by Supreme Court decisions. The nature of the judicial process. (No CR/NC enrollees.)

GFAG 482 - (3) (Y)
Constitutional Limitations: The Rights, Obligations, andPrivileges of the Individual
Prerequisites: Two courses in American Government or permission of instructor
Judicial construction and interpretation of civil rights and liberties reflected by Supreme Court decisions. Line-drawing between rights and obligations. (No CR/NC enrollees.)

GFAG 491 - (3) (Y)
Constitutional Politics: Struggle for Power
The basic assumptions of historical development of American constitutionalism from the Founding period through the Nineteenth Century, with emphasis upon federalism, the departments of government, and governmental powers. (No credit/no credit enrollees.)

GFAG 492 - (3) (Y)
Constitutional Politics: Limitations on Power
Developments in constitutional politics in the twentieth century with an emphasis upon the growth of constitutional power, conflicts over separation of powers and federalism, the enforcement of civil liberties/civil rights and the impact of government upon the economic order. (No credit/no credit enrollees.)

GFAG 493 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GFAG 101 or permission of instructor
The political and jurisprudential ideas that inform the American tradition of constitutionalism: examination of the idea of the rule of law in political and historical perspective.

GFAG 494 - (3) (S)
Race and Constitution
The constitutional law of racial discrimination in the United States from the founding to the present. Supreme Court decisions and congressional civil rights acts considered. (May not be taken on credit/no credit basis.)

GFAG 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Twelve semester-credits of work in government and related courses, or permission of instructor, are prerequisite for 500 courses

GFAG 512 - (3) (IR)
Electoral Behavior
Prerequisite: GFAG 101 and GFAG 327
A survey of current theories and research on electoral behavior, including political participation, partisanship, voting behavior, and the impact of electoral institutions.

GFAG 543 - (3) (Y)
Intergovernmental Relations
Prerequisite: Six credits of American Government or fourth-year standing
The contemporary relations of national, state, and local governments; urban and metropolitan growth problems and their implications for public policy and administration in relation to the federal system.

GFAG 545 - (3) (Y)
Virginia Government and Politics
Prerequisite: Enrollment limited; prior permission of instructor required
Virginia government at the state, county, municipal, and special district levels. Considers legislative, executive, judicial organization, intergovernmental relations, and structural and political arrangements in the existing and emerging metropolitan areas.

GFAG 562 - (3) (Y)
Organization Theory and Administrative Behavior
Principles of organization from scientific management theory through contemporary theorists. Relationship of workers and management to the organization with primary emphasis on government.

GFAG 564 - (3) (Y)
Politics, Policy and Administration
The formulation, decision, and administration of public policy in its political context.

GFAG 592 - (3) (Y)
Judicial Policymaking
Prerequisite: Nine credits in American Government and permission of instructor
Examines the structure and process of judicial policymaking, focusing on agenda-setting, deciding cases and opinion writing, implementation, compliance and impact. Particular attention is given to the United States Supreme Court and its relationship to lower federal and state courts and the political environment.

GFAG 594 - (3) (Y)
Administrative Law and Public Policy
Examines the law-politics exchange in the American system of administrative law.

GFAG 595 - (3) (S)
Selected Problems in American Government
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Independent study under faculty supervision, for students who are preparing for intensive research on a specific topic.

Comparative Government

GFCG 101 - (3) (Y)
Comparative Government
Provides a basis for understanding and explaining similarities and differences in the character of political life as observed in different settings. Issues include the political role of parties and interest groups, management of political conflict, establishment of legitimate political authority, and the consequences of federal and unitary systems of government.

GFCG 311 - (3) (Y)
The Politics of Western Europe
A survey of recent developments in selected political systems of Western Europe with special emphasis placed on the impact of political culture on governmental institutions and political processes.

GFCG - 312 - (3) (Y)
The Politics of Developing Areas
A survey of patterns of government and politics in non-western political systems in which political elites, sources of political power, national integration, economic development, foreign penetration, and other topics will be discussed.

CFCG 313 - (3) (Y)
Political Economy of Development
Prerequisite: GFIR 205 or permission of instructor
Examines the political prerequisites (and impediments) to economic development, focusing on agricultural exporters in the 19th century and manufactured goods exporters in the 20th century. Draws on empirical material from North and South American, Europe, Asia and Africa.

