Department of English Language and Literature

Overview  From Geoffrey Chaucer's bawdy Wife of Bath to James Joyce's stately, plump Buck Mulligan, from Elizabeth Bishop's "manmoth" to Toni Morrison's Milkman, the study of imaginative literature is justified not only by the greatness of individual works but by the insights such works give into the origins of cultures, individuals, and modes of perception. Students will study literary achievement both in its own terms and in the context of the many cultural traditions that co-exist under the word English (African-American, feminist, Irish, Anglo-Saxon, for example). With one of the most distinguished faculties in the country, the department provides a great multiplicity of approaches to English and American literature, offering courses not only in the major literary periods, but in particular genres (novel, lyric, epic, comedy), in individual authors, in comparative literature, in literary theory and in such specialized areas as linguistics, film, and folklore. The writing program includes courses in poetry and fiction writing as well as advanced composition and journalism.

Faculty  English majors have access to a large and varied group of internationally renowned experts engaged in exploring different aspects of literature. The number of publications, grants, and fellowships of the faculty constitutes one of the most impressive compilations of any department in the country. The department has never tried to concentrate on any one area of literature or on a single critical orientation. Rather, the department has gathered a lively diversity of professors with strengths in every facet of literary endeavor. In addition to those who concentrate their study in historical periods from medieval to modern, the faculty also contains folklore specialists, linguistic specialists, film critics, psychoanalytic critics, biographers, philosophers of the theory of criticism, and specialists in the relation of literature to culture. For those students who wish to develop special skills in writing, the faculty includes practicing journalists, fiction writers, and poets, some of whose awards include the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award, and membership in the Academy of Arts and Letters.

Since there is a large faculty, the student-faculty ratio in the department is low, at approximately 8:1. In many cases, students, who demonstrate initiative and potential, work on an independent study basis with a faculty member. This mentor relationship can prove to be invaluable in developing research skills.

Students  With nearly 400 majors, English is one of the largest departments at the University. This is in part due to the outstanding reputation the department enjoys around the country and around the world. It is also due to the exceptionally varied offerings of the department.

Students begin their study of English with an introductory seminar. These are limited to twenty-two students and their focus can be quite broad (e.g., Studies in Poetry) or relatively narrow (e.g., The Black Image in the White Mind). Majors then move on to upper-level survey courses and advanced seminars. The 300-level survey courses tend to be lecture courses covering broad topics (e.g., American Literature before 1865; Literature of the Renaissance); their enrollments range from under 40 to over 200. Very large lecture courses are supplemented by discussion sections, which are limited to twenty students and led by Ph.D. candidates in the department. Advanced (400- level) seminars are limited to twenty students. All 300- and 400-level courses are taught by faculty.

Students taking courses in the department learn to write effectively and clearly, to think critically and analytically, and to question the works and the world around them. Students are prepared to communicate in a world in which competing discourses proliferate and grow more complex daily.

The skills that majors learn are applicable to virtually any future career choice, although the majority of students use English as preparation for graduate work. Approximately 60 percent of the students who major in English go on to professional or graduate school. Many enter law school, often at top ten programs. Others use English as solid preparation for business school, and an increasingly large number are using it as a humanistic preparation for medicine. A significant number of undergraduate majors go on to study English either in Ph.D. or in M.F.A. programs. Those who do not pursue graduate school find the study of English an excellent preparation for government service, business careers, international agencies, and secondary school teaching.

Prerequisites for Entry into the Department  To declare a major in English, students must achieve a grade of C or better in ENWR 101 (or the equivalent). In addition, all students who enter the University as of August 1993 must achieve a grade of C or better in any ENLT 200-level course which has been designated as satisfying the prerequisite for the English major. Such courses will be indicated in each semester's Course Offering Directory by the letter M after their course number (e.g., ENLT 226M). Students should consult the directory (or the department's booklet of course descriptions) to ascertain what ENLT "M" courses are currently being offered.

Requirements for Major  A student planning to declare a major in English should first read the booklet "Undergraduate Study in English," available in the Undergraduate English Office (236 Bryan Hall). He or she should then make an appointment to see the Director of Undergraduate Studies in English or one of the two Undergraduate Advisors.

