Department of Environmental Sciences

Overview  Environmental sciences is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the interaction of physical processes that shape our natural environment. The Environmental Sciences Department offers instruction and conducts research in the areas of atmospheric science, hydrology, geology, ecology, environmental chemistry and land and resource analysis. It offers students the opportunity to understand how these processes interact in time and space and how a change in any one may affect others. The research efforts of faculty and students deal largely with understanding the fundamental science of physical processes and to a lesser extent with applications of this understanding to environmental problems, management or policy making. Majors can specialize in one area or diversify across all areas depending on career goals.

The Environmental Sciences major provides strong preparation for (1) graduate school in Environmental Sciences or one of the disciplines it involves through its in-depth training in the theory and methods of atmospheric science, hydrology, geology, ecology and environmental chemistry; (2) professional schools through a focus on reasoning, analysis and management skills that involve natural processes; and (3) employment in natural resource fields through liberal arts science training. Many Environmental Sciences majors concentrate their programs in one or two fields with graduate or professional schools in mind. Others use the breadth and interdisciplinary nature of the curriculum to prepare for careers in science writing, scientific methods, in mathematical modeling and computing, in teaching, or in environmental management.

Work in any of the areas of study within the department requires the acquisition of knowledge for related fields. Ecology depends upon a basic understanding of chemistry and biology. Hydrology, geology, and atmospheric science depend more on physics and chemistry, with biology related to pollution concerns. All of these areas depend on calculus and the techniques of statistics and computer programming. Most applicants and analyses of legal or policy issues depend on basic economics. The department's required related work in many of these areas encourages a student's success in research, and in the competition for top graduate schools and jobs.

Faculty  There are more than thirty faculty members in the department. Many of these faculty are world-renowned for their research into such areas as atmospheric composition, global warming, transport of bacteria and other contaminants in groundwater, transport of Saharan dust to the Amazon, and coastal processes. All of the faculty are equally committed to teaching and working with students.

The University recognizes that environmental processes and concerns are among the most important issues of our time, and has enabled the department to link its research with scientists and others worldwide who deal with global environmental change.

Students  There are currently more than 300 students majoring in environmental sciences. Students can specialize in one or more of the four areas of studies. Majors who aim for continued education in graduate and professional schools or specific job paths generally concentrate in one or two areas. Others interested in such careers as science writing, computing, or teaching select advanced courses from a broader range. Majors are employed in consulting, government agencies, forestry and agricultural firms, lobbying, weather forecasting, and many other exciting and enjoyable careers.

Introductory courses are usually conducted in a lecture format; some are large, but faculty members are easily accessible. Advanced courses are quite small and all are taught by faculty. The department encourages all majors to explore opportunities to work with faculty and graduate students in research projects, which provides practice in using the tools and concepts of various disciplines and helps develop career goals and opportunities.

Special Resources  Departmental facilities include field vehicles, boats, electronics shops, greenhouses, environmental chambers, extensive computing facilities, Geographic Information Systems laboratory, aerial photographic interpretation equipment, the Office of the State Climatologist, Internet access to the McIDAS-X and GEMPAK weather information services, and four environmental research sites including the barrier islands of Virginia's eastern shore, two piedmont sites, the Blandy Farm Experimental Research Station at Front Royal, Virginia and the Pace site near Charlottesville, and the Mountain Lake Biological Research Station in Giles County, Virginia. Majors are encouraged to take advantage of all of these facilities.

Requirements for Major  The Bachelor of Arts major in Environmental Sciences requires 30 graded credits of Departmental coursework. Three credits of non-core 100 or 200 level coursework, taken prior to the third year, may be counted toward the major. EVSC 280, 320, 340, and 350 with their laboratories are required. At least 11 credits of non-core courses at 300-level or higher must be taken. The department also requires related work in math and science. The required related work includes one semester of calculus and at least one semester each of college-level chemistry, physics and biology with laboratories.

MATH 131, and CHEM 141, 142, PHYS231, 232 and BIOL 201, 202 with their laboratories are recommended. Calculus is a prerequisite for the ecology, hydrology and atmospheric sciences core courses. Chemistry is a prerequisite for the geology and ecology core courses, and physics is a prerequisite for the atmospheric sciences core course. Biology is recommended for the ecology core course.