GFCG 321, 322 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of the Former USSR
Political institutions and processes in the Soviet Union, with special emphasis on Marxist-Leninist ideology, the role of the Communist Party, and the principal social and economic problems confronting the regime.

GFCG 341 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa
Introduces students to the contemporary political systems of the region stretching from Morocco to Iran. A number of themes are stressed: the struggle for independence; the problems of forming nation-states; the persistence of strong social forces; the role of leadership; the weakness of institutions; political and economic reasons for underdevelopment; oil and renter states; the importance of religion; the political role of women; and prospects for democratization.

GFCG 381 - (3) (IR)
Government and Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa
An introductory survey of the social bases, political structures, institutions and developmental problems of Sub-Saharan African states.

GFCG 401 - (3) (Y)
Fundamentals of Comparative Government
Critical examination and analysis of the basic approaches to the study of political systems.

GFCG 413 - (3) (IR)
Political Economy of Advanced Industrial Economies,BR. Examines how the U. S., Germany and Japan politically organize their major industries, and the economic consequences of this regulation. It compares financial systems, unionization and firms' internal organization, looking at relations between firms and labor, labor and the state, and firms and the state.

GFCG 414 - (3) (IR)
Authoritarian Government
A study of several authoritarian governments, past and present, from Ceasar's Rome to Mao's China.

GFCG 415 - (3) (Y)
Comparative Public Policy
A seminar focused on the question of why policies in areas like social welfare, education, and trade differ across time and across countries in the advanced industrialized nations.

GFCG 424 - (3) (S)
Seminar: Topics in Comparative Government
An intensive analysis of selected issues and concepts in comparative government.

GFCG 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Twelve semester-credits of work in government and related courses, or permission of instructor, are prerequisite for 500-courses.

GFCG 501 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Political Systems of Northern Europe
Prerequisite: GFCG 311 or permission of instructor
A comprehensive survey of selected political systems of Northern Europe: such as the British Isles, the Low Countries, Germany, or Scandinavia.

GFCG 502 - (3) (IR)
Comparative Political Systems of Southern Europe
Prerequisite: GFCG 311 or permission of instructor
A comprehensive survey of selected political systems in Southern Europe: such as France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal.

GFCG 505 - (3) (Y)
Perspectives in Comparative Government
Designed to introduce students to important theoretical issues in comparative political analysis. It begins by examining the classic works of Weber and Marx. Explores issues such as the dynamics of social movements, the relationship between political power and political culture, ethnicity and religion in politics, and the role of the state in economic development. Introduces students to rational choice, hermeneutic, and institutionalist approaches to political analysis.

GFCG 506 - (3) (Y)
Political Development and Developmental Politics
Critical examination and analysis of the basic theories of political development and the structure and process of developmental politics.

GFCG 511 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of Western Europe
Prerequisite: Graduate status or permission of instructor
An in depth analysis of the institutional structures and policy processes of selected political systems in Europe today. Special attention will be devoted to legislatures, political executives, administrative bureaucracies and their interrelationships as they affect policymaking and policy implementation.

GFCG 521 (Y), 522 (IR) - (3)
Government and Politics of the Former USSR I, II
The political institutions and processes in the Soviet Union, with special emphasis on party organization, the struggle for power, the problem of terror and the rule of law, and techniques of political socialization.

GFCG 523 (Y), 524 (IR) - (3)
Government and Politics of Eastern Europe
The political institutions, economic and social policies, and revolutionary movements of the countries of Eastern Europe, from World War I to the present. The first semester aims to acquaint the student with the region, and covers the history and geography of Eastern Europe as well as dealing with political institutions. The second semester deals with problems of modernization, social change, and the evolution of political institutions in Eastern Europe from a comparative point of view.

GFCG 525 - (3) (Y)
Politics of Economic Reform
A wave of economic change has swept across countries from Argentina to Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. The unfolding of these changes has been structured and in turn has shaped the politics of the countries in which they have occurred. This course aims to formulate an analytical framework for understanding the politics of economic reform. Readings cover cases in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

GFCG 531 - (3) (E)
Government and Politics of Latin America
Constitutional, political, and administrative system of the major countries of Latin America. The political implications of economic development and social reform; nationalist theories of socio-political development.