For a degree in English, a student must take at least 32 credits of upper division courses (those numbered 300 or above). All majors must take the yearlong course, History of English Literature, ENGL 381-382 (eight credits) or an approved alternative sequence of courses. (Information about these substitutions may be found in the booklet "Undergraduate Study in English.") English majors must also take at least three credits in each of the following four categories:

  1. Medieval or Renaissance literature (ENMDor ENRN) excluding Shakespeare.
  2. Shakespeare-ENRN 321, ENRN 322, or ENRN 323 (or a 400-level Shakespeare seminar).
  3. Eighteenth century British literature (ENEC) or early American literature (ENAM 311).
  4. A non-traditional subject, e.g., Women's Studies/Gender Studies, Folklore, Ethnopoetics, African-American Literature, Latin American Literature. See Bryan 236 for lists of courses that will satisfy this requirement in particular semesters.
Students may offer three credits of course work in the literature of another language (taught in translation or in the original) or CPLT 201/ENLT 215 or CPLT 202/ENLT 216 for credit toward their English major. No more than nine credits offered toward the English major may be in any one of the distribution categories (ENMD, ENRN, ENEC, ENNC, ENTC, ENAM, ENCR, ENGN, ENGL, ENWR, ENSP). However, students participating in the Distinguished Majors Program are allowed to take a fourth course in the ENGL category, while students enrolled in an area program (e.g., Modern Studies) may take a fourth course under an appropriate rubric. Students who elect to take more than 32 credits of English may, of course, go over the nine credit limit in any category in choosing their electives. Normally, only courses numbered through the 500-level are open to undergraduates.

Majors must maintain at least a 2.0 in their English courses each semester. Students who fail to maintain this average will be put on departmental probation. If the problem continues, they may be invited to declare a different major.

Special Programs in English

Enrollment  Admission to advanced creative writing undergraduate seminars is by permission of the instructor only. Students should apply to the instructor during registration. Students wishing to take Independent Study (ENGL 493, 494 or ENWR 495, 496) should apply to the Director of the Undergraduate Program. Students wishing to write an honors thesis (ENGL 491-492) should apply to the Director of the Distinguished Majors Program.

Independent Study  Only one semester of independent study (in writing or literature) can be counted toward the English major; students should apply to the Director of Undergraduate Studies in the semester before the semester in which they wish to pursue their project.

For students who want to work on an individual critical enterprise under the direction of a faculty member, ENGL 493 or 494 allows considerable flexibility. There are no formal limitations on the project's nature, so long as a faculty member is willing to direct it and so long as the proposed course of study does not duplicate what is already available in regular courses. The student and faculty member will determine the length of the reading list and the nature of the written or oral work required. Students may register for this course only if they have completed four 300- or 400-level courses and have a GPA in English of at least 3.3. They should have their projects at least roughly defined when they submit their applications to the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

Students who wish to pursue an independent project in creative writing may do so under the rubrics ENWR 495, 496. Once they have found a faculty member who is willing to direct their work, they should apply to the Director of Undergraduate Studies for approval of their plans. Students who wish to enroll in ENWR 495 or 496 must have completed four 300- or 400-level courses and have better than a 3.3 GPA in the major.

Distinguished Majors Program  Majors who wish to be considered for a degree with distinction, high distinction, or highest distinction in English will be expected to complete at least two 400-level seminars and the two semester Distinguished Majors tutorial (ENGL 491, 492). In the tutorial, these students will pursue a project of their own devising which they would not have the opportunity to develop in the department's regularly scheduled courses. The reading requirements for the project will be determined by the student and the faculty member who has agreed to direct the enterprise, and each student will produce a long essay (approximately 50 pages), carefully revised for final submission to the Honors Committee. In awarding honors, the Committee will consider (1) two faculty evaluations of the thesis; (2) the quality of the student's work in any 400-level English seminars he/she has taken; and (3) the student's overall performance in the major. Using these criteria, the Committee will recommend either no distinction, distinction, high distinction or highest distinction.

Students who wish to be admitted to the Distinguished Majors program must have a GPA of 3.6 in the major and 3.4 overall, and must submit a formal application to the Director of the Distinguished Majors Program in early April of their third year.

