Department of French Language and Literature

Overview  The major in French is designed to afford the student a broad background and the opportunity to pursue specialized interests in one or a combination of key areas. Students will find the major interdisciplinary in nature and a solid preparation for a multitude of careers.

Faculty  The department's commitment to breadth and depth is reflected in the range and intellectual diversity of its professors, who study and teach all periods of French and Francophone literature from formal, historical, or post-modern perspectives, all aspects of the structure and the history of the French language, as well as the interplay of society and its intellectual and artistic productions.

Students  Currently, 120 students major in French. More than half are double majors. The most popular combinations with French are government, comparative literature, English, and pre-med. Although some French majors use the program as a stepping stone to teaching, others find it useful for business, government careers, and service with international agencies. To others still, the analytical and writing skills the major cultivates provide a solid preparation for professional school.

Special Resources  La Maison Francaise: The French House, a restored Victorian mansion, lodges students who speak only French in the common areas. Students may apply during their first year at the University and may live there during their second, third and fourth years. Applicants to the house need not be French majors. Study Abroad: Three travel grants are awarded each year to outstanding French majors. While they may enroll in accredited institutions or recognized programs anywhere in France, the vast majority of students take courses in Paris.

Requirements for Major    Totaling 30 credits (or ten three-credit courses), the major in French requires FREN 331 followed by FREN 332, and any other eight courses selected by the student in consultation with a department advisor. Of these eight courses, at least three must be at the 400-level or above (language, culture, or literature). 400-level literature courses must be preceded by at least one 300-level literature course unless the student is exempted by the instructor or the major advisor. 300-level conversation courses (FREN 311, FREN 333, and FREN 334) and FREN 335, Writing Workshop, carry no credit toward the major or minor.

Students planning to pursue graduate studies in this or virtually any other French department are advised that they will have to take a minimum of five courses in literature at the undergraduate level in order to qualify for admission.

Distinguished Majors Program  Available to French majors in any option presenting an overall GPA of at least 3.4 and departmental GPA of 3.5 in courses on the 300-level or above. Program consists of French 498 and 499, as well as one advanced major course taken for honors. Application for admission is normally made in the autumn of the third year.

Requirements for Minor  Totaling 18 credits (or six three-credit courses), the minor in French is fulfilled by completion of FREN 331 and 332 or the equivalent, plus four electives chosen from among those that carry credit toward the major. At least one of the electives must be on the 400 level.

N.B.   By arrangement, up to twelve credits of appropriate major credit (or six credits of appropriate credit for the minor) may be earned in an approved program abroad.

Placement of first-year students presenting admissions credit in French will normally be based on the SAT French Achievement Test or the corresponding department test. Under certain circumstances, AP scores may be substituted, and 300-level course credit granted according to the following rules: with a 3 on the AP Language examination, students may select either FREN 232 or FREN 331 to fulfill the language requirement; with a 4, students have fulfilled the language requirement, and will normally be required to take FREN 332 before moving on to more advanced work. Students presenting a score of 5 and those having taken AP French Literature are asked to contact an advisor in the department.

Additional Information  For more information, contact

David Lee Rubin
Director of Undergraduate Studies
Department of French Language and Literature
302 Cabell Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-7158
French World Wide Web site
French faculty


The following courses may not be taken to fulfill the language requirement, nor as part of the requirements for the major in French.

French in Translation

FRTR 221 - (3) (Y)
Literary Lovers of Medieval France
The theme of love in the great romances, poems, and tales of the French High Middle Ages; spiritual and physical love as embodied by Tristram and Isolde, Lancelot, Arthur, and Guenevere, in the lays of Marie de France, and in the lyric poetry of the courts.

FRTR 223 - (3) (Y)
Sun King: French Culture During the Reign of Louis XIV
Masterpieces of French classical literature in English translation studied against the background of the period's plastic and performing arts.

FRTR 329/790 - (3) (Y)
Contemporary Carribean Culture
A comparative examination of contemporary culture in the Caribbean region with an emphasis on literature. Historical writing (essays), musical forms, and film are also considered as manifestations of the process of creolization in the area. Questions of ethnic diversity and nation-building are central to the course. All texts read in English.

