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Chapter 8: McIntire School of Commerce



General Information

The McIntire School of Commerce offers a professional program that includes the study of the fundamental disciplines underlying the management of organizations. The curriculum of the McIntire School of Commerce is based on the premise that a student may receive a broad-based liberal arts education and a professional education in four years. After two years of study in the liberal arts, a student enters the McIntire School to study academic disciplines critical to the practice of business. While at McIntire, students may continue to broaden their education by taking courses outside the School. The foundations of the program include basic courses in accounting and control, computer uses, economics, finance, management, marketing, international business, production, and quantitative methods. Advanced courses in each area are provided to form a total program that is both integrative and comprehensive.

The principal thrusts of the School are twofold: a program designed to educate generalists in the arts and sciences of professional management, and a professional accounting program aiming toward certification or further study in the School's graduate accounting program. Problem solving, decision making, and interpersonal skills are attributes of McIntire graduates. Scholarship and professionalism are emphasized in all of the School's programs.

The School prepares students for an array of future opportunities, including graduate and professional school. Part of that preparation is the emphasis on group projects and the case method of instruction in which students analyze complex business situations. The success of the McIntire program is evidenced by thousands of alumni who enjoy prominent positions throughout the world. The success is also evident in the national ranking and reputation achieved by the School.

McIntire graduates should be able to:


History

The University of Virginia was one of the first institutions in the United States to introduce the subject matter of economics into its curriculum. Since the University's first session in 1825, courses of study in this field have been available.

It was not until 1906 that the School of Economics was established as a separate unit within the College of Arts and Sciences. In 1920 a division of business administration was created in the James Wilson School of Economics. In 1921, a donation from an alumnus, Mr. Paul Goodloe McIntire, made possible the establishment of the McIntire School of Commerce and Business Administration. For the next 31 years the McIntire School operated as a distinct division of the College of Arts and Sciences, but its work was closely integrated with the James Wilson School of Economics. In 1952, the University's Board of Visitors approved