Environmental Sciences interact with many disciplines, and the related physical science work is usually selected on the following basis. Ecology and pollution concerns depend on a basic understanding of chemistry (CHEM 141, 142) and biology (BIOL 201, 202). Geology, Hydrology and Atmospheric Science depend more on chemistry and physics (PHYS 231, 232). All the areas depend on calculus (MATH 131, 132 recommended) and on the techniques of statistics (MATH 112 or SOC 311 ) and computer programming (CS 120 "C"or CS 182 FORTRAN). Many applications depend on basic economics (ECON 201, 202).

The Department requires related work to insure minimum preparation for work in Environmental Sciences. To do serious research and compete effectively in graduate school and employment, additional math and science is generally needed. It is strongly recommended that students begin this prerequisite and related work in their first year. If the related work has been accomplished, students can begin the department's core courses in the first or second year. With college level chemistry and calculus most students are prepared for EVSC 280, Physical Geology and EVSC 320, Fundamentals of Ecology. Training in biology is important for ecology and training in physics is important for hydrology and atmospheric science. Students are advised to obtain computer skills and an understanding of statistics as early as possible, and to take additional related science as their interests develop.

Requirements for Minor  A minor in Environmental Sciences consists of at least 16 credits of Environmental Sciences coursework in a program of study to be proposed by the student and approved by the Faculty of the Department. The program must include at least two core courses (EVSC 280, 320, 340, 350) with laboratories and one non-core course at 300-level or higher, with no more than six credits of non-core courses below the 300-level.

Environmental Sciences Organization   The Environmental Sciences Organization is recognized by Student Council. The Organization presents an undergraduate professionalization seminar, field trips, career and job search activities, curriculum review and planning, and many good parties. All University students are welcome to join.

Distinction and Prizes  The department participates in the College's Distinguished Majors Program designed for highly qualified students. This program must be started early. Information can be obtained from an advisor.

Each year, the department gives five awards to members of the graduating class who have distinguished themselves academically during their four years of study at the University:

  1. the Wallace-Poole Award to the most outstanding major, and
  2. the Wilbur A. Nelson Award and the Mahlon G. Kelly Award to the students who are outstanding in the areas of environmental geology and ecology.
  3. two awards for outstanding students in the areas of atmospheric sciences and hydrology.
The Blandy Experimental Farm and the Orland E. White Arboretum   of the University of Virginia are located in Boyce, Virginia at the northern end of the Shenandoah Valley. At this facility faculty and students conduct research on the ecology of plants, mammals, and insects, and field classes from the Departments of Environmental Sciences and Biology conduct laboratory exercises. Each year an extensive summer program of coursework is presented. The farm contains a wide array of habitats including forest, successional fields, pasture, cropland, ponds and marshes. The Orland E. White Arboretum, the State Arboretum of Virginia, contains a beautifully landscaped collection of 1,000 species and varieties of trees and shrubs. The facilities also include; greenhouses, laboratories, computer facilities, and housing, laundry and dining facilities. Students may participate in supervised research or independent study at Blandy Farm primarily during the summer.

Research Opportunities  Research projects throughout the Department provide a number of employment and experience opportunities for undergraduates.

Students in their third and fourth year are encouraged to gain research experience by participating in faculty research or initiating their own research projects with faculty supervision. These projects can be conducted for credit by arranging with a faculty member to supervise an independent study (EVSC 493, 494) or research project (EVSC 495, 496).

Additional Information  For more information, contact

Wallace Reed
Faculty Advisor
Department of Environmental Sciences
Clark Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-7761
Environmental Sciences World Wide Web site
Environmental Sciences faculty


Courses

Environmental Sciences

EVSC 101N - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Environmental Sciences
Principles and basic facts of the natural environment: earth materials, land forms, weather and climate, vegetation and soils; processes of environmental change and their implications to economic and human systems.

EVSC 115N - (3) (Y)
Environmental Biology and Ecology
General principles of biology, emphasizing how organisms have evolved and adapted to diverse environments. Evolution of biological structures and processes are examined at all levels of organization from the molecule to the ecosystem. Interactions between the environment and organisms, including humans.