FRTR 344 - (3) (IR)
The French Novel on Film
Course focuses on cinematic rewritings of French literary works from the 17th-20th centuries. Topics include: literary theory and cinematic practice; narrative adaptations; the language of prose and cinema; representations of the body; and reconstructions of plot for contemporary audiences. Taught in English.

Courses given in French

FREN 101 - (4) (S-SS)
Elementary French
Prerequisite: No previous formal instruction in French, or a limited amount of previous formal instruction in French
Development of basic oral expression, listening and reading comprehension, and writing. Language laboratory work is required. Followed by Fren 102.

FREN 102 - (4) (S-SS)
Elementary French
Prerequisite: FREN 101 or one or two years of previous formal instruction in French and appropriate SAT score.
Designed for students with an elementary knowledge of French. The skills of speaking, listening, comprehension, reading, and writing are further developed. Language laboratory work is required. Followed by FREN 201.

FREN 201 - (3) (S-SS)
Intermediate French
Prerequisite: French 102 or one to three years of formal instruction in French and appropriate SAT score
Designed for further development of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Focus on reading skill development through readings on contemporary francophone culture and short stories. May be taken concurrently with FREN 241, 242. Followed by FREN 202.

FREN 202 - (3) (S and SS)
Intermediate French
Prerequisite: FREN 201 or one to three years of formal instruction in French and appropriate SAT score
Designed for continued development of the four skills at an advanced level. Readings emphasize contemporary francophone culture and include a modern French play. May be taken concurrently with FREN 241 or 242.

FREN 211 - (1) (S)
Intermediate French Conversation
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in FREN 201, 202, or permission of instructor.

FREN 231 - (1) (S)
Intensive Intermediate French Conversation
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in FREN 232
Supplementary course in conversation and vocabulary to complement FREN 232.

FREN 232 - (3) (S)
Intensive Intermediate French
Prerequisite: Three to four years of high school French or appropriate SAT score
Intensive course designed specifically for potential majors in French. Skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing are thoroughly developed at an accelerated pace. Readings concentrate on literature without excluding cultural aspects of French civilization. May be taken concurrently with FREN 231. May not be used to satisfy the humanities requirement.

FREN 311 - (1) (Y)
French Conversation and Vocabulary
Prerequisite: Completion of the foreign language requirement; concurrent enrollment in a 300-level French course
Supplementary course in conversation and vocabulary development. May not be used to satisfy the language requirement, nor for major or minor credit.

FREN 331 - (3) (S)
Intensive Grammar
Prerequisite: FREN 202, 232, or the equivalent, or appropriate SAT score. Required of majors and strongly recommended to others as preparation for all subsequent courses (except FREN 333 and 427)
Designed to confirm and consolidate the knowledge of basic linguistic patterns. Emphasis is on writing and progressive build-up of vocabulary.

FREN 332 - (3) (S)
The Writing and Reading of Texts
Development of writing skills and strategies including grammar and syntax, vocabulary, logical exposition, organization and style. Analysis of journalistic prose, poetry, theatre, and prose fiction. Attention paid to text construction so that students can compose their own texts. Students learn to recognize and manipulate a number of rhetorical and stylistic devices, as well as the basic vocabulary needed to analyze the principal literary genres. Course is a prerequisite for all FREN literature courses on the 300-400 levels including 337-338 and 430.

FREN 333 - (3) (S)
French Conversation and Free Composition
Prerequisite: Completion of FREN 232 or equivalent; permission of course chair for those having completed only FREN 202; students having completed FREN 332 are excluded from this course and must take FREN 334
Designed to give students a better command of present-day spoken French. Conversation on topics of current interest; advanced vocabulary; some individualized writing practice. Section size is limited.

FREN 334 - (3) (S)
French Conversation and Free Composition
Prerequisite: FREN 331, 332
Designed to give students a better command of present-day spoken French. Conversation on topics of current interest; advanced vocabulary; some individualized writing practice. Section size is limited.

FREN 335 - (3) (Y)
Writing Workshop in French
Prerequisite: FREN 332
Designed to improve students' skills in analytic and expository writing in French. Intensive exercises in composition and rewriting, including peer editing. Not available for major or minor credit.