Requirements for Minor  Students wishing to minor in English must complete 20 credits of upper division English courses (numbered 300 or above). Included in these 20 credits must be the History of English Literature sequence ENGL 381/382 (eight credits). No more than six of the 20 credits offered for the minor may be in any of the following distribution categories: ENMD, ENRN, ENEC, ENNC, ENTC, ENAM, ENCR, ENGN, ENGL, ENWR, ENSP.

Area Programs in English  The English Department's Area Programs are interdisciplinary in focus and offer majors the opportunity to examine the interrelationships between literature and history, religion, philosophy and the fine arts. Each Area Program has its own formal requirements, but all of them ask the student to take courses both in the English Department and in other departments of the University. All of them include special seminars and colloquia-sometimes limited to students enrolled in the Area Program-which are expressly designed to help students formulate the methods of interdisciplinary study, and to synthesize material from other areas.

The Area Programs are Medieval and Renaissance Studies, American Studies, and Modern Studies. These programs are very demanding and may require more credits than the regular English major. Students should ideally apply to them no later than the end of their second year. A full description of each program's individual requirements and the names of their current directors may be found in the handbook "Undergraduate Study in English."

Additional Information  For more information, contact

Pam Marcantel
Undergraduate Secretary
236 Bryan Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Telephone: (804) 924-7887
Fax: (804) 924-1478 electronic mail: English World Wide Web site.
English faculty


(All writing courses at or above the 300-level require writing samples and permission of the instructor before registering.)

ENWR 100 - (4) (Y)
Fundamentals of Writing
Basic writing skills, strategies for finding and developing topics, principles of organization, and concepts of focus, audience and style. Includes a tutorial in English grammar and syntax at the Writing Center. Slower paced than ENWR 101 and prerequisite to ENWR 101. (Credit/No Credit; chargeable against allowable non-College hours.)

ENWR 101 - (3) (S)
Teaches students how to write clear and effective prose. Class instruction and individual conferences are devoted mainly to that end. Small classes give the intellectual stimulation of studying in the atmosphere of a seminar. Students whose social security numbers end in an even digit are assigned to ENWR 101 in the fall, those with an odd digit in the spring.

ENWR 201 - (3) (S)
Intermediate Composition I
For the student who has completed or been exempted from ENWR 101.

ENWR 230 - (3) (S)
Poetry Writing
Prerequisite: First, second or third year student
Current trends in literature, with practice in writing poetry.

ENWR 250 - (3) (S)
Fiction Writing
Prerequisite: First, second or third year student
Current trends in literature, with practice in writing fiction.

ENWR 270 - (3) (S)
News Writing
An introductory course in news writing, with emphasis on editorials, features and reporting.

ENWR 301, 302 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Writing I, II
Prerequisite: permission of instructor
Primarily for students having interest and ability in writing. Instruction in prose forms ranging from simple narration, description, and exposition to short stories and essays. Reading assignments.

ENWR 331, 332 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Poetry Writing I, II
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Work in the writing of poetry with readings in contemporary poets, for serious but not necessarily experienced students. May be repeated with different instructor.

ENWR 351, 352 - (3) (Y)
Intermediate Fiction Writing
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
For students advanced beyond the level of ENWR 250. May be repeated with different instructor.

ENWR 370 - (3) (IR)
Intermediate News Writing
Prerequisite: ENWR 270 or permission of instructor
Writing news and feature stories for magazines and newspapers.

ENWR 371 - (3) (S)
News Magazine Writing
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
A course in weekly news magazine writing concentrating on Time.

ENWR 372 - (3) (S)
Magazine Writing
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
A course in writing non-fiction articles for general magazines.

ENWR 481, 482 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Fiction Writing I, II
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
A course devoted to the writing of prose fiction, especially the short story. Student work will be discussed in class and in individual conferences. Parallel reading in the work of modern novelists and short story writers will be required. For advanced students with prior experience in writing fiction. May be repeated with different instructor.

ENWR 483, 484 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Poetry Writing I, II
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
For advanced students with prior experience in writing poetry. Student work will be discussed in class and in individual conferences. Reading in contemporary poetry will also be assigned. May be repeated with different instructor.

ENWR 495, 496 - (3) (Y)
Independent Project in Creative Writing
For the student who wants to work on a creative writing project under the direction of a faculty member.