GFCG 533 - (3) (O)
Political Parties and Movements in Latin America
Origins, activities, and contemporary position of the major political parties and movements in Latin America and Spain; their relationship to economic development, social reform, and the conduct of government in the principal Latin American states.

GFCG 534 - (3) (IR)
The Politics of Brazil
Covers domestic and foreign policy problems of Brazil such as the economic crises, political democratization and foreign policy issues.

GFCG 536 - (3) (IR)
Role of the Military in Latin America
The impact of the military on government and society, and the conditions affecting military intervention against constitutional governments and the circumstances in which military intervention occurs and is likely to occur in Latin America and Spain.

GFCG 541 - (3) (Y)
Islam and Democracy in the Middle East
Prerequisite: GFCG 341 or equivalent
Prospects for democratic transitions in Middle Eastern states, with emphasis on the role of Islamic political movements.

GFCG 551 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of China
The structure and process of the Chinese political system with special attention to political culture, socio-economic development and political socialization.

GFCG 553 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of Japan
Survey of contemporary Japanese society and political behavior including such topics as political culture, interest groups, political parties, parliamentary democracy, decision-making, and public policy.

GFCG 567 - (3) (Y)
Comparative Science and Technology Policy
An examination of the increasingly vital role played by science and technology policy in promoting economic and social welfare. Special attention is paid to government efforts to enhance domestic scientific and technological capabilities. Comparison of the development of the computer industry in the United States, Japan, South Korea, Brazil and India is used to explore theoretical issues.

GFCG 581 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa
Not open to students who had CG 381
A survey of the principal topics in the study of government and politics of sub-Saharan Africa. This will include: the colonial experience and the rise of African nationalism; the transition to independence; the rise and fall of African one-party states; the role of the military in African politics; the politics of ethnicity, nation-building and state-building; patromonialism and patron-client relations; development problems faced by African regimes, including relations with external actors; the political future of Southern Africa.

GFCG 583 - (3) (Y)
Government and Politics of South Africa
Prerequisite: GFCG 312 or GFCG 381 or permission of instructor
Concentrates on the socio-political structures of white supremacy. Special attention is devoted to the confrontation between African and Afrikaaner nationalisms, the consequences of economic growth on the patterns of racial stratification, and the possibilities of the significant political transformation of the apartheid system.

GFCG 595 - (3) (S)
Selected Problems in Comparative Government
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Independent study, under faculty supervision, for students who are preparing for intensive research on a specific topic.

International Relations

GFIR 101 - (3) (Y)
International Relations
The geographic, demographic, economic, ideological, and other factors conditioning the policies of states; and the methods and institutions of conflict and adjustment among states, including the functions of power, diplomacy, international law and organization.

GFIR 202 - (3) (Y)
Foreign Policies of the Powers
The foreign policy of the United States and the other major powers, as well as selected smaller powers.

GFIR 205 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Political Economy
An introduction to core concepts in political economy, including the institutional bases for states and markets, and the way these interact through the exercise of exit, voice, and collective action. Empirical material is drawn from the last five centuries.

GFIR 301 - (3) (Y)
Evolution of International Relations
Focuses upon historic, economic, technological and other special factors which influence the nature of the international system and the processes of interaction among peoples. One or two themes may be emphasized in a given semester.

GFIR 305 - (3) (Y)
Philosophy of International Relations
Prerequisite: GFIR 101 or 301 or permission of instructor
The philosophical foundations of the study of international relations as formulated by classical and contemporary thinkers.

GFIR 321 - (3) (Y)
International Organizations
An introduction to the nature, functions, and significance of international organizations in international relations. Special attention will be given to the United Nations.

GFIR 338 - (3) (Y)
Theories of International Political Economy
Prerequisite: GFIR 205 or permission of instructor
Examines international conflict and cooperation over economic issues, using a variety of theoretical perspectives. A secondary concern is the domestic sources of foreign economic policy and the relationship between economic and military security. Issues are drawn from the 19th and 20th centuries.

GFIR 351 - (3) (Y)
Western Europe in World Affairs
The content and formulation of the foreign policies of the major Western European countries in the twentieth century.