FREN 339 - (3) (S)
Pronunciation, phonetics and phonology for undergraduates. No prerequisites beyond FREN 202 and is commonly taken early in the major sequence.

FREN 341 - (3) (S)
Literature of the Middle Ages and Sixteenth Century
Prerequisite: FREN 332
An examination of important trends in Medieval and Renaissance literature as seen through a careful reading of representative works.

FREN 342 - (3) (S)
Literature of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Prerequisite: FREN 332
A study of representative works of the 17th and 18th centuries, emphasizing certain themes throughout the two centuries.

FREN 343 - (3) (S)
Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
An exploration of representative works of the 19th and 20th centuries.

FREN 344 - (3) (Y)
Introduction to French Cinema
Prerequisite: FREN 332
Basic concepts of film structure, history, and criticism in French and within the French tradition. Includes a survey of representative films from the early works of Lumière and Méliès to the Nouvelle Vague.

FREN 345 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Cultural Studies
Interdisciplinary seminar in French and Francophone culture and society. Topics vary from year to year. Themes may include: literature and history, cinema and society, and cultural anthropology.

FREN 347 - (4) (Y)
History of French Civilization
A study of the social, political, economic, philosophical and artistic developments in France from the Middle Ages to the present.

Unless noted otherwise, the prerequisite to all courses on the 400 level is French 332, or the instructor's consent.

FREN 401 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Middle Ages
Studies in the means of literary expression, the themes, the ideas, the forms and the history of major works of French literature from 1100 to 1500. Topics include individual identity, love, war, humor, and their expression through the literary techniques. Texts are read in Modern French translation.

FREN 402 - (3) (Y)
Renaissance Literature
An examination of major works of sixteenth century French literature situated in the larger historical and cultural context of the Continental Renaissance. Texts selected from the works of Marat, Sceve, Rabelais, Du Bellay, Ronsard and Montaigne.

FREN 403 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Enlightenment
Prerequisite: FREN 332
A survey of the literature of the French eighteenth century, covering selected major works of the Enlightenment by such authors as Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau.

FREN 405 - (3) (Y)
Background of the literary revolution in France during the opening decades of the nineteenth century, and the ensuing social Romanticism of the 1830's and 1840's. Emphasis on Mme de Stael, Chateaubriand, Lamartine, Vigny, Musset, Hugo, Constant, Nerval.

FREN 406 - (3) (Y)
Realism and Naturalism
Literature of the second-half of the nineteenth century. Emphasis on Balzac, Flaubert, Maupassant, Zola, Huysmans and the Ecole de Medan.

FREN 407 - (3) (IR)
La Litterature D'Hier
Readings from the dramatists, novelists and poets between 1900 and 1940.

FREN 408 - (3) (Y)
Topics in Seventeenth Century Literature
Prerequisite: FREN 332
Topics vary; may be repeated for credit. Recent topics have included: Classical Theatre, Poetics of the Lyric, Moralists, and Fiction.

FREN 409 - (3) (Y)
Litterature D'Aujourd'Hui
Texts chosen from authors who have had a significant impact on French letters since 1945; Sartre, Camus, Genet, Beckett, Arrabal, Vian, Queneau, Cesaire, Robbe-Grillet, Thibaudeau et al.

FREN 410 - (3) (IR)
Aspects of the French Short Story
A study of themes and narrative styles according to various trends; witty, erotic, satirical, didactic; suspense stories, moral and existential debates. Readings from Perrault, La Fontaine, Voltaire, Diderot, Maupassant, Merimee, Gide, Sartre, Camus.

FREN 411 - (3) (Y)
Francophone Literature of Africa
Prerequisite: FREN 332
Introduction to the Francophone literature of Africa; survey of a literary tradition in French, with special emphasis on post-World War II poets, novelists, and playwrights of Africa. Contribution of cultural reviews in the development of this literary tradition is examined.

FREN 428 - (3) (Y)
History of the French Language
Prerequisite: FREN 427 or the equivalent or permission of instructor
Survey of the main currents of the French language in its development from the earliest to the present times. Given in French.