ENWR 531, 532 - (3) (Y)
Poetry Writing
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Intensive work in the writing of poetry, for students with prior experience. May be repeated with different instructor.

ENWR 551, 552 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Fiction Writing
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
A course for short story writers. Student manuscripts will be discussed in individual conference and in class. May be repeated with different instructor.

ENWR 561 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Suitable for graduates and undergraduates, especially those interested in theatrical production and communications. Explains film, television and radio production values with weekly exercises in the grammar, composition, and writing of screenplays, radio drama, literary adaptation, documentaries, and docudrama. Selected scripts may be produced by the Drama Department.

Introductory Seminars in Literature

These courses are designed primarily for first and second year students interested in becoming English majors and for non-majors at all levels. The purpose of the ENLT series is to introduce students to the aims, methods, and skills involved in reading literature and in writing about it. All ENLT courses fulfill the second writing requirement. ENLT courses which may be used as prerequisites for declaring the major will be indicated in each semester's Course Offering Directory by the letter M after their course number (e.g., ENLT 226M).

ENLT 201 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Literary Studies
Introduces students to some fundamental skills in critical thinking and critical writing about literary texts. Readings include various examples of poetry, fiction, and drama. The course is organized along interactive and participatory lines.

ENLT 211 - (3) (Y)
Masterpieces of English Literature I
Selected English masterpieces from the fourteenth through the eighteenth century.

ENLT 212 - (3) (Y)
Masterpieces of English Literature II
English masterpieces from Blake to Woolf.

ENLT 213 - (3) (Y)
Major Authors of American Literature
A study of major works in American literature by authors such as Emerson, Dickinson, Melville, Twain, James, and Ellison.

ENLT 214 - (3) (Y)
Modern American Authors
Major American writers of the twentieth century.

ENLT 215, 216 - (3) (Y)
Studies in European Literature
A study of major classical and continental works such as The Iliad, The Aeneid, The Inferno, Don Quixote, Anna Karenina, and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Cross-listed as CPLT 201, 202.

ENLT 223 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Poetry
An examination of the poetic techniques and conventions of selected authors such as Shakespeare, Donne, Wordsworth, Yeats, Eliot, Bishop and Walcott.

ENLT 224 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Drama
An introduction to the techniques of the dramatic art, with close analysis of selected plays.

ENLT 226 - (3) (Y)
Studies in Fiction
A study of the techniques of fiction.

ENLT 247 - (3) (Y)
Black Writers in America
A chronological survey in African American literature in the U.S. from its beginning in vernacular culture to works by Frederick Douglas, Zora Neale Hurston, Amiri Baraka, Ishmael Reed, Toni Morrison, and Alice Walker.

ENLT 248 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Literature
An introduction to trends in contemporary English, American, and Continental literature, especially in fiction, but with some consideration of poetry and drama.

ENLT 250 - (3) (Y)
A close reading of the sonnets and seven or eight plays, including examples of comedy, history, tragedy, and romance.

ENLT 252 - (3) (Y)
Women in Literature
Representations of women in literature as well as literary texts by women writers.

ENLT 255 - (3) (Y)
Special Topics
Examinations of various special problems in literature. Recent topics: "The Quest Theme in Western Literature," "The Writer as Explorer and Adventurer," "Autobiography," "Native American Literature," and "Arthurian Romance."

Upper Division Courses in English

The following courses are designed primarily for English majors and for students who have some previous experience or special ability in reading and writing about literature.

Medieval Literature

ENMD 311, 312 - (3) (IR)
Medieval European Literature in Translation
English, French, German, Italian, Irish, Icelandic, and Spanish literature of the Middle Ages.

ENMD 325, 326 - (3) (IR)
Chaucer I, II
Selected Canterbury Tales and other works read in the original.

ENMD 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Medieval Literature I, II
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor

ENMD 501 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Old English
The language and literature of Anglo-Saxon England.

ENMD 505, 506 - (3) (IR)
Old Icelandic
An introduction to the language and literature of medieval Scandinavia; readings from the Poetic Edda and the sagas.

ENMD 520 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: ENMD 501 or equivalent
A reading of the poem, emphasizing critical methods and exploring its relations to the culture of Anglo-Saxon England.