EVSC 148N - (3) (Y)
Chemistry, Resources, and the Environment
Explores the phenomena and effects of waste generation by fossil-fuel combustion, nuclear energy, industrial processes, lead pollution, acid rain, CO2 contamination of the atmosphere, and the disposal of radioactive waste.

EVSC 161 - (3) (SS)
Land Use and Environmental Impact
Introduction to atmospheric, hydrologic, geologic and biologic process affecting land usage. Analysis of land use change due to physical and economic processes.

EVSC 201 - (3) (S)
Materials That Shape Civilizations
Review of the structure, properties, methods of production, uses and world supply of the materials on which present and past civilizations have been based; including materials used in heavy industry, construction, communications, medicine, as well as textiles and naturally occurring organic materials. Special emphasis given to effects of environment on materials and energy relationships.

EVSC 210 - (3) (Y)
Beaches, Coasts and Rivers
Geologic framework and biophysical processes of the coastal zone. Role of the major river systems in modifying the coastal environment. Emphasis on man's modifications, including case studies along the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts.

EVSC 215N - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Oceanography
The basic principles that govern the world's oceans and their integration into an understanding of the major marine environments. Associated topics include marine pollution, global climate and marine policy.

EVSC 250N - (3) (Y)
Man's Atmospheric Environment
Long-term global climatic controls and short-term severe weather events such as hurricanes and tornadoes are treated in terms of the physical laws governing the motions of the atmosphere and the energy driving the system. Climatic and atmospheric events which severely impact upon man's behavior are discussed. Explores responses by early and modern man to perturbations in the weather and climate. Examines utilization of renewable energy residing in the sun, wind and water and advertent and inadvertent weather modification.

EVSC 280 - (3) (S)
Physical Geology
Prerequisite: At least one semester of college chemistry with lab, (CHEM 141, 142 recommended)
Composition, structure and internal processes of the earth; classification, origin, and distribution of earth materials; earth's interior; and the interpretation of geological data for the solution of problems of the natural environment.

EVSC 280L - (1) (S)
Physical Geology Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 280
Field and laboratory experimentation into the nature of earth materials and processes especially as applied to man's use and human problems.

EVSC 320 - (3) (S)
Fundamentals of Ecology
Prerequisites: One semester of calculus. At least one semester of college chemistry with lab, CHEM 141, 142 recommended. Also recommended is at least one semester of college biology, such as BIOL 202
Energy flow and nutrient cycling and allocation in natural ecosystems. Organization of species at the population and community levels. Interaction between man and the biosphere.

EVSC 320L - (1) (S)
Fundamentals of Ecology Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 320
Field and laboratory experimentation illustrative of ecological systems; their checks, balances and cycles.

EVSC 340 - (3) (Y)
Physical Hydrology
Prerequisites: One semester of calculus
Physical principles governing the flow of water on and beneath the earth's surface. Fundamental concepts of fluid dynamics applied to the description of open channel hydraulics, ground water hydraulics, and dynamics of soil moisture. Introduction to elements of surface water and ground water hydrology. Man's influence on his hydrological environment.

EVSC 340L - (1) (Y)
Physical Hydrology Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 340
Field and laboratory experimentation illustrative of the hydrological cycle including energy and mass transfer in surface and ground water.

EVSC 350 - (3) (Y)
Atmosphere and Weather
Prerequisite: One semester of calculus. At least one semester of college physics with lab, PHYS 231, 232 recommended
An introduction to the physical laws governing atmospheric behavior so as to understand the atmospheric variables and their role in the fluid environment of the earth.

EVSC 350L - (1) (Y)
Atmosphere and Weather Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 350
Principles of measurements, instrumentation for measuring atmospheric parameters and methods of observing and calculating atmospheric variables are established.

EVSC 384 - (4) (Y)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
Prerequisites: EVSC 280 or permission of instructor
Examination of erosional processes and their role in creating landforms. Influence of processes and landforms on land use and the human environment, including hazards from floods and landslides.

EVSC 385 - (3) (Y)
Geodynamics
Prerequisites: EVSC 280, calculus and physics
Basic principles of continuum mechanics and their application to problems in the geological sciences including the behavior of the Earth's lithosphere, rock mechanics, and flow of water.

EVSC 386 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Geochemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 141, 142 and EVSC 280
Studies the principles that govern the distribution and abundance of the elements in the Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere.