Grammaire et Style
Prerequisite: B+ average in FREN 331 and 332
Grammar review through the traditional method of analyse grammaticale; free composition.

FREN 435 - (3) (Y)
Tools and Techniques of Translation
Prerequisite: B+ average in FREN 331, 332, 430
Written and oral translation exercises to and from the target language.

FREN 436 - (3) (Y)
The Culture of Commerce and
Industry in France

With the intensification of exchanges among countries of the European Community, all aspects of the economic world are becoming more international. At the same time, Americans entering the French business setting must confront specifically French cultural standards, expectations, and practicers. This course investigates these through such topics as the organization of industry, banking, marketing, and management, as well as the role of government and the educational system.

FREN 438 - (3) (Y)
French Society and Civilization
Prerequisite: FREN 332
Discussion of political institutions and social problems based upon readings in recent publications and an analysis of current events.

FREN 444 - (3) (Y)
French Literature and Film
A close study of the relation between three or four French films and their sources in French literature and culture.

FREN 451 - (3) (O)
French Comedy
Prerequisite: FREN 332 and either FREN 341, 342, or 343
Dramatic comedy in France from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century, with comparison between comedy and other dramatic forms such as "tragi-comedy" and "theatre of the absurd." Texts by such authors as Corneille, Molière, Regnard, Marivaux, Musset, Feydeau, Jarry, Beckett.

FREN 483, 484 - (3) (SI)
Advanced Seminars in Literature
Prerequisite: Completion of a 400-level literature course with a grade of B- or better
Close study of a specific topic in French literature. Topics vary.

FREN 493, 494 - (3) (SI)
Independent Study-Selected Topics in French Literature and Civilization
Normally, only French majors may enroll in this course and only by written permission from the Departmental Chair prior to the end of the first week of classes.

FREN 498 - (3) (SI)
Pre-Thesis Tutorial
Prerequisite: Admission to the Distinguished Majors Program
Preliminary research for thesis.

FREN 499 - (3) (SI)
Prerequisite: FREN 498 and good standing in the Distinguished Majors Program
Composition and defense of thesis.

The prerequisite to all 500-level literature courses is two 400-level literature courses with an average grade of B, or the instructor's consent.

FREN 501 - (3) (Y)
Language Development
Prerequisite: FREN 332. May not be taken by students who have completed FREN 430.
(A) Grammar, stylistics and composition. Offered every fall. (B) Translation (theme et version). Offered on demand.

FREN 503, 504 - (3) (SS)
Summer Institute for Teachers
Offered on demand during the summer session only.

FREN 508 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to Reading Old French
How to read Old French. Selections will be read from several varieties of Old French, including the Ile-de-France, Picard, and Anglo-Norman dialects. Some attention will be given to the derivation of French from Latin. Taught in English.

FREN 509 - (3) (SI)
Introduction to Old Provencal Language and Literature
Old Provencal (alias Old Occitan) is presented as a grammatical system with some attention to its derivation from Latin. Readings of simple prose texts followed by poetic selections of the troubadours. Taught in English.

FREN 510 - (3) (Y)
Medieval Literature in Modern French
Offered in the fall
An introduction to literary forms, habits of style and thought, and conditions of composition from the late eleventh century to the late fifteenth. Chanson de Roland, Chretien de Troyes, Roman de la Rose, Villon, etc.

FREN 520, 521 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Sixteenth Century
Offered in the spring
Important trends in French Renaissance thought and style as seen in major literary works: the prose of Rabelais, Marguerite de Navarre, and Montaigne, or the poetry of the Lyon group, the Pleiade and the baroque periods.

FREN 530, 531 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Seventeenth Century
One course from this series offered each year
Art forms and society during the baroque and classical periods of French literary history. Readings in theater, fiction, rhetoric and poetry.

FREN 540, 541 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Eighteenth Century
One course from this series offered each year
French 540: A study of religious, moral and political thinking as reflected in the works of Bayle, Fontanelle, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Helvetius, etc. French 541: A study of developing trends in traditional genres (drama, novel, poetry), as reflected in the works of Le Sage, Marivaux, Beaumarchais, Diderot, Chenier, Voltaire, Prevost, Rousseau, etc.

