Department of Chemistry

Overview  The Department of Chemistry offers outstanding physical facilities and a close-knit community of scholars-an environment that demonstrates that chemistry is far more than the study of matter and its interactions. Chemists contribute to such diverse fields as medicine, agriculture, oceanography, and archaeology. The University offers several chemistry programs, giving students the opportunity to define their individual educational and career goals.

Chemistry is divided into five areas of study: organic, inorganic, biological, physical, and analytical. The first-year courses include elements of all of these areas. While organic chemistry is studied most intensely in the second year, inorganic and physical chemistry are the center of concentration in the third and fourth years. Advisors steer students toward specialized courses that correspond with their individual interests and aid them choosing a specific program.

Faculty  The twenty-five members of the faculty include professors who are nationally and internationally recognized in their fields. The list of recent honors received by faculty members include the American Chemical Society's Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Organic Chemistry; the Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award for excellence in both teaching and research; and a 1992 and 1996 Virginia Scientist of the Year award.

Teaching and research have been strengthened in recent years by a number of grants from government and private sources. These funds have permitted the acquisition of excellent instrumental facilities as well as the establishment of an outstanding program in molecular research. The department has also made a major commitment to research in biological and biophysical chemistry. These programs, along with ongoing research in analytical methods, spectroscopy, and synthetic inorganic and organic chemistry, provide the student with a choice of strong research areas over a broad range of the chemical sciences. The faculty attracts approximately $6 million yearly in outside funding to support these programs, an indicator of the vigor of the research being carried out in the department.

Students  Each year approximately eighty students graduate with a degree in chemistry, which makes the program one of the largest in the nation. Students have significant opportunities to conduct research and independent study projects with professors. Advanced students may receive money from research grants or enroll in graduate courses. The class size of chemistry courses varies widely. The introductory chemistry courses are quite large, but upper level courses are usually small, with no more than thirty students per class. All lab sections are small, in order to provide an intimate atmosphere.

Students who have graduated with a B.S. in chemistry have been admitted to the best graduate schools in the country, while some have accepted positions in industrial or government labs. The number of B.A. graduates accepted to top medical schools (especially those who specialize in biological chemistry) has been extremely high, while some B.A. graduates' areas of expertise have prepared them for government jobs in government agencies, laboratories, chemical firms, and graduate school.

Special Resources  Modern research is dependent on advanced instrumentation and our department is particularly well-equipped in this area. The mass spectrometry facility contains five instruments including a glow-discharge mass spectrometer; two triple quadruple mass spectrometers, and an ion cyclotron resonance instrument. Nuclear magnetic resonance instruments include several super conducting spectrometers. Research in molecular spectroscopy is a major focus of a number of research instrumentation. Pulsed laser spectroscopy capabilities include high-power examiner laser systems. The department has well-equipped machine and electronic shops under the supervision of skilled instrument makers and technicians. Finally, there are extensive computer facilities throughout the University to help collect and analyze data.

Requirements for Major  Two programs of study are open to students wishing to major in chemistry. The program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Chemistry is intended for those who plan to make their professional career in chemistry.

Those wishing a less intensive program in chemistry, such as pre-medical students, should elect the B.A. with a major in Chemistry. The student may choose either a conventional B.A. in Chemistry or one which specializes in Biological Chemistry. The normal program for a conventional B.A. in Chemistry includes: Chemistry 141, 142, 141L, 142L (or Chemistry 181, 182, 181L, 182L); Chemistry 241, 242, 241L, 242L (or Chemistry 281, 282, 281L, 282L); 341, 342 (or 361, 362); 371, 372 and one other three credit chemistry elective at the 400-level or higher. A year of Physics with laboratory and MATH 122 or 132 are required for the B.A. in Chemistry.

Specialization in Biological Chemistry  The Department of Chemistry offers an opportunity for a student to obtain a B.A. in Chemistry with a specialization in Biological Chemistry. The normal program includes Chemistry 141, 142, 141L, 142L, 222, (or Chemistry 181, 182, 181L, 182L); Chemistry 241, 242, 241L, 242L (or Chemistry 281, 282, 281L, 282L); Chemistry 252; Chemistry 341, 342; Chemistry 441, 442, 451, 452. This program includes five Biological Chemistry courses, with 451 and 452 (Biological Chemistry laboratory) replacing the Physical Chemistry laboratory of the conventional B.A. in Chemistry major. Biology 201 is recommended, although not required, prior to taking Chemistry 441, 442. Mathematics 122 or 132 and one year of physics with laboratory are required. Students interested in this program are encouraged to consult early with departmental advisors for additional information and suggested course sequences. In both the conventional and specialized B.A. majors a judicious selection of additional courses permits the student to satisfy prerequisites for admission to graduate school in chemistry or related fields of study.

Bachelor of Science in Chemistry  The Bachelor of Science in Chemistry is a professional degree accredited by the American Chemical Society, designed to prepare the student for a career in chemistry, often anticipating admission to graduate study in chemistry. The program is not intended as a preparation for the study of medicine: premedical students who wish to major in Chemistry should generally elect a B.A. program.

Candidates for the degree must complete, with a grade-point average of at least 2.0, a minimum of 120 credits composed of required courses and approved electives.


Recommended B.S. Program


Area Options The fourth-year program is adaptable to individual student interests in that there are no specific required courses. Instead, students select two of five available area options. A three credit course from each of the two selected area options must be passed. The currently available area options and choice of courses are:

  1. Physical: Chemistry 521 or 522
  2. Organic: Chemistry 511 or 516
  3. Inorganic: Chemistry 535, 536
  4. Analytical: Chemistry 554
  5. Biological: Chemistry 441 or 442
Approved Electives are basically free electives to be chosen by the candidate in conference with the advisor, subject to the requirement that the program of courses include six credits in the humanities and six credits in the social sciences.