EVSC 401 - (3) (Y)
Evolutionary Biology
Prerequisites: MATH 131 and EVSC 320 or BIOL 201 and 202, or permission of instructor
An evolutionary approach to population ecology, animal behavior, and genetics. Topics include the principles of natural selection and the evolution of the phenotype, population regulation and life history evolution, mating systems, foraging behavior, speciation and phylogeny reconstruction. Includes a weekend field trip to Mountain Lake Biological Station.

EVSC 415 - (3) (IR)
Topics in Oceanography
Prerequisites: One year college level science
An introduction to oceanography together with a survey of marine resources and the scientific basis for their management.

EVSC 420 - (3) (Y)
The Ecology of Coastal Wetlands
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 or equivalent
A detailed investigation of the ecology of coastal interface ecosystems: sea grass, mangrove, and salt marsh. Emphasis is on biogeochemisty, succession, and dynamic processes related to the development and maintenance of these systems. The differences between tropical and temperate coastal systems is also explored.

EVSC 421 - (3) (IR)
Population Ecology
Prerequisites: EVSC 320 and one year of college biology
The processes of population growth, dispersion, natural control of numbers and species interactions in plants and animals. Strategies of population management. Three lecture and three field or laboratory hours.

EVSC 423 - (3) (O)
Marine Environments and Organisms
Prerequisite: EVSC 320 or equivalent
A survey of the major habitats of marine and estuarine areas and the organisms that have adapted to life in these environments. Emphasis is on the organisms and communities that have evolved in response to stress and competition in the sea. The systematics and natural history of marine organisms are emphasized.

EVSC 425 - (3) (O)
Plants and Insects
Prerequisites: EVSC 320 or permission of instructor
Classification, evolution, anatomy, ecology, and interactions of insects and flowering plants. Evolution of insect body plans and life-histories and of floral anatomy and pollinator specificity, plant and insect coloration, mimicry and crypsis, breeding systems in plants, sociality in insects, sexual selection, herbivory, pollination, and seed predation and dispersal.

EVSC 425L - (1) (O)
Plants and Insects Laboratory
Prerequisite or Corequisite: EVSC 425
Laboratory exercises and field trips demonstrating the anatomy, morphology, identification, and classification of plants and insects.

EVSC 426 - (3) (E)
Biogeography
Prerequisite: EVSC 320
A critical discussion of the roles of earth history, adaptation to the physical environment, and biological interactions in determining plant and animal distributions. Geographical patterns in species diversity, composition, morphology, and abundance are examined with particular reference to insular situations. Includes both an historical development of ideas in biogeography as well as quantitative analysis of geographical patterns. The implications of biogeographic data for ideas about community ecology are examined.

EVSC 427 - (4) (Y)
Soil Science
Prerequisites: EVSC 280 and 320; one year college chemistry or permission of instructor
Introduction to the study of soils as a natural system. Fundamentals of soil chemistry, hydrology, and biology with respect to genesis, classification and utilization.

EVSC 428 - (4) (Y)
Environmental Microbiology
Prerequisites: BIOL 201, CHEM 141, 142, EVSC 320
The impact of microbial physiologic reactions on environmental quality: microbes as transformers of chemical pollutants; microbes as transformers of nutrient elements; microbes as agents of energy transfer in ecosystems; microbes as contaminants. The quantitation of microbial activities is emphasized.

EVSC 430 - (3) (O)
Management of Forest Ecosystems
Prerequisites: EVSC 320, 340 or 350 recommended
An integrative study of processes in forest ecosystems which affect management decisions. Emphasis is on the interactions between the physiological processes of plants and system level functions such as the cycling of nutrients and the flow of energy and water. Examples of current and projected uses of forest systems are discussed throughout including harvesting for fibre and energy and preservation of forests as water purification and air pollution control systems.

EVSC 443 - (3) (IR)
Statistical Hydrology
Prerequisites: EVSC 340 and MATH 111, 112 or equivalent
Application of elements of mathematical statistics and probability theory to sampled data of hydrological processes; synthesis of data for information applicable to the design and management of water resources systems.

EVSC 444 - (4) (Y)
Applied Hydrology
Prerequisite: EVSC 340
Introduction to hydrology as applied to environmental problems including water resources, systems analysis and the effects of urbanization and land use on the hydrological cycle. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory.