FREN 550, 551 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Nineteenth Century
One course from this series offered each year
Realism, Naturalism and Symbolism. Analysis of representative texts of Mme de Stael, Chateaubriand, Constant, Lamartine, Hugo, Vigny, Musset, Nerval, Balzac, Flaubert, Stendhal, Zola, Huysmans, Maupassant, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Verlaine, and Mallarme.

FREN 560, 561 - (3) (Y)
Literature of the Twentieth Century
One course from this series offered each year
Principal literary movements and representative authors in the drama, novel and poetry.

FREN 570, 571 - (3) (IR)
African Literature
The principal movements and representative authors writing in French in Northern, Central, and Western Africa, with special reference to the islands of Madagascar and Mauritius, and the literary and social histories of these regions will be studied.

FREN 571 - (3) (IR)
New World Literature
Introduction to the French-language literatures of Canada and the Caribbean in their historical and esthetic context. Drama, fiction and poetry are included. Course requirements: a midterm exam, a short paper (8 pages), and a final exam. FREN 571 or FREN 570 (African Literature) will normally be a prerequisite to advanced work in Francophone literature at the 800 level.

FREN 580 - (3) (Y)
Literature and Society
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of the instructor
Study of French cultural manifestations (literature, arts, education, popular culture) from various socio-historical perspectives.

Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures

Overview  The study of Germanic Languages and Literature is a human or cultural science that attempts to apply the concept of "criticism" in the broadest sense of the term, to language, literature, culture, film, intellectual history, philosophy, and theory of the German speaking countries. As this wide range indicates, the field is interdisciplinary in nature. German majors are encouraged, therefore, to take courses in such humanistic disciplines as history, philosophy, other foreign languages, criticism, theory, film studies, feminist theory and criticism, comparative literature, and religious studies.

Although the undergraduate program stresses literary and cultural studies, the department is also actively concerned with assisting students whose interests are non-literary: students who are primarily interested in, for example, the structure and history of the language of film.

Faculty  According to national rankings, the department is one of the nation's most prestigious. This is in part due to the diverse nature of the interests and expertise of the twelve faculty members who comprise the department. From Medieval Courtly Romance to Postmodern Literature and Literary Theory, the department attempts to provide a range of course work that is both challenging and far reaching. Some of the more nationally prominent faculty have published several influential books. Their scholarship explores a wide expanse: 18th and 19th century German literature and literary theory, 20th-century German writers and thinkers, Freud, existentialism, German expressionism, the theory and history of drama, postwar German literature, feminist literary theory, narrative theory, lyric poetry, and film studies. Faculty members have also concentrated their work on the lives, philosophies, and literature of several prominent German writers and thinkers: Kafka, Musil, Rike, Hofmannsthal, and Brecht.

Students  The department has approximately thirty majors and ten minors. Of the thirty majors, approximately one-third are double majors. German and English, German and mathematics, German and history, German and foreign affairs, German and French, German and economics are most popular double majors. Outstanding undergraduates have gone on to graduate study at other leading German departments. Others have gone on to a law school and medical school, or have pursued careers in business, economics, and foreign affairs.

Class size typically ranges from ten to sixty students; the larger courses are German in translation courses, popular because of the nationally ranked faculty who teach them. With the exception of introductory and intermediate level language courses, all classes are taught by faculty.

Special Resources  Study Abroad: The department encourages its students to spend a summer, semester, or a full academic year abroad. The University has two programs available to undergraduates in German speaking countries: one at the Universitat Tubingen, and one at the Universitat Basel (Switzerland). The German House: The department currently maintains a German House in which twelve students can reside. The House is located near the University Grounds and is a meeting place for undergraduates, graduates, and faculty. It also serves as a site for colloquia and discussion groups.

Requirements for Major  Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts degree with German as the major subject: ten courses or 30 credits in German at the 300 level or above, including GERM 300, GERM 301, GERM 311 or 312, one 400-level German literature course, and one additional German literature course. Enrollment in any 500-level course requires the instructor's permission. No more than two GETR courses are accepted.