Course Sequence The sequence of required courses shown is the normal one. Students who have taken Chemistry 141, 142, 141L, 142L and who wish to obtain the B.S. degree, should complete Chemistry 222. Chemistry 222 may not be offered for credit by students who complete Chemistry 181, 182, 181L, 182L. Likewise it is possible to major in chemistry after taking Physics 201-202 rather than 231, 232 if the student offers sufficient other work in physics or related areas. Candidates who for any reason have not followed the normal sequence should consult the advisor as early as possible.

Distinguished Majors Program Students with a cumulative grade point of 3.4 or higher after five semesters may apply for the Distinguished Majors Program. Applications and inquiries must be made to the Undergraduate Programs Committee prior to the beginning of the seventh semester. The Distinguished Majors Programs consists of specified course requirements within the B.A. or B.S. programs and two semesters (six credits) of study or research under the supervision of a faculty member. The results of the research will be submitted in written form and presented to a faculty committee. Additional information can be obtained from the Undergraduate Programs Committee of the Chemistry Department.

Requirements for Minor A minor in chemistry requires the satisfactory completion of the following courses: CHEM 141, 142, 141L, 142L; CHEM 241, 242 or CHEM 281, 282; CHEM 241L, 242L or CHEM 281L, 282L; CHEM 341 or CHEM 361; and one other chemistry course at the 300-level or higher (except chemistry research courses). CHEM 222 may be presented as the elective course if CHEM 142 is included in the program.

Note: Students who receive advanced standing credit for CHEM 141, 142 and who take CHEM 181,182 may not count both CHEM 141, 142 and CHEM 181, 182 toward the degree.

The student is responsible for breakage charges.

Additional Information For more information, contact the

Undergraduate Advisor
Department of Chemistry
Chemistry Building
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-3344
Chemistry World Wide Web site
Chemistry faculty


Courses

CHEM 121N - (3) (Y)
Concepts of Chemistry
The unifying ideas of the structure of matter and energy including topics such as the ozone layer and radioactivity, and the nature of scientific investigation. Primarily for non-science majors. Three class hours, no laboratory.

CHEM 122N - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Chemistry
By examining what science teaches us about relevant topics such as energy, synthetics, and food, the student develops a sense of the tone, vocabulary, and demarcation of scientific discourse. Independent of, complementary to, and non-overlapping with CHEM 121N. Primarily for non-science majors. Three class hours, no laboratory.

CHEM 141, 142 - (3) (Y)
Introductory College Chemistry
Corequisite: CHEM 141L, 142L or CHEM 181L, 182L
Principles and applications of chemistry are developed. Topics include stoichiometry, chemical equations and reactions, chemical bonding, states of matter, thermochemistry, chemical kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry and descriptive chemistry of the elements. For students planning to elect further courses in chemistry, physics, and biology. Three class hours.

CHEM 141L, 142L - (2) (Y)
Introductory College Chemistry Laboratory
Corequisite: CHEM 141, 142, or CHEM 181, 182
The practice of chemistry as an experimental science, the development of skills in laboratory manipulation, and laboratory safety. Observation, measurement and data analysis, separation and purification techniques, qualitative and quantitative analysis. Three and one-half laboratory hours, and an optional one hour laboratory lecture.

CHEM 151, 152 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Chemistry for Engineers
Corequisite: CHEM 141L, 142L, CHEM 151L, 152L, or CHEM 181L, 182L
The principles and applications of chemistry are tailored to engineering students. Topics include stoichiometry, chemical equations and reactions, chemical bonding, states of matter, thermochemistry, chemical kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and descriptive chemistry of the elements. For engineering students, but may be used as a prerequisite for further courses in chemistry. Three class hours.

CHEM 151L, 152L - (1) (Y)
Introductory Chemistry for Engineers Laboratory
Corequisite: CHEM 151, 152
The practice of chemistry as an experimental science, the development of skills in laboratory manipulation, and laboratory safety. Observation, measurement and data analysis, separation and purification techniques, qualitative and quantitative analysis. Three and one-half laboratory hours. Meets every other week.

CHEM 170, 171 - (1-3) (Y)
Liberal Arts Seminar
A seminar assigned primarily for first and second year students taught on a voluntary basis by a faculty member. Topics vary.

CHEM 173, 174 - (1) (IR)
Preceptorial in Biological Chemistry
Discussion of a current topic in biological chemistry which illustrates the role of various levels of scientific literature. Credit/no credit basis.

CHEM 181 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Structure
First of a four semester sequence covering the basic concepts of general and organic chemistry (the 180/280 sequence is comparable to the 140/240 sequence but is more rigorous). Establishes a foundation of fundamental particles and the nature of the atom, develops a rationale for molecular structure, and explores the basis of chemical reactivity. Topics include introductory quantum mechanics, atomic structure, chemical bonding, spectroscopy, and elementary molecular reactivity. A strong background in high school chemistry is required.

CHEM 181L - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Structure Laboratory
Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 181
Accompanies CHEM 181. Four laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 182 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions I
Prerequisite: CHEM 181
Seeks to understand elementary reaction types as a function of chemical structure by emphasizing organic compounds. Topics include acid-base, nucleophilic substitution, oxidation-reduction, electrophilic addition, elimination, conformational analysis, stereochemistry, aromaticity, and molecular spectroscopy.