EVSC 447 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to Climatological Analysis
Prerequisites: One semester of calculus, recommended: EVSC 350
Discussion of the general circulation of the atmosphere, followed by quantitative analyses of climatic fluctuations and their impact upon ecologic and economic systems.

EVSC 455 - (3) (O)
Synoptic Climatology
Prerequisite: EVSC 350 or equivalent, or permission of instructor
Study of the formation, movements, and meteorological and climatological attributes of synoptic-scale weather systems and the impact on the environment. Relationship of these systems to problems such as air quality, atmospheric transport, climate change, and evaporation and precipitation regimes are also addressed.

EVSC 458 - (3) (O)
Introduction to Tropical Meteorology
Prerequisite: EVSC 350 or equivalent course in introductory meteorology; or permission of instructor
Atmospheric processes of the tropics and the role which the tropics plays in the global atmosphere.

EVSC 459 - (3) (E)
The Weather of the Rain Forest
Prerequisites: EVSC 350 or equivalent course in introductory meteorology; or permission of instructor
The equatorial rain forest is presented as an interactive system where the state of the atmosphere is an integrated result of interactions between the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere.

EVSC 462 - (3) (Y)
Land Use Management
Prerequisites: ECON201, 202 recommended, two Environmental Sciences core courses
Techniques for analyzing, projecting, and managing land usage. Examines goals for, and the interaction of economic, social and physical processes in land use management.

EVSC 464 - (3) (Y)
Land Use and Environmental Models
Prerequisites: Some computer programming experience
Experimental applications of environmental and land use models and modeling.

EVSC 480 - (4) (Y)
Mineralogy
Prerequisites: EVSC 280; prerequisite or corequisite: one year of college chemistry
Crystallography, crystal chemistry and optical mineralogy. Study of mineral symmetry as related to chemical bonding; interaction of crystals with polarized light; identification of minerals by physical, optical and x-ray diffraction techniques. Field experience and laboratories are included.

EVSC 481 - (4) (O)
Petrology
Prerequisite: EVSC 480
Origin and classification of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Emphasis on rock series and tectonic associations of rock types. Study of thin sections and hand samples in the laboratory. Field experience and laboratories are included.

EVSC 482 (3) (IR)
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation
Prerequisite: EVSC 280
Fundamentals of geological chronology including principles of sedimentation and sequences in layered rocks; stratigraphic classification of sedimentary rocks with emphasis on spatial and temporal relationships; study of lithofacies and biofacies for interpretation of geologic history; systematic examination of geologic periods.

EVSC 483 - (3) (Y)
Earth's Climatic History
Prerequisite: EVSC 280
Changes through geologic time of the Earth's climate system (ice sheets, oceans, atmosphere, vegetation) in response to solar variability, sea-floor spreading, mountain building, atmospheric CO-2 levels, volcanic eruptions, and earth-sun orbital changes.

EVSC 484 - (3) (E)
Engineering Geology
Prerequisites: EVSC 280 and 340
Engineering properties of earth materials and their behavior in response to surface processes as they affect land use and natural resource utilization. Two lecture hours and three field or laboratory hours.

EVSC 485 - (3) (Y)
Coastal Processes
Prerequisite: EVSC 280
A review of wave generation, wave prediction, wave refraction, transformation, shoaling, and associated inshore currents. The generation of littoral drift and shallow water surge are discussed. Beach and barrier island geomorphology and problems of erosion are topics considered. The course includes the historical development of research in coastal processes and a quantitative analysis of spatial patterns along sandy coasts.

EVSC 485L - (1) (Y)
Coastal Processes Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 485
Laboratory analysis of sediment, map and aerial photo data sets. Lab demonstrations with the wave tank and rapid sediment analyzer. Weekly exercises and research projects required.

EVSC 486 - (3) (Y)
Chemistry of Natural Waters
Prerequisites: CHEM 141, 142, or 151, 152 or equivalent; recommended: CHEM 182
A survey of natural water chemistry which considers fresh waters, seawater, estuary waters, geothermal waters, sub-surface waters, closed-lake brines and "polluted" waters; emphasis is placed on utilizing basic chemical principles to interpret the characteristics and environmental controls of water composition.