GFIR 355 - (3) (Y)
Foreign Policy of the Former USSR
The impact of Leninism, Stalinism and post-Stalin reform communism on foreign policy. The Soviet concept of peaceful coexistence, wars of national liberation, self-determination, the Brezhnev doctrine and Socialist internationalism. Special attention is given to Soviet post World War II policies towards the United States, Europe, China, and selected developing countries.

GFIR 375 - (3) (Y)
South Asia in World Affairs
The international relations of India; factors that condition its foreign policy. The relation between internal need for unity, stability and development, and foreign policy. India as a regional power and as a global leader of nonalignment.

GFIR 404 - (3) (O)
International Politics
Comparative analysis of major periods in international politics, with emphasis upon the definitive traits of the contemporary era.

GFIR 405/505 - (3) (Y)
International Relations Theory and Ethics
History and evaluation of major theorists in international relations with emphasis on ethical issues.

GFIR 406 - (3) (Y)
Military Force in International Relations
Prerequisite: Twelve credits of work in government and related courses or permission of instructor
Examines the threat and use of military force in international relations. Topics include deterrence theory and recent critiques, ethical and international legal considerations, domestic constraints, and the postwar U.S. and Soviet experiences with the use of force.

GFIR 408 - (3) (Y)
International Politics in the Nuclear Age
Prerequisite: At least one course in international relations
Considers the impact of nuclear weapons on the relations among states.

GFIR 411 - (3) (Y)
International Law: Principles and Politics
Addresses the following questions: What are "international legal rules?" How do they originate? How do they evolve over time? Of what political consequence are they? And, what is their relationship to morality? Special attention is given to the international legal rules governing territoriality, nationality, human rights, and the recourse to armed force.

GFIR 421 - (3) (Y)
World Order
Prerequisite: Two courses in international relations
Analyzes the problem of world order and examine various theoretical approaches to its solutions.

GFIR 424 - (3) (S)
Seminar: Topics in International Relations
An intensive analysis of selected issues and concepts in international relations.

GFIR 438 - (3) (Y)
America in a World Economy
Politics of the international trade and monetary systems, focussing on third world industrialization, trade conflicts between the U.S. and Japan, and the global debt crisis.

GFIR 440 - (3) (Y)
Foreign Policy of the United States
An analysis of American Foreign Policy from World War II through the Nixon-Ford administrations.

GFIR 441 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary U.S. Foreign Policy
An analysis of contemporary American Foreign Policy, with an emphasis on the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton administrations.

GFIR 465 - (3) (Y)
International Relations of the Middle East
Concentrates on the emergence of the contemporary inter-state system in the Middle East; the important role played by outside powers, especially the United States; the effect of the Cold War on the region; the persistent conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors and the efforts to reach peace; and the difficulty of constructing a stable order in the Persian Gulf.

GFIR 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Twelve credits of work in government and related courses, or permission of instructor are prerequisite for 500-courses.

GFIR 507 - (3) (IR)
Value Systems in International Relations
Ideologies and value systems affecting the foreign policy of the United States, the Soviet Union, and China. Interaction of ideology and policy. Human rights and pragmatism in U. S. foreign policy; the development of the Sino-Soviet conflict; the rise of Eurocommunism.

GFIR 508 - (3) (Y)
American National Security Policy
An analysis of the changing definitions of national security by U.S. administrations from World War II to the present.

GFIR 522 - (3) (Y)
Political Conflict Management in International Organizations
Prerequisite: GFIR 321 or 721 or permission of instructor
The principles and methods involved in the management of political conflicts by international organizations. Case studies of peaceful settlement, peacekeeping operations, and sanctions. Special attention is given to the political role of the Secretary-General and the problems of organizing international sanctions.

GFIR 538 - (3) (Y)
International Political Economy
Prerequisite: Nine credits of economics or permission of instructor
An intensive analysis of concepts and selected issues, historical and contemporary, to be found in the interfacing of politics and economics in international relations.

GFIR 542 - (3) (Y)
Patterns and Processes of United States Foreign Policy
Prerequisite: GFIR 340 or the equivalent
The politics of the American foreign policy process as illustrated through comparative analysis of case studies.

GFIR 551 - (3) (IR)
Western Europe in World Affairs
Prerequisite: Not open to students who have taken GFIR 351
The changing role of Western Europe in twentieth century international relations; the loss of Europe's world hegemony and the shifts of power among the states of Western Europe.