CHEM 182L - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions I Laboratory
Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 182
Accompanies CHEM 182. Four laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 191 - (3) (IR)
Archaeological Chemistry
Prerequisite: High school chemistry or physics
Methods for the discovery, scientific characterization, and preservation of archaeological artifacts; intended for students of archaeology, anthropology, art history and other disciplines dealing with ancient civilizations.

CHEM 210 - (3) (Y)
Introductory Survey of Organic Chemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 121, 122 or CHEM 141,142, or CHEM 181, 182
A survey of organic chemistry designed to acquaint the student with the scope of carbon chemistry, its basic principles, and some of its applications. This course is not intended for chemistry majors, nor is it a suitable organic chemistry course for pre-medical students. (Three hours lecture, no laboratory).

CHEM 222 - (4) (Y)
Solution Chemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 141, 142 or 181, 182
Applications of the principles of chemical equilibrium to solutions. The laboratory applies classical and instrumental methods to systems involving solubility, ionization, complexion formation, and oxidation-reduction equilibria. Two class hours, four laboratory hours. No credit may be received for Chemistry 222 if Chemistry 181L, 182L has been taken.

CHEM 241, 242 - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 141, 142 or equivalent. CHEM 281 or 241 is a prerequisite for CHEM 242; corequisite: CHEM 241L, 242L, or 281L, 282L
A survey of the compounds of carbon in relation to their structure, identification, synthesis, natural occurrence and mechanisms of reactions. Three class hours; optional discussions.

CHEM 241L, 242L - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry Laboratory
Corequisites: CHEM 281, 282 or CHEM 241, 242
Development of skills in methods of preparation, purification and identification of organic compounds. One discussion hour, four laboratory hours.

CHEM 252 - (1) (Y)
Biological Chemistry Seminar
Prerequisite: CHEM 241 or 281
Members of the chemistry department will present seminars on current topics of interest in biological chemistry, often emphasizing research from their own programs. One class hour on credit/no credit basis.

CHEM 281 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions II
Prerequisites: CHEM 182
A continuation of the exploration of organic reactions and structures begun in CHEM 182. Topics include electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic addition, nucleophilic acyl substitution, organometallic compounds, carbohydrates, lipids, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids.

CHEM 281L - (4) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Reactions II
Laboratory

Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 281
Accompanies CHEM 281. Six laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 282 - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Thermodynamics
and Kinetics

Prerequisite: CHEM 281
Focuses on the macroscopic properties of chemical systems. Topics include states of matter, physical equilibria, chemical equilibria, thermodynamic relationships, kinetic theory, and electrochemistry.

CHEM 282L - (3) (Y)
Principles of Chemical Thermodynamics
and Kinetics Laboratory

Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 282
Accompanies CHEM 282. Four laboratory hours plus weekly lecture.

CHEM 341, 342 - (3) (Y)
Physical Chemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 141, 142 or equivalent, MATH 122, and PHYS 201, 202 or 231, 232
Introduction to physical chemistry with numerous biological applications. First semester; properties of gases, liquids, and solids; thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; chemical and biochemical equilibrium; solutions; electrochemistry; structure and stability of biological macromolecules. Second semester: chemical kinetics; introductory quantum theory; chemical bonding; spectroscopy and molecular structure; biochemical transport. This course is not intended for B.S. chemistry majors.

CHEM 351, 352 - (1) (Y)
Research Seminar in Biological Chemistry
Participating students and faculty discuss current topics of interest in biological chemistry. Intended for students who are participants in the undergraduate research program. Credit/no credit basis.

CHEM 361, 362 - (3) (Y)
Physical Chemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 181, 182 or 222, PHYS 231, 232 and MATH 132
First semester: properties of ideal and non-ideal gases, equations of state and kinetic-molecular theory; thermodynamics and statistics; thermochemistry and chemical equilibrium. Second semester: chemical equilibrium, solution properties, electrochemistry, kinetics, elementary quantum theory, spectroscopy, atomic and molecular structure. Intended for B.S. majors in chemistry, for chemical engineers, and for students in related fields.

CHEM 371, 372 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Techniques in Chemical Experimentation
Prerequisites: CHEM 141, 142 or equivalent; corequisite: CHEM 361, 362 or 341, 342
Laboratory experiments which illustrate important laws and demonstrate quantitative methods of measuring the chemical and physical properties of matter. Four laboratory hours, one class hour.

CHEM 391, 392 - (1) (Y)
Introductory Research Seminar
Introduction to research approaches and tools in chemistry including examples of formulation of approaches, literature searches, research methods and reporting of results. Oral presentations by students, faculty and visiting lecturers. Credit/no credit basis.

CHEM 393, 394 - (1-3) (Y)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Specialized topics in chemistry not normally covered in formal lecture or laboratory courses. Under the direction of the faculty. Satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

CHEM 395, 396 - (1-3) (Y)
Introduction to Research
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Introduction to the methods of research in chemistry to include use of the research literature and instruction in basic experimental and theoretical procedures and techniques. Under the direct supervision of faculty. Satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

CHEM 432 - (3) (Y)
Inorganic Chemistry
Prerequisites or corequisites: CHEM 341, 342 or CHEM 361, 362
A unified treatment of the chemistry of the important classes of inorganic compounds and their reactions with emphasis on underlying principles of molecular structure, symmetry, and bonding theory, including molecular orbital descriptions and reactivity. Three class hours.

CHEM 441 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry I
Prerequisite: One year of organic chemistry
Introduction to the components of biological macromolecules and the principles behind their observed structures. Examines the means by which enzymes catalyze transformations of other molecules, with emphasis on the chemical principles involved. A description of the key metabolic cycles and pathways, the enzymes which catalyze these reactions, and the ways in which these pathways are regulated. Three class hours.