Renaissance Literature

ENRN 311 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the Renaissance
Sixteenth-century English prose and poetry, emphasizing satire, early fiction, love lyrics, epic, and biography, in writers such as Sidney, Spenser, Nashe, Greene, More, and Marlowe.

ENRN 313 - (3) (IR)
The Seventeenth Century I
Prose and poetry of the earlier seventeenth century.

ENRN 321, 322 - (3) (S)
Shakespeare I, II
First semester emphasizes histories and comedies; second semester tragedies and romances.

ENRN 323 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Shakespeare
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor required An intensive study of selected plays.

ENRN 325 - (3) (IR)
Selected poems and prose, with particular emphasis on Paradise Lost.

ENRN 340 - (3) (IR)
The Drama in English From the Beginning to 1642
Non-Shakespearean Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. Emphasis on Marlowe, Jonson, and Webster.

ENRN 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Renaissance Literature I, II
Limited enrollment. Permission of instructor required. Recent topic was "Milton's Paradise Lost."

ENRN 483, 484 - (3) (IR)
Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Studies
Interdisciplinary seminar on the interrelationships between literature and history, the classical tradition, philosophy, religion, and art history in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Topics vary from year to year.

Restoration and Eighteenth Century Literature

ENEC 310 - (3) (IR)
The Seventeenth Century II
Representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1660-1700. Authors read typically include Dryden, Marvell, Bunyan, Rochester, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve and Behn.

ENEC 311 - (3) (IR)
English Literature of the Restoration and Early Eighteenth Century
Representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1660-1740. Authors read typically include Dryden, Butler, Rochester, Etherege, Bunyan, Defoe, Swift, Gay, and Pope.

ENEC 312 - (3) (IR)
English Literature of the Late Eighteenth Century
Representative writers, themes, and forms of the period 1740-1800. Authors read typically include Johnson, Boswell, Gray, Burney, Austen, Lennox, and Smart.

ENEC 351 - (3) (IR)
The English Novel I
Study of the rise and development of the English novel in the 18th century. Authors read typically include Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, Walpole, Burney, and Austen.

ENEC 381, 382 - (3) (IR)
Eighteenth Century Topics
Topics vary from year to year. Recently these have included Five Major Authors: Pope, Swift, Fielding, Johnson, and Blake  and Ideas of the Enlightenment.

ENEC 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Eighteenth Century Literature I, II
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor required. A recent topic was "Gender, Genre and the Rise of the Novel."

American Literature

ENAM 311 - (3) (IR)
American Literature to 1865
A survey of American literature from the Colonial Era to the Age of Emerson and Melville.

ENAM 312 - (3) (IR)
American Literature Since 1865
American literature, both prose and poetry, from the Civil War to the present.

ENAM 313 - (3) (IR)
African-American Survey, I
The earliest examples of Afro-American literature, with emphasis on African cultural themes and techniques transformed by the experience of slavery, as that experience met European cultural and religious practices. The course begins with Phillis Wheatley and ends with Zora Hurston. Essays, speeches, pamphlets, poetry and songs will be studied.

ENAM 314 - (3) (IR)
African-American Survey, II
A continuation of the ENAM 313, this course begins with the career of Richard Wright and brings the Afro-American literary and performing tradition up to the present day. Writers who may be studied include Baldwin, Morrison, Hansberry, Reed, and Alice Walker.

ENAM 315 - (3) (IR)
The American Renaissance
The major writings of Poe, Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman, Thoreau, and Dickinson.

ENAM 316 - (3) (IR)
Realism and Naturalism in America
American literary realism and naturalism, its sociological, philosophical, and literary origins as well as its relation to other contemporaneous literary movements. Readings in the works of Garland, Crane, Norris, London, Dreiser, Anderson and Stein with some consideration of the works of Balzac, Maupassant, Zola, and Hauptmann.

ENAM 322 - (3) (IR)
Major American Authors
A study of the work of one or two major authors. A recent pair was Whitman and Dickinson.

ENAM 330 - (3) (IR)
American Poetry
A study of theme and technique in major American poets. The emphasis will be on the writers as poets rather than as Americans.

ENAM 355 - (3) (IR)
American Fiction to 1900
A survey of the major developments in the American novel and short story during the nineteenth century with particular attention given to the work of Cooper, Hawthorne, Melville, DeForest, Twain, and the early works of Henry James.