EVSC 486L - (1) (Y)
Chemistry of Natural Waters Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 486
Sampling and analysis of natural waters for major and selected minor components. Analytical instrumentation includes pH and conductivity meters, ion-selective electrodes, titrations, atomic absorption and UV-visible spectro-photometry.

EVSC 488 - (3) (O)
Planetary Geology
Prerequisite: Introductory course in geosciences or astronomy
Origin and evolution of the solar system, with emphasis on the geology of the planets and satellites of inner solar system and the satellites of the gaseous planets. The Earth is compared and contrasted with Venus and Mars.

EVSC 489 - (4) (E)
Structural Geology
Prerequisites: EVSC 280, or permission of instructor
Study of the origin, development and classification of microscopic and macroscopic structures in folded and faulted rocks; the response of rocks to stress and strain; brittle and ductile deformation; tectonic evolution of mountain belts. Field experience and laboratories are included.

EVSC 493, 494 - (1-3) (IR)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Specialized topics in ecology, atmosphere, hydrology, environmental geology, or environmental systems not normally covered in formal classes under the direction of the faculty.

EVSC 495, 496 - (3) (IR)
Supervised Research
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Original research usually involving a field or laboratory problem in the environmental sciences under the direction of one or more members of the faculty. The results may form the basis of an undergraduate thesis which is required to partially fulfill a Bachelor of Arts with Distinction, High Distinction, or Highest Distinction.

EVSC 503 - (4) (Y)
Applied Statistics for Environmental Scientists
Prerequisites: MATH 111 Intro. to Probability or MATH 112 Intro. to Statistics; corequisite: EVSC 503L
A one semester course designed to provide students a firm knowledge of experimental design, hypothesis testing and the use of statistical methods of data analysis.

EVSC 503L - (0) (Y)
Applied Statistics Laboratory
Corequisite: EVSC 503
Computer laboratories in the analysis of quantitative data.

EVSC 511 - (4) (E)
Systems Analysis in Environmental Sciences
Prerequisites: MATH 132 or equivalent, computer programming experience
The application of a variety of techniques of systems analysis to the environmental sciences, particularly ecology. Simulation models of ecosystems, of biological populations, and of hydrological, atmospheric and geological systems are examined and used to address scientific questions in the environmental sciences. Student projects apply techniques to specific problems.

EVSC 521 - (3) (IR)
Air Quality Planning
Methods for formulating and evaluating air quality plans. Techniques and strategies for air quality management.

EVSC 544 - (3) (O)
Physical Oceanography
Prerequisites: PHYS 231, 232 or equivalent, two semesters calculus, MATH 131, 132 recommended, or permission of instructor
Physical properties, processes and structure of the oceans; mass and energy budgets, methods of measurements, the nature and theory of ocean currents, waves and tides in the open sea, near shore and in estuaries.

EVSC 560 - (3) (Y)
Land Use Policies
Prerequisites: ECON 201, 202
Goals for land use, analysis of legislation, and land use controls, evaluation of resource allocation and environmental impacts of national and local land use policies.


Atmosphere

EVAT 541 - (4) (Y)
Atmospheric Dynamics
Prerequisites: MATH 131, 132 and PHYS 231, 232
An introduction to theoretical meteorology encompassing dry and moist air thermodynamics, the mechanics of atmospheric motion, and the dynamics of atmospheric weather systems.

EVAT 542 - (3) (Y)
Microclimate
Prerequisites: EVSC 350 or permission of instructor
Principles of radiation transfer, soil heat flux, atmospheric heat transfer, atmospheric moisture, and evapotranspiration, motions near the Earth's surface, and surface energy balances are covered to provide a basis for describing the microclimate of various surfaces.

EVAT 550 - (3) (O)
Environmental Climatology
Corequisites: EVSC 350 or the text The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere
An advanced-level survey of the theoretical and experimental research areas in climatology and meteorology, with particular emphasis on environmental problems associated with the atmosphere. Fundamental principles used in these studies are introduced and discussed, along with procedures used to present and analyze atmospheric information.


Ecology

EVEC 521 - (4) (Y)
Aquatic Ecology
Prerequisites: EVSC 320, 340, 420, Integral Calculus, or permission of instructor
Review of physics and chemistry of fresh-water and marine environments; functional classification of organisms in aquatic communities; energy and nutrient dynamics of aquatic communities. Three hours lecture, three laboratory hours.