CHEM 442 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry II
Prerequisites: CHEM 441 or permission of instructor
Course covers three main areas: 1) structure and function of biological membranes, 2) complex biochemical systems and processes, including photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, vision, neurotransmission, hormonal regulation, muscle contraction and microtubules, and 3) molecular biology, including DNA and RNA metabolism, protein synthesis, regulation of gene expression and recombinant DNA methodology. Three class hours.

CHEM 451 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry Laboratory I
Prerequisite: CHEM 182L or CHEM 222. Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 441 or permission of instructor
The isolation and purification of biological materials. Chemical properties of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Chemical and physical methods used in the characterization and quantitative determination of proteins. One class hour, four laboratory hours.

CHEM 452 - (3) (Y)
Biological Chemistry Laboratory II
Prerequisites or corequisites: CHEM 442 and 451
Physical methods used in studying macromolecules. Experiments will include spectroscopic, hydrodynamic, and kinetic methods. Enzyme kinetics and the statistical analysis of data. One class hour, four laboratory hours.

CHEM 471 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Techniques in Chemical Experimentation
Prerequisite: CHEM 371, 372 and CHEM 432
Advanced synthetic techniques in inorganic chemistry are introduced and the products are analyzed and characterized by modern instrumental methods. Four laboratory hours, one class hour.

CHEM 482 - (3) (IR)
Techniques in Organic Chemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 241L, 242L or 281L, 282L
A study of the theory and practice of state-of-the-art laboratory techniques in organic chemistry. One class hour, six laboratory hours.

CHEM 491, 492 - (1) (Y)
Undergraduate Research Seminar
Corequisite: CHEM 495, 496
Discussion of research approaches, methods and results for students registered in CHEM 495, 496. Oral presentations by students, faculty and visiting lecturers. Credit/no credit basis.

CHEM 495, 496 - (3) (Y)
Supervised and Original Research in Chemistry
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
Original research involving experimental or theoretical chemistry carried out under the direct supervision of faculty. A minimum of nine hours per week, including conferences with research supervisor. Satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

CHEM 511 - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry III
Prerequisites: One year of organic chemistry. One year of physical chemistry is recommended
A systematic review and extension of the facts and theory of organic chemistry; mechanism of reactions, structure and stereochemistry. Three class hours.

CHEM 516 - (3) (Y)
Organic Chemistry of Selected Biological Compounds
Prerequisites: CHEM 241, 242 or 281, 282 Traces the biosynthesis of naturally occurring substances from their photosynthetic beginnings to their eventual end as complex natural products. Topics include the major metabolic pathways, important enzyme systems, fatty acids, prostaglandins, terpenes, steroids, vitamins, hormones, alkaloids, pheromones, neuro-transmitters, drug development, vision and brain chemistry, insect-plant-herbivore interactions, and the basis of various human illnesses such as inborn errors of metabolism.

CHEM 521 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Physical Chemistry I
Prerequisites: CHEM 361, 362
Introductory quantum mechanics. Application of group theory to molecular orbital theory. Rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra. Three class hours.

CHEM 522 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Physical Chemistry II
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Laws of thermodynamics and extra-thermodynamic principles; statistical mechanics; theory of reaction rates and the interpretation of experimental kinetic data. Three class hours.

CHEM 535 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry I
Prerequisites: CHEM 432 or permission of instructor
Introduction to the electronic structure of atoms and simple molecules, including basic concepts and applications of symmetry and group theory. The chemistry of the main group elements is described using energetics, structure, and reaction pathways to provide a theoretical background. The emphasis is on applying these concepts to predicting the stability and developing synthetic routes to individual compounds or classes.

CHEM 536 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry II
Prerequisites: CHEM 432 or permission of instructor
The electronic structure of compounds of the transition metals is introduced, using ligan field theory and molecular orbital theory. The chemistry of coordination and organometallic compounds is described with emphasis on structure, reactivity, and synthesis. Applications to transformations in organic chemistry and to catalysis are examined.

CHEM 551 - (3) (Y)
Instrumental Methods of Analysis
Corequisite: CHEM 341 or CHEM 361 or permission of instructor
Utilization of modern analytical instrumentation for chemical analysis. Includes emission and mass spectrometry, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared absorption spectroscopy, atomic absorption, electrical methods of analysis, chromatography, neutron activation analysis, and X-ray methods. Three class hours.

Department of Classics

Overview   In 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote to the renowned scientist Joseph Priestly, "To read the Latin and Greek authors in their original is a sublime luxury....I thank on my knees him who directed my early education for having in my possession this rich source of delight." Accordingly, in his plan for the University of Virginia, Jefferson established the School of Ancient Languages as one of its ten divisions. The Department of Classics carries on the same mission today.

Mr. Jefferson, who valued the useful no less than the sublime, knew that the classics provide both. Greek and Latin languages, literature, and culture formed the core of education until the middle of the nineteenth century, and for good reason. First, the Greek and Latin languages are themselves a training in clear thought and forceful style. Second, many of the most important ideas, principles, methods of investigation and analysis and modes of government in use today occurred first to the Greeks and the Romans and found their most memorable expression in that culture; and to understand where our civilization is today it is necessary to know where it has been. Third, Greco-Roman antiquity can be approached both as like ourselves, the recognizable ancestor of modern civilization, and as a civilization quite markedly "other" than ourselves, instructive because of its difference. Fourth, ever since the Renaissance, when the word "interdisciplinary" had not even been thought of, a classical education has been an education that stretches the mind by combining literature, history, philosophy, art, architecture, government, and religion. For these reasons and many others, students today major in classics or take Latin or Greek or civilization courses to complement their other studies. Our majors find it a useful preparation for fields as diverse as business, law, medicine, or a career in the arts, in addition to the more obvious careers in teaching at the high-school or college level.