ENAM 357 - (3) (IR)
Women in American Art
The roles played by women both as visual artists and as the subjects of representation in American art from the colonial period to the present. The changing cultural context and institutions that support or inhibit women's artistic activity and help to shape their public presentation. Some background in either art history or Women's Studies is desirable.

ENAM 358 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Fiction
Intensive study of such writers as Twain, Howells, and James.

ENAM 381 - (3) (IR)
Studies in African American Literature and Culture
Intensive study of African American writers and cultural figures in a diversity of genres. Includes artists from across the African Diaspora in comparative American perspective, such as Zora Neal Hurston, C.L.R. James, Frantz Fanon, and others.

ENAM 383 - (3) (IR)
American Introspection (1770-1990)
The nature and identity of America, real and imaginary, as perceived by major writers in various genres. Special emphasis on the relation of forms to ideas, and on recurring myths and motifs. Readings include such authors as Crevecoeur, Thoreau, Whitman, James, Cather, Williams, Ellison, and Vonnegut.

ENAM 385 - (3) (IR)
Folklore in America
Survey of the traditional expressive culture of various ethnic and religious groups in America-including songs, folk narratives, folk religion, proverbs, riddles. Emphasis on southeastern Anglo-Americans.

ENAM 387 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the West
Selected works by writers of the Western United States from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Emphasis on the Anglo-American exploration, settlement, and development of the West, but also including readings from other ethnic groups, including Native and Hispanic Americans.

ENAM 388 - (3) (IR)
The Literature of the South
Selected works of poetry and prose by major southern writers including Thomas Jefferson, G. W. Cable, Charles Chesnutt, Kate Chopin, William Faulkner, Richard Wright, Flannery O'Connor and Maya Angelou.

ENAM 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in American Literature I, II
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor.
Recent topics were "Mark Twain" and "The Harlem Renaissance."

ENAM 483 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to American Studies
Limited enrollment: permission of Director of American Studies Program required.
An introduction to the theory and practice of American Studies that focuses on a single topic for intensive study. Cross-listed with HIUS 405.

ENAM 484 - (3) (Y)
Research Seminar in American Studies
The seminar continues the discussion of the subject matter of ENAM 483, and serves also as an introduction to the methods and materials of research in American Studies. Each student will write a research paper on an original topic.

ENAM 485 - (3) (Y)
Senior Seminar American Studies
This seminar is designed for, and limited to, students who enrolled in the American Studies Area Program in the fall.

Nineteenth Century British Literature

ENNC 311 - (3) (IR)
English Poetry and Prose of the Nineteenth Century I
Poetry and non-fictional prose of the Romantic period. Major Romantic poets and essayists.

ENNC 312 - (3) (IR)
English Poetry and Prose of the Nineteenth Century II
Poetry and non-fictional prose of the Victorian period. The major Victorian poets and essayists.

ENNC 321 - (3) (IR)
Major British Authors of the Earlier Nineteenth Century
The principal works of three or more Romantic authors.

ENNC 322 - (3) (IR)
Major British Writers of the Later Nineteenth Century
The principal works of two or more Victorian authors (e.g., Tennyson and Browning).

ENNC 323 - (3) (IR)
Victorian Prose
A study of major Victorian prose writers with attention to fiction, autobiography, history and other non-fictional forms.

ENNC341 - (3) (IR)
The Origins of Modern Drama
A great revival took place in the drama during the last few decades of the nineteenth century and throughout the early years of the twentieth century. This course examines this period during which new experiments in form and daring exposes of topical issues breathed life into old forms and challenged all notions of the well-made play.

ENNC 351 - (3) (IR)
The English Novel II
A reading of novels by Austen, Dickens, Thackeray, the Brontes, Gaskell, Meredith, Eliot, and Hardy.

ENNC 353 - (3) (IR)
The Continental Novel of the Nineteenth Century
A study of major works of continental fiction in the nineteenth century.

ENNC 381, 382 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth Century Topics
Examine particular movements within the period, e.g., "The Aesthetic Movement;" "The Pre-Raphaelites;" and "Condition-of-England Novels," etc.

ENNC 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Nineteenth Century Literature I, II
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor required.
A recent topic was "Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte."