Distinguished Majors Program  Available to German majors presenting an overall GPA of 3.4 and a letter of recommendation from a faculty member in the Department, the DMP consists of GERM 460 (Senior Seminar), a graduate course (500-level or above), GERM 490 (Thesis) or GERM 491 (Honors Research and Thesis) in addition to the requirements for the German major. Students may elect to do a full year program (GERM 491) or semester program (GERM 490) their senior year. In either case, an Honors Thesis of approximately 25 pages (one semester program) or 40 pages (full year program) is to be handed in by April 25.

Requirements for Minor  Six courses or 18 credits in German at the 300-level, including GERM 300 and GERM 301. Only one GETR course may be counted toward the minor.

GERM 101 and 101R courses are for beginners.   Students who have had some German and wish to continue, are placed according to scores obtained on College Entrance Examination Board achievement tests. The sequence of courses is GERM 101, 102, 201, 202. Students who place higher than course 202 in a language and who have successfully taken an advanced placement examination in that language are relieved of the foreign language requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Arts.

Additional Information  For more information, contact

Robert Leventhal
Undergraduate Advisor
Department of Germanic Languages and Literature
108 Cocke Hall
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-3530
German World Wide Web site
German faculty


Unless otherwise stated, GERM courses are conducted in German. GETR courses have readings and discussions in English.

German in Translation

GETR 150 - (3) (IR)
Goethe in Translation
The life and works of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Poetry, prose, some plays, and a careful reading of his masterpiece, Faust .

GETR 170 - (3) (IR)
First Year Seminar
A seminar on some aspect of German culture.

GETR 233, 234 - (3) (IR)
German Culture
Development of German civilization, from earliest time to present.

GETR 340 - (3) (O)
German Intellectual History From Leibniz to Hegel
Reading and discussion of central theoretical texts in the German tradition 1700-1810, including works by Leibniz, Herder, Lessing, Kant, Schiller, Fichte and Hegel.

GETR 341 - (3) (IR)
Nietzsche and Modern Literature
Reading and thorough discussion of the major works of Nietzsche, in English translation, from the Birth of Tragedy  toTwilight of the Idols.  Special attention to the impact of Nietzsche on 20th century literature and thought in such diverse authors as Shaw, Rilke, Thomas Mann, and Kafka. A term paper submitted in two stages and a final examination.

GETR 342 - (3) (IR)
German Intellectual History From Nietzsche to the Present
Readings in philosophical and social history of Germany from the late 19th century to the present.

GETR 343 - (3) (IR)
Existential Quest in the Continental Novel
"Authenticity," "self," and their relationship to narrative form in Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky, Rilke, Musil, Kafka, Sartre, Camus, Frisch, and Beckett.

GETR 344 - (3) (IR)*
Problems of Identity in Modern German Literature
All classes and reading in English. An exploration of the themes of self- realization and identity crisis in 20th century German literature. Readings include works by Hesse, Kafka, Mann, Brecht, Boell, and Canetti. Classes consist of informal lectures and discussion; videos of several works read.

GETR 345 - (3) (IR)
Children's Literature
Nature and aims of children's literature, primarily European and American, from the 17th century on.

GETR 346 - (3) (IR)
Topics in German Literature (in Translation)
Examination of such myths as Faust and Tristan, along with the parody of them in Modernism.

GETR 347 - (3) (O)
Literature of the Holocaust
Introduction to the most significant texts of Holocaust literature as well as a survey of important philosophical and historical reflections on the meaning of the Holocaust.

GETR 348 - (3) (IR)
German Literature in Translation
Outstanding works of German literature read and discussed in English.

GETR 349 - (3) (IR)
Discussion of Ibsen's major plays, in English translation. No knowledge of a Scandinavian language is needed; will not fulfill the language requirement.

GETR 350 - (3) (E)
German Cinema
Aesthetics and semiotics of film, with a focus on German Expressionism and New German Cinema.

GETR 370 - (3) (IR)
Feminism and Socialism
Feminism in socialist ideology and practice. Focus on the status of women and on feminist literature in two countries, the former German Democratic Republic and the former Soviet Union.

GETR 393 - (3) (Y)
Nazi Germany
A detailed survey of Hitler's life, its political, social, and cultural consequences. Documentary videos are included. The course is conducted entirely in English.