Faculty  The interests of the faculty include the varied aspects of Greek and Roman literature, Greek religion, and Greek and Roman history. The faculty has published texts and commentaries on major classical, mediaeval, and renaissance Latin authors, Greek authors, interpretive works on Ovid, Homer, and other ancient writers, and studies of Greek religion and mythology.

Since classics is an interdisciplinary program, the classics faculty is joined by faculty from other departments, such as archaeology, ancient history and political theory, ancient religions, and philosophy. A total of fourteen faculty members work with students to ensure them a thorough and wide-ranging view of ancient culture and its effects on our lives.

Students  Approximately thirty students are enrolled in the classics program. Many of them will combine a major in classics with another major, an option which makes them exceptionally strong candidates for selective graduate schools and educational posts. The class size of most courses in the classics is small, usually no more than fifteen students, and often fewer than ten. With the exception of intermediate Latin, every language course is taught by a faculty member. Also, since the department offers both masters and Ph.D. programs, undergraduates with advanced skills can take upper level coursework at the graduate level. The interaction among undergraduates, graduates, and faculty provides an atmosphere exceptionally conducive to the learning process.

Special Resources  Senior Classical League: The senior classical league is an organization of students who are interested in the ancient world; the League sponsors scholarly and social activities. Excavation at Morgantina: Classics students interested in archaeology can join the Department of Art's archaeological investigation of the Greek city of Morgantina in Sicily. Each summer, faculty and students participate in the excavation and study at the agora, residential quarters, and cemeteries of the central Sicilian city, which was inhabited from the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 2000 B.C.) until the Roman Imperial Age. Study Abroad: Several students have taken a semester in the third year to study classics in Cambridge, England. Others have participated in the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome or the American School at Athens.

Requirements for Major in Greek  Requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts with Greek as the subject of specialization: 18 credits above the 101-102 level in Greek; six credits Latin; additional courses, including HIEU 203 and Classics 201, totaling at least twelve credits in related subjects approved by the faculty advisor.

Requirements for Minor in Greek  12 credits above 101-102 level in Greek and Classics 201.

Requirements for Major in Latin  Requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts with Latin as the subject of specialization: eighteen credits of Latin language courses above the level of Latin 103; Greek 101-102 or its equivalent; and additional courses, including Classics 202, HIEU 204, totaling at least twelve credits in related subjects approved by the faculty advisor.

Requirements for Minor in Latin  Twelve credits above the level of Latin 103 and Classics 202.

All first-year students who present secondary-school credits in Latin and who desire to take one of the first or second year courses in Latin will be placed on the basis of scores from the College Entrance Examination Board Achievement Test. Those who enter without having taken this test will be required to take it during Orientation Week.

Note: The best first-year student enrolled in the fall 300-level Latin course will be the recipient of the Anne Marye Owen Prize, which carries a substantial cash award.

Foreign Language Requirement  The foreign language requirement may be completed in Latin by passing Latin 202, and in Greek by passing Greek 202 or Greek 224, except that persons offering CEEB Achievement Test scores of 620 or above in either language are exempt entirely from further study to complete their language requirement. A grade of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement Vergil exam earns credit for Latin 202 and exemption from the language requirement. A grade of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement Latin Literature exam earns credit for a 300 level course and also exemption from the language requirement.

Additional Information  For more information, contact

Jenny Clay, Chair
Department of Classics
144 Cabell Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924- 3008
Classics World Wide Web site
Classics faculty


Courses

Classics

The following courses have no prerequisite, require no knowledge of Greek or Latin, and may not be taken to fulfill language requirements.

CLAS 201 - (3) (Y)
Greek Civilization
Greek political theory, law, philosophy, literature, and art.

CLAS 202 - (3) (Y)
Roman Civilization
Roman political theory, law, philosophy, public works, literature, and art.

CLAS 204 - (3) (Y)
Greek Mythology
Introduction to the major themes of Greek mythological thought and a survey of myths about the olympic pantheon as well as the legends of the heroes.

CLAS 310 - (3) (E)*
Age of Odysseus
The literature, culture, history, art, and religion of the times of the Homeric epics (Bronze Age to ca 700 BC). Readings include Homer's Iliad  and Odyssey,  The Homeric Hymns, and Hesiod's Theogony  and Works and Days.  Some emphasis on the archaeology of Mycenaean sites.

CLAS 311 - (3) (E)*
Age of Pericles
The literature, art, architecture, history, and politics of the Periclean Age of Athens, with special emphasis on Pericles (ca. 495-429 BC) and his accomplishments. Readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Thucydides, and Plutarch.

CLAS 312 - (3) (E)*
Age of Alexander
The times, person, accomplishments of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), the literature, art, and architecture of the period, and the influence of Alexander on the development of Greek and Western culture. Readings from Plutarch, Arrian, Demosthenes, and poets and philosophers of the early Hellenistic period.

CLAS 313 - (3) (E)*
Age of Augustus
The times, person, and accomplishments of the Roman Emperor Augustus (63 BC-14 AD), with special emphasis on the literature, art, architecture, and political developments of the period. Readings from Tacitus, Suetonius, and the poetry of Vergil, Horace, and Ovid.