ENNC 491, 492 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Topics in Nineteenth Century Literature I, II
Limited enrollment: Permission of instructor required.
Recent topics were "The Search for Value in Victorian Literature" and "Nineteenth Century Women Writers."

Twentieth Century Literature

ENTC 311 - (3) (IR)
British Literature of the Twentieth Century
The intellectual background and controversies of several poets and novelists writing between 1890 and 1945.

ENTC 312 - (3) (IR)
American Literature of the Twentieth Century
The fiction of Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Faulkner; the poetry of Frost, Eliot, Stevens, and Williams.

ENTC 313 - (3) (IR)
Modern Comparative Literature I
A study of major international cultural concepts and movements of this century, as represented in the works of such writers as Rilke, Auden, Lorca, Borges, Cela, Celine, Kafka, and Camus.

ENTC 314 - (3) (IR)
Modern Comparative Literature II
A cross-cultural study of the origin and meaning of contemporary literary forms and attitudes. Writers to be studied include Proust, Nabokov, Pirandello, Genet, Yeats, and Pound.

ENTC 315 - (3) (IR)
Literature of the Americas
A comparative study of various major writers of North, Central, and South America.

ENTC 316 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century Women Writers
A study of fiction, poetry, and non-fiction written by women in the twentieth century. The course combines both lecture and discussion.

ENTC 321, 322 - (3) (IR)
Major British and American Writers of the Twentieth Century
A close reading of the works of two or three major British or American authors.

ENTC 330 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary American Poetry
A study of the style and themes of recent and contemporary poets. The authors studied have included Robert Lowell, Elizabeth Bishop, Theodore Roethke, James Merrill, Sylvia Plath, and Derek Walcott. A few works by older poets who have influenced them are also included, e.g., poems by Wallace Stevens, Marianne Moore.

ENTC 331 - (3) (IR)
Major African-American Poets
An examination of poems representative of the African American literary traditions, focusing on such poets as Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Hayden, Jay Wright, Michael Harper, and Rita Dove.

ENTC 333 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century British Poetry
Studies in the twentieth-century sensibility: distortions and other tensions in the imaginative worlds of Hopkins, Yeats, Eliot, and Auden.

ENTC 334 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary British Poetry
Identity and style in poetry since 1945.

ENTC 341, 342 - (3) (IR)
Modern Drama I, II
British and American plays of the twentieth century, with some attention given to European drama from Ibsen to Durrenmatt.

ENTC 351, 352 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century Fiction I, II
An introduction to British, American, and Continental masterpieces, with attention to the new ideas and the new forms of fiction in the twentieth century.

ENTC 355 - (3) (IR)
Contemporary American Fiction
A study of contemporary American literature, culture, and cultural criticism.

ENTC 356 - (3) (IR)
The African Novel
A study of the development of the anglophone African Novel from its early stages in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart  through its transformations in the 1970s and 1980s. Explores the development of the novel as a genre as well as the representation of the post-colonial dilemma of African nations and the revision of gender and ethnic roles.

ENTC 380 - (3) (IR)
Concepts of the Modern
A study of the modern sensibility through an examination of the themes and techniques of aestheticism, psychology, existentialism, and twentieth-century literature including such writers as Joyce, Eliot, Woolf, Kafka, Dostoevsky, Rilke, Sartre, and Stein.

ENTC 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Twentieth Century Literature I, II
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor required. Recent topics were "Joyce," and "The English Novel and the End of Empire."

ENTC 483, 484 - (3) (Y)
Seminar in Modern Studies
Limited enrollment: Permission of instructor required. An interdisciplinary seminar focusing on the interrelationships between literature and history, the social sciences, philosophy, religion, and the fine arts in the Modern Period. Topics vary from year to year; a recent topic was "Varieties of Modernism."

Genre Studies

ENGN 331 - (3) (IR)
The Lyric
The major lyrical forms and traditions in Western literature, with particularly close reading of poems written in English.

ENGN 340 - (3) (IR)
Drama From the Restoration to the Twentieth Century
A survey of English drama (with some attention to one or two European dramatists) from the Restoration to the Twentieth Century.

ENGN 341 - (3) (IR)
A study of the development of tragic forms.