Courses Given in German

GERM 101, 102 - (4) (S)
Elementary German
Essentials of German structure and syntax; emphasis on oral and written proficiency in German. Five class sessions. Language laboratory required. Followed by German 201, 202.

GERM 101R, 102R - (4) (S)
Intensive Elementary German
An introductory language course emphasizing the reading skill, not a traditional reading course. Original German texts are used for practice of all skills. Will count toward fulfillment of the language requirement.

GERM 101G, 102G - (3) (SS)
Reading Course in German
For Graduate of Arts and Sciences students who want a reading knowledge of German for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Open to undergraduates, but does not count toward fulfillment of the language requirement.

GERM 190, 290 - (7) (S)
Intensive German
Prerequisite: Approval of the Department
An intensive, accelerated language course that covers two years of German in one year. Essentials of German structure and syntax; emphasis on comprehension of spoken and written German, speaking and writing.

GERM 201, 202 - (3) (S)
Intermediate German
Prerequisites: GERM 101, 102 or equivalent
Readings in German prose and poetry. Review of German structure and syntax. Language laboratory required.

GERM 209 - (3) (IR)
Intermediate Conversation
Prerequisite: GERM 202
Practice in speaking German. Grammar review as needed. Not for major credit.

GERM 210 - (3) (IR)
Intermediate Readings
Prerequisite: GERM 202
Various types of German prose. Grammar review as needed. Not for major credit.

GERM 300 - (3) (S)
Intensive Grammar
Prerequisite: GERM 202 or equivalent
Systematic review of German grammar, syntax, and vocabulary.

GERM 301 - (3) (S)
Introduction to Literature
Prerequisite: GERM 300 or permission of instructor
Analysis of major literary works for a better understanding of literature in general.

GERM 311 - (3) (O)
Survey of Literature II
Prerequisite: GERM 301
German literature from 1890 to the present.

GERM 312 - (3) (E)
Survey of Literature I
Prerequisite: GERM 301
German literature from 1750 to 1890.

GERM 321 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Intensive Grammar
Prerequisite: GERM 300
Refinement of German grammar, for total mastery.

GERM 322 - (1-3) (Y)
German Drama: Stage Production
Prerequisites: GERM 202 or comparable language proficiency
Interpretation and staging of a representative play in German with students as actors and producers. May be taken more than once for credit, but only once for major credit.

GERM 323 - (3) (Y)
Composition and Conversation
Prerequisite: GERM 300
Practice in writing and speaking German.

GERM 324 - (3) (Y)
Advanced Composition and Conversation
Prerequisite: GERM 323
Further practice in writing and speaking German.

GERM 325 - (3) (IR)
Commercial German I
Prerequisite: GERM 323
Introduction to the specialized language of the business world and to German business practices.

GERM 326 - (3) (IR)
Commercial German II
Prerequisite: GERM 325
Continuation of German 325.

GERM 329 - (1) (Y)
May be taken more than once for credit, but only once for major credit.

GERM 330 - (1) (Y)
May be taken more than once for credit, but only once for major credit.

GERM 331 - (3) (IR)
Topics in German Culture
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323
Selected aspects of German culture, such as opera. May be repeated for credit.

GERM 334 - (3) (IR)
German and Austrian Culture, ca. 1900
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323
Literature, the arts, politics, and social developments between 1870 and 1918.

GERM 335 - (3) (IR)
Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323
German life between 1918 and 1945.

GERM 336 - (3) (IR)
Postwar German Culture
Prerequisite: GERM 301 or 323
Readings in the cultural, social, and political histories of the German-speaking countries since 1945.

GERM 351 - (3) (IR)
Lyric Poetry
Prerequisite: GERM 301
Survey of major forms and themes in German lyric poetry.

GERM 352 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301
Analysis and discussion of representative German novelle from Kleist to the present.

GERM 353 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301
An investigation of dramatic theory and practice, with emphasis on major German authors and movements.

GERM 355 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301
Major works by Goethe and Schiller and other authors who shared their classical values.

GERM 356 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301
German literature from 1800 to 1830 and its influence.

GERM 357 - (3) (IR)
Prerequisite: GERM 301
Major German authors from 1890 to 1945.