CLAS 314 - (3) (E)*
Age of Augustine
Cultural developments in the fourth and fifth centuries, centering on St. Augustine and the literature of the period. Readings from such works as Augustine's Confessions  and City of God,  Jerome's letters, Cassian's Conversations, Sulpicius Severus' biography of St. Martin, and the poetry of Claudian and Prudentius.

CLAS 321 - (3) (Y)
Tragedy and Comedy
Readings in the tragic poets Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca and the comic poets Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, and Terence together with ancient and modern discussions.


Greek

GREE 101,102 - (8) (Y)
Elementary Greek
Attic Greek: beginning grammar, composition, and selected readings.

GREE 201 (3) (Y)
Intermediate Greek I
Prerequisites: GREE 101-102
Xenophon and Plato

GREE 202 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Greek II
Prerequisite: GREE 201
Herodotus and Euripides

GREE 223 - (3) (Y)
The New Testament I
Prerequisites: GREE 101-102
Introduction to New Testament Greek, and reading of selections from the Gospels.

GREE 224 - (3) (Y)
The New Testament II
Prerequisite: GREE 201 or GREE 223
The reading of selections from the Epistles.

GREE 301, 302 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Reading in Greek
Prerequisite: GREE 202
Readings in tragedy and epic.

GREE 503 - (3) (SI)
Classical Greek Prose
Prose selections illustrating the development of prose style in the fifth and fourth centuries, B.C.

GREE 504 - (3) (SI)
Later Greek Prose
Selections from Greek authors, illustrating the development of prose style from the third century, B.C., to the second century, A.D.

GREE 508 - (3) (SI)
Greek Epigraphy
The inscriptions of the ancient Greeks.

GREE 509 - (3) (SI)
Prose Composition
Translation from English into Greek.

GREE 510 - (3) (SI)
Homer
Readings from Homeric epics, with study of various Homeric problems.

GREE 511 - (3) (SI)
Hesiod
Readings of the Works and Days  and Theogony,  with study of their place in the literary tradition.

GREE 512 - (3) (SI)
Greek Lyric Poetry
A survey of Greek lyric forms from earliest times.

GREE 513 - (3) (SI)
Pindar
Selections from the Odes , and study of the development of the choral lyric in Greek Poetry.

GREE 514 - (3) (SI)
Aeschylus' Oresteia
Reading and discussion of Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Choephoroi,  and Eumenides.

GREE 515 - (3) (SI)
Sophocles
Selected plays of Sophocles with studies of their dramatic techniques.

GREE 516 - (3) (SI)
Herodotus
Readings in the Histories.

GREE 517 - (3) (SI)
Euripides
Reading of selected plays, with study of the poetic and dramatic technique.

GREE 518 - (3) (SI)
Thucydides
Selections from the History of the Peloponnesian War, with attention to the development of Greek historical prose style and the historical monograph.

GREE 519 - (3) (SI)
Aristophanes
Reading of selected plays of Aristophanes, with close examination of the history and development of Greek Old Comedy.

GREE 520 - (3) (SI)
New Comedy
Reading of the
Dyscolus  and other substantial fragments, with discussion of New Comedy, its origins and its legacy.

GREE 521 - (3) (SI)
Plato
Readings from selected dialogues of Plato, with study of Plato's philosophy and literary style.

GREE 522 - (3) (SI)
Aristotles
Reading and discussion of the Nicomachean Ethics.

GREE 523 - (3) (SI)
Hellenistic Poetry
Readings in the poets of the Hellenistic period.


Latin

LATI 101,102 - (4) (Y)
Elementary Latin
Beginning grammar, prose composition, and simple Latin readings.

LATI 103 - (4) (Y)
Fundamentals of Latin (Intensive)
Prerequisite: two or more years of high school Latin and appropriate CEEB score or permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies.
The material of 101, 102 is covered in one semester. Intended principally as a review for those who know some Latin. May be taken as a rapid introduction to Latin.

LATI 201 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Latin I
Prerequisites: LATI 102, 103, or appropriate CEEB score
Introductory readings from Cesar and Ovid.

LATI 202 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Latin II
Prerequisites: LATI 201
Introductory readings from Cicero and Catullus.

LATI 301 - (3) (IR)
Plautus
Reading of two plays of Plautus with attention to style and dramaturgy.

LATI 302 - (3) (IR)
Catullus
Selections from Carmina.

Note: Prerequisites for LATI 303 through LATI 311 are: LATI 202, four years of high school Latin, or appropriate SAT score.

LATI 303 - (3) (IR)
Cicero
Selections from Cicero's speeches, philosophical works, and letters.

LATI 304 - (3) (IR)
Prose Composition
Graded exercises in translation from English into Latin, with some attention to the reverse process.

LATI 305 - (3) (IR)
The Satirical Writing of Petronius and Seneca
Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis, and Seneca's Apocolocyntosis.

LATI 307 - (3) (IR)
Livy
Selections from Livy's History.

LATI 308 - (3) (IR)
Horace
Selections from Horace's Satires, Epodes, Odes, and Epistles.

LATI 309 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Mediaeval Latin
Selections of Mediaeval Latin prose and verse.

LATI 310 - (3) (IR)
Vergil
Selections from Vergil's Aeneid.

LATI 311 - (3) (IR)
Ovid
Selections from either the narrative poems (Metamorphoses, Fasti ) or from the amatory poems.

LATI 501 - (3) (SI)
History of Republican Latin Literature
Lectures with readings of important works of the period.

LATI 502 - (3) (SI)
History of Latin Literature of the Empire
Lectures with readings of important works of the period.

LATI 503 - (3) (SI)
History of Medieval Latin Literature
Medieval Latin literature from Boethius to Dante.