GFIR 555 (Y), 556 (IR) - (3)
The Former USSR and Eastern Europe in World Affairs
The role of the U.S.S.R. and other countries of Eastern Europe in international relations, including the relations of the U.S.S.R. with other Slavic peoples, Soviet influence in East Asia, the Communist International, disputes growing out of World War II, and American-Soviet relations today.

GFIR 562 - (3) (Y)
Latin America in World Affairs
Relations of Latin-American states with each other, the United States, Western Europe, and other states. Inter-American security, Latin American relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba, and the United States security doctrine.

GFIR 571 - (3) (Y)
China in World Affairs
International relations of China; conditioning historical, political, economic, and social forces. Aims, strategy, and tactics of China's foreign policy.

GFIR 572 - (3) (Y)
Japan in World Affairs
The international relations of Japan; domestic and foreign factors and forces that condition its foreign policies. Political, economic, military, and social problems resulting from contacts with China, the Soviet Union, and the Western powers.

GFIR 582 - (3) (Y)
Africa and the World
An overview of the international politics of sub-Saharan Africa, including inter-African relations as well as Africa's relations with the major powers, and the international dimensions of the Southern African situation. Alternative policy options open to African states will be explored. Attention will be given to a number of case studies which illustrate the policy alternatives.

GFIR 595 - (3) (S)
Selected Problems in International Relations
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Independent study, under faculty supervision, for students who are preparing for intensive research on a specific topic.

Political Theory

GFPT 101 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Political Theory
Introduction to political philosophy as a mode of inquiry; consideration of selected problems and writers in western political theory.

GFPT 301 - (3) (Y)
Political Theory From Plato to Machiavelli
The development of political theory from Greek antiquity through the Medieval period.

GFPT 302 - (3) (Y)
Modern Political Thought
The development of political theory from the Renaissance through the nineteenth century.

GFPT 303 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Political Thought
The course of political theory from the late 19th century through the present. This includes the major critical perspectives on modern politics and culture (existentialism, feminism, post-modernism, "critical theory") and explores the problems that have preoccupied political theory in this period (alienation, language, individualism and discrimination).

GFPT 305 - (3) (Y)
Survey of American Political Theory
A survey of the development of the American tradition of free government with emphasis upon the major contributors and their critics.

GFPT 403 - (3) (Y)
Democracy and Its Critics
A survey of the major contributors to democratic theory, of the central problems that any democratic theory has to answer, and of the criticisms leveled at the various philosophical attempts to give a firm ground for democratic practices.

GFPT 424 - (3) (Y)
Seminar: Topics in Political Theory
Investigation of a special problem of political theory such as political corruption, religion and politics, science and politics, or the nature of justice.

GFPT 480 - (3) (Y)
Politics and Economics
Historical and contemporary theorists who relate politics and economics.

GFPT 498 - (3) (S)
Senior Thesis
Twelve credits of work in government and related courses, or permission of instructor, are prerequisite for 500-courses.

GFPT 501 - (3) (Y)
Nature of Political Inquiry
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Important conceptual issues encountered in the scientific study of politics.

GFPT 502 - (3) (Y)
Basic Problems of Political Philosophy
Examination of the character of political philosophy and its justification under contemporary circumstances.

GFPT 503 - (3) (Y)
Marxist Theories
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
The basic political, sociological and philosophical ideas advanced by Marx and Engels, and their historical backgrounds; the later developments and varieties of Marxist thought in the twentieth century, the principal critics, and chief debates.

GFPT 505 - (3) (Y)
Liberal Theories
The political and philosophical ideas of the thinkers who contributed to the emergence of the modern liberal state.

GFPT 506 - (3) (Y)
Plato and Aristotle
Prerequisite: GFPT 101 or 301 or permission of instructor
The political and philosophical ideas of the founders of the tradition of political philosophy.

GFPT 515 - (3) (Y)
Continental Political Thought
Prerequisite: Any previous GFPT course or permission of instructor
A survey of the main currents of Continental political thought from the eighteenth century through the present.

GFPT 595 - (3) (S)
Selected Problems in Theory and Method
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Independent study, under faculty supervision, for students who are preparing for intensive research on a specific topic.