GERM 358 - (3) (IR)
Postwar Literature
Prerequisite: GERM 301
Representative German authors since 1945.

GERM 361 - (3) (IR)
Topics in German Literature
Prerequisite: GERM 301
Seminar in German literature. May be repeated for credit.

GERM 370 - (3) (IR)
Bertolt Brecht
A study of Brecht's life and works, including plays, poems, and theoretical writings.

GERM 420 - (3) (IR)
Advanced Translation
Prerequisite: GERM 300
Focuses on the skills and techniques of literary translation-both English to German and German to English. Working from extended texts the aim of the course is to develop both accuracy and stylistic competence in the art of translating from one language to another: translation as a distinct act of creative endeavor.

GERM 450 - (3) (Y)
Prerequisite: GERM 324
Refinement of German prose style.

GERM 460 - (3) (Y)
Fourth-Year Seminar
Prerequisites: GERM 301 and other literature courses
Literary analysis for advanced students.

GERM 470 - (1-3) (S)
Independent Study
Prerequisite: Approval by a supervising faculty member

GERM 490 - (3) (S)
Honors Thesis
Prerequisite: Admission to the DMP, permission of undergraduate advisor and a supervising faculty member
Directed research for, and composition of, an extended essay.

GERM 491 - (6) (S)
Honors Research and Thesis
Prerequisite: Admission to the DMP, permission of undergraduate advisor and a supervising faculty member.

GERM 500 - (3) (E)
Critical Writing and Bibliography
Supervised practice in the organization and writing of articles for scholarly journals. Includes introduction to bibliography.

GERM 505 - (3) (IR)
Special Topics
Major figures, genres, or literary problems as the focus for an intensive course within any literary period.

GERM 510 - (3) (IR)
Middle High German
Systematic study of Middle High German grammar. Selected readings in Middle High German Literature.

GERM 512 - (3) (IR)
Medieval German Lyric Poetry
Reading of selections from the Minnesang, in the context of the development of Middle High German poetry. Knowledge of Middle High German required.

GERM 514 - (3) (IR)
Arthurian Romance
Theory and analysis of the chief German Arthurian romances: Erec, Parzival, Iwain, and Tristan. Knowledge of Middle High German required.

GERM 521 - (3) (IR)
Reformation to Baroque, 1700
German literature from 1500 to 1680.

GERM 525 - (3) (IR)
Age of Goethe I
German Storm and Stress, focusing on Goethe and Schiller.

GERM 526 - (3) (IR)
Age of Goethe II
Weimar classicism.

GERM 530 - (3) (IR)
German literature and intellectual history of the period from 1795 to 1830.

GERM 537 - (3) (IR)
Nineteenth Century
Study of major writers and works from 1830 to 1890, including Grillparzer, Stifter, Heine, Hebbel, Keller, Storm, Fontane.

GERM 547 - (3) (IR)
Turn of the Century
Discussion of the major literary movements at the turn of the century with analysis of representative works by Hofmannsthal, Schnitzler, George, Rilke, Thomas Mann, Musil, Kafka, and others.

GERM 548 - (3) (IR)
Twentieth Century
An introduction to the main currents of German literature since 1920, with special emphasis on major authors and traditions.

GERM 550 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Lyric Poetry
An investigation of the theory and practice of lyric poetry in Germany, with an emphasis on major authors and traditions.

GERM 551 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Prose Fiction
A study of representative works of fiction-either novels or shorter forms-with special attention to formal and thematic developments, as well as to representative theories of fiction.

GERM 552 - (3) (IR)
Studies in Drama
An investigation of dramatic theory and practice in Germany, with emphasis on major authors and traditions.

GERM 584 - (3) (IR)
Introduction to Literary Theory
An examination of current theories of literature, including Marxist, psychoanalytical, formalist, structuralist, and hermeneutic approaches.

GERM 588 - (3) (IR)
Linguistic Approaches to Literature
Aspects of literary style investigated in the light of modern linguistics.


SCAN 350 - (3) (Y)
Discussion of Ibsen's major plays, in English translation. No knowledge of a Scandinavian language is needed; will not fulfill the language requirement.