LATI 504 - (3) (SI)
Prose Composition

LATI 505 - (3) (SI)
Latin Paleography
A study of scripts and book production from antiquity to the Renaissance.

LATI 506 - (3) (SI)
Roman Comedy
Selected plays of Plautus and Terence.

LATI 507 - (3) (SI)
Latin Elegy
Selections from Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid.

LATI 508 - (3) (SI)
Roman Satire
The satiric fragments from the Roman Republic and Horace's Sermones;  the origins of Roman Satire.

LATI 509 - (3) (SI)
Roman Literary Criticism
Roman literary theory, with readings from the Rhetorica ad Herrenium,  Cicero's works on the principles of oratory, Horace's Ars Poetica,  and Quintilian.

LATI 510 - (3) (SI)
Lucretius
Selections from Lucretius' De Rerum Natura;  the development of Roman Eipcureanism.

LATI 511 - (3) (SI)
Catullus
The surviving poems of Catullus, with particular attention to questions of genre, structure and literary history.

LATI 512 - (3) (SI)
Julius Caesar
A study of either the Bellum Gallicum  or the Bellum Civile,  both as literary monuments and as first-hand accounts of major events in the last years of the Roman Republic.

LATI 513 - (3) (SI)
Cicero's Philosophical Works
Focus on the ethical and epistomological or on the theological or political treatises.

LATI 514 - (3) (SI)
Cicero's Rhetorical Works
Readings from the orations and from the rhetorical treatises.

LATI 515 - (3) (SI)
Sallust
The historical monographs Catilina  and Jurgurtha  in their literary and historical setting, with attention to the remains of the Histories  and to other contemporary documents.

LATI 516 - (3) (SI)
Vergil's Aeneid

LATI 517 - (3) (SI)
Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics

LATI 518 - (3) (SI)
Horace's Odes

LATI 519 - (3) (SI)
Livy

Selected readings from the Ab urbe condita.

LATI 520 - (3) (SI)
Ovid's Metamorphoses

LATI 521 - (3) (SI)
Ovid's Love Poetry

Readings from the Amores, Heroides, Ars Amatoria,  and Remedia Amoris.

LATI 522 - (3) (SI)
Tacitus
Selections from Tacitus.

LATI 523 - (3) (SI)
Petronius
Petronius'
Satyricon;  the development of fiction-writing in classical antiquity.

LATI 524 - (3) (SI)
Juvenal
The satires of Juvenal; the development of satire among the Romans.

LATI 525 - (6) (SI)
Seneca's Philosophical Works
Selected philosophical texts of Seneca, chiefly the Epistulae Morales;  the nature and development of Roman Stoicism.

LATI 526 - (3) (SI)
Latin Epic After Vergil
Readings from Lucan, Statius, and Silius Italicus.

LATI 527 - (3) (SI)
Apuleius' Metamorphoses
Reading of the text; the influence of the work on subsequent literature and art.

LATI 528 - (3) (SI)
Christian Latin Writings of the Roman Empire

Program in Cognitive Science

Overview  Cognitive Science is the study of cognition-cognition being the structure, acquisition, and use of knowledge. Knowledge-based systems process information. That is, they have the capabilities of encoding information, applying lawful transformations on these inputs, and modifying their processing logic in accordance with changes in both their inputs and their own outputs.

The scientific study of information processing systems has developed in a number of interrelated yet distinct disciplines, especially cognitive psychology, computer science, linguistics, and neuroscience. These disciplines are all concerned with the processing of information; however, they focus on somewhat different systems. To summarize briefly, cognitive psychology is concerned with all of the human information processing faculties. Computer science deals with the modeling or automation of intelligent functions on digital hardware. Linguistics is concerned with a particular cognitive faculty, language, sometimes studied from the perspective of its use by people, but often modelled without concern for human performance limitations. Finally, neuroscience seeks to explain how information processing functions are performed within the constraints of the neuroanatomical structure of biological systems.

Increasingly, these distinct disciplines are developing overlapping domains of inquiry. For example, often the competencies that a computer scientist wishes to model are within the human repertoire of skills, and thus, their logic is understood to some degree by cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers of knowledge. Moreover, all of these disciplines can be seen to converge in their inquiry into the form and function of language.

Students  A major in cognitive science prepares students for a wide variety of career opportunities. The options available depend on the particular program of study elected by the student and whether he or she pursues advanced degrees in either cognitive science or one of its related disciplines. The major provides a strong background for entry into any business setting in which computer literacy and a knowledge of human information processing capacities is of concern. These applications span the range from the automation of computerized expert systems to the design of effective human/computer interfaces.

Requirements for Major  Thirty credits are required for the major in cognitive science.

Prerequisites: (1) Prospective majors must have completed and obtained grades of C+ or better in two cognitive science designated courses from two different core areas: cognitive psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and philosophy. A list of cognitive science designated courses follows. (2) Prospective majors must have a grade point average of 2.0 or better for all cognitive science courses completed at the University.

Required courses: (1) Math 131, Caculus I, four credits. (2) At least one cognitive science designated course in each of the five core areas. (3) At lease two courses at the 400 level or above in one of the four core areas, excluding directed readings, research, or internship courses. Selected courses in linguistics and philosophy define a single core area for advanced concentration. Courses counted in the 30 credits cannot be taken on a credit/no credit (pass/fail) basis. Students are dropped from the major if they fall below a cumulative GPA of 2.0 for all cognitive science designated courses.