ENGN 350 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Short Fiction
Short fiction of British and American writers, including Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, Hemingway, Faulkner, and Flannery O'Connor.

ENGN 351, 352 - (3) (IR)
Forms of the Novel I, II
The relation of form, narrative technique, and idea in selected novels from various periods of English, American, and Continental fiction (in translation). First semester to about 1900, second semester to the present.

ENGN 380 - (3) (IR)
An investigation of the narrative form and cultural uses of Romance. Readings will include works by Chaucer, Sidney, Spenser, Mary Shelley, Hawthorne, and Tennyson.

ENGN 382 - (3) (IR)
The Art and Theory of Comedy
Studies in comic theory and practice from the classical period to the present.

ENGN 384 - (3) (IR)
Reading and discussion of major satirical works from classical times to the present.

ENGN 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Literary Genres I, II
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor required. A recent topic was "Dramatic Monologue."

Studies in Criticism

ENCR 532 - (3) (IR)
Poetic Form
Provides necessary background study for other courses in English and American poetry for all periods. Useful for students composing poetry in creative writing classes. Enriches the study of poetry in other languages.

ENCR 361 - (3) (IR)
Theory and practice of interpretation of literary texts.

ENCR 362 - (3) (IR)
Literary Criticism
Studies in the history of literary theory.

ENCR 363 - (3) (IR)
Psychoanalytic Criticism
Freudian psychology and its literary applications.

ENCR 371, 372 - (3) (IR)
Intellectual Prose
A study of non-fiction discursive prose. Readings are taken from such fields as criticism, aesthetic theory, philosophy, social and political thought, history, economics, and science, from the Renaissance to the present day.

ENCR 381/WMST 381 - (3) (IR)
Feminist Theories and Methods
An introduction to current feminist scholarship in a variety of areas - literature, history, film, anthropology, and psychoanalysis, among others - pairing feminist texts with more traditional ones. Features guest speakers and culminates in an interdisciplinary project.

ENCR 481 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Literary Criticism
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor required.

ENCR 562 - (3) (IR)
History of Critical Theory
Study of representative theories about the nature and function of literature from Plato to the present.

Special Topics in Literature

ENSP 106 - (3) (S)
Public Speaking and Oral Traditions
Practice in the composition and delivery of oral texts as well as the study of oral texts across a variety of cultures. Topics studied include folk narratives, general public speech performance, forensic argumentation, and the modern media.

ENSP 282 - (3) (IR)
Documentary Form and Content
Study of non-fictional film and televisional texts with emphasis upon argumentative form and content.

ENSP 380 - (3) (IR)
Literature and Religion
Major religious themes in English literature.

ENSP 381 - (3) (IR)
Currents in English and Continental Romanticism
Reading and discussion of major figures of English, French, and German Romanticism including such authors as Emily Bronte, Scott, Chauteaubriand, Balzac, Novalis, and Holderlin.

ENSP 480 - (4) (IR)
The Bible
Readings in the English Bible, designed to familiarize or re-familiarize the literary student with the shape, argument, rhetoric, and purposes of the canon; with the persons, events, and perspectives of the major narratives; and with the conventions, techniques, resources, and peculiarities of the texts.

ENSP 481, 482 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Studies in Special Topics in Literature I, II
Limited enrollment: permission of instructor required. Recent topics were "The Black Aesthetic" and "Literature and the Visual Arts."

ENSP 581 - (3) (IR)
Film Aesthetics

ENSP 582 - (3) (IR)
Nietzche and Modern Literature

Language Study

ENLS 303 - (3) (IR)
History of the English Language
The development of English word forms and vocabulary from Anglo- Saxon to present-day English.

Miscellaneous English

ENGL 381, 382 - (4) (Y)
History of English Literature I, II
A survey of important authors and their works, viewed in relation to the chief literary, social, and cultural influences upon them. The English Department requires this course of all its majors, and strongly recommends that it be taken no later than the first year of a student's major program.

ENGL 491, 492 - (3) (Y)
Distinguished Majors Program
Directed research leading to completion of an extended essay to be submitted to the Honors Committee. Both courses are required of honors candidates.

ENGL 493, 494 - (3) (Y)
Independent Study
Only for students who have completed four 300- or 400-level courses.