EVEC 522 - (4) (O)
Terrestrial Ecology
Prerequisites: EVSC 320 and permission of instructor
Patterns and processes in terrestrial ecosystems: macro- and micro-meteorological factors; producer, consumer and decomposer processes; hydrologic and biogeochemical pathways; changes through space and time. Three lecture and four field or laboratory hours.

EVEC 523 - (3) (Y)
Microbial Ecology
Prerequisites: EVSC 280, 320, 340, 350, or permission of instructor
The relationships of microorganisms to similar organisms, to dissimilar (macro) organisms and to the physical-chemical environment are treated both as a demonstration of basic ecological theory and to indicate the importance of the microbes in maintaining the world as we know it. The major subject divisions of the course are: the organisms, microbial habitats, community formation and structure, interspecific relationships, nutrient cycling, and anthropogenic ecology.

EVEC 523L - (1) (Y)
Microbial Ecology Laboratory
Prerequisites: EVSC 523 (corequisite) and permission of instructor
Intended to complement EVEC 523 which is a corequisite for registration in this course. Students are given the opportunity to learn and experience the techniques used in microbial ecological research. Both classic techniques and state-of-the-art methods for determination of microbial biomass in nature are utilized. Various methods of determining microbiological activity are covered. Several exercises will involve field sampling and analysis.


Geoscience

EVGE 504 - (3) (O)
Geochemistry
Prerequisites: CHEM 141, 142, EVSC 280, 480, two semesters Calculus, MATH 131, 132 Recommended
The study of the principles which govern the distribution and abundance of the elements in the earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere.

EVGE 507 - (4) (Y)
Aqueous Geochemistry
Prerequisites: 1 year of calculus, 1 year of chemistry, 1 mineralogy or petrology course
Principals of thermodynamics as applied to mineral-water systems. Treatment will include mineral stability, phase diagrams, solution thermodynamics, electrolyte theory, aqueous complex and hydrolysis equilibria, and electrochemical equilibria.

EVGE 578 - (3) (Y)
Hydrogeology
Prerequisites: EVSC 280, 340, two semesters Calculus, MATH 131, 132 Recommended, CHEM 141, 142; corequisite: EVGE 578L
The geology of groundwater including aquifer characteristics and occurrence. Factors which influence groundwater flow and water quality are developed together with methods of and techniques of exploration.

EVGE 578L - (1) (Y)
Hydrogeology Laboratory
Corequisite: EVGE 578
Geological and geophysical field techniques for groundwater exploration. Field and laboratory geochemical and microbiological methods for groundwater quality assessment and monitoring.

EVGE 582 - (4) (Y)
Geomorphology
Prerequisites: EVSC 280 or 340
Processes that shape the land surface and their relationship to human activity.

EVGE 584 - (3) (Y)
Sediment Processes and Environments
Prerequisites: One year of calculus and physics, or permission of instructor; corequisite: EVGE 584L
Erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment. Initial motion of sediment, bedload and suspended load transport and bedforms. Important sediment- transporting environments. Application of sediment transport theory to problems of geological and environmental interest.

EVGE 584L - (1) (Y)
Sediment Processes Laboratory
Corequisite: EVGE 584
Laboratory investigation of sediment transport phenomena and readings of classic and current research.


Hydrosphere

EVHY 544 - (3) (Y)
Catchment Hydrology: Process and Theory
Prerequisite: EVSC 340
An introduction to current theories of the hydrological response of catchments. The course takes an integrative approach, seeking to illuminate the derivation of theory in the light of the time and location of the process studies on which they were based.

EVHY 545 - (4) (Y)
Hydrological Transport Processes
Prerequisites: EVSC 280 and 340
Physical principles governing the transport of dissolved substances and of sediment and particulate matter in the terrestrial portion of the hydrological cycle.

EVHY 547 - (4) (Y)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics
Prerequisites: One year of calculus and physics or permission of instructor
Mechanics of fluids and fluid-related processes occurring at the earth's surface, including laminar, inviscid, and turbulent flows, drag, boundary layers, diffusion and dispersion of mass, flow through porous media, and effects of the Earth's rotation. Special attention is given to topics related to the environmental sciences.