Courses

Particular courses within relevant departments are designated as being cognitive science courses. Courses from other departments, such as mathematics or systems engineering, may be designated as cognitive science courses if their content is judged to be appropriate by the undergraduate committee that oversees the curriculum. The following is a list of courses that are offered on a regular basis. In addition, there are numerous cognitive science courses that are offered more infrequently, and thus, the following should not be thought of as an exhaustive list.


Cognitive Psychology

PSYC 215 Introduction to Cognition
PSYC 230Introduction to Perception
PSYC 305/306 Research Methods and Analysis
PSYC 401 Theories of Perception
PSYC 411Psycholinguistics
PSYC 414 Imagery
PSYC 415 Cognitive Processes
PSYC 522 Motivation


Computer Science

All CS courses except: CS110, CS 120, CS 182


Linguistics

LING 325 Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Analysis
ANTH 504 Linguistic Field Methods
LING 501 Synchronic Linguistics
LING 506 Syntax and Semantics, or
ANTH 542 Modern Structural Linguistics


Neuroscience

PSYC 220 Psychobiology
PSYC 420 Neural Mechanisms of Behavior
PSYC 520 Seminar in Psychobiology
PSYC 521 Developmental Psychobiology
PSYC 525 Neuroendocrinology
PSYC 526 Psychobiology of Memory
PSYC 527 Neurotransmitters and Behavior
PSYC 531 Functional Neuroanatomy


Philosophy

PHIL 233 Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence PHIL 242 Introduction to Symbolic Logic PHIL 332 Epistemology PHIL 333 Materialism and the Mind- Body Problem PHIL 334 Philosophy of Mind PHIL 542 Symbolic Logic PHIL 550 Philosophy of Language

Additional Information  For more information, contact the director

Dennis Proffitt
102 Gilmer Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-0655

Program in Comparative Literature

Overview  How is the character of Ulysses portrayed in Homer, Dante, Tennyson, and Joyce, and what do the different characterizations say about the civilizations and the authors who created them? Questions of this sort are fundamental to the study of comparative literature. The program is designed for the student whose literary interests lie beyond the confines of any one canon of literature. As the word comparative implies, the program permits students to combine courses from several literature departments into a coherent program, which is neither restricted to one national tradition nor to one language. Students will study both the literatures of several cultures and national traditions as well as the concepts underlying an understanding of comparative literature itself.

Faculty  In addition to the many faculty who teach courses throughout the University which are applicable to the comparative literature program, there are currently eleven faculty members who serve as mentors for students. A faculty mentor is assigned once a student has been accepted into the program. As might be expected with an inter-departmental program, the faculty represent a wide range of departments. Because of the small size of the program and the competitive nature of acceptance, the students and faculty work together in an environment of mutual respect and concern for literature.

Students  In order to permit majors to develop a sense of participation in a common endeavor and in order to ensure adequate advising, the program in comparative literature is held to fifteen students per class. This means that all courses that are specific to the program are quite small and intensive.

There are two formal prerequisites for admission to the program. First, students must complete a two semester overview that surveys western literature from Homer to Milton and from Milton to Proust. These two classes cover western literature from antiquity to the early twentieth century and emphasize learning through the study of recurring themes, as well as the study of the texts themselves and the personal and social aspects of literature. Second, prospective majors must demonstrate sufficient interest in the goals of the program through an interview with a member of the comparative literature faculty.

Students who have graduated with a major in this program have been accepted to top graduate programs in comparative literature, English, Spanish, German, French, and classics. In addition, the program has graduated students who have been accepted to top law schools and business schools; the program is also an excellent foundation for a career in international relations.

Requirements for Major  The major in Comparative Literature permits a student to combine courses from several literature departments into a coherent program not restricted to one national tradition or to one language. Students selecting this major take at least two advanced courses in a national literature other than English or American, with readings in the original language, and three additional major literature courses, one of which focuses on some other national literature(s). In the fall semester of the third and fourth year all majors take a required seminar or an authorized equivalent which prepares them for conceiving and writing a thesis in their final year. A reading course is required in both semesters of the fourth year to assure progress on the thesis. The total requirement, including the two program seminars and the year of thesis writing, is 27 credits beyond the prerequisites.

In order to permit majors to develop a sense of participation in a common endeavor and in order to ensure adequate advising, the program in Comparative Literature will be held to fifteen students per class. The formal prerequisites for admission to the program are: 1) satisfactory completion of CPLT 201, 202; 2) sufficient interest in the goals of the program as demonstrated in an interview with a member of the Committee. A faculty mentor will be assigned to each student major in the program.

Requirements for Minor  The minor consists of 12 credits beyond the prerequisite, including CPLT 351. Each student's program must embrace at least two national literatures and must be approved by the Director.

Additional Information  For more information, contact

Benjamin Bennett
Cocke Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903 Telephone: (804) 924-7105
e-mail: bkb@virginia.edu


Courses

CPLT 201, 202 - (4) (Y)
History of Western Literature From Homer to Milton and From Milton to Proust
Western literature from antiquity to the early twentieth century with emphasis on the texts themselves, on the meanings of literature in personal and social life, and on a few recurring themes.

CPLT 351 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Comparative Literature
Explores a topic of broad scope that teaches students to develop a comparative approach to literature. The seminar topic changes from year to year. Required of third-year majors.

CPLT 493 - (3) (Y)
Seminar for Majors
Offered in the fall semester primarily for fourth-year majors. The seminar topic normally changes from year to year.

CPLT 497-498 - (6) (S)
Fourth Year Thesis
A two-semester course in which the student prepares and writes a thesis with the guidance of a faculty member. In the fall semester (497) the student develops a proposal and works out methodological problems in the form of a preliminary essay; in the spring (498) the student writes and submits the thesis in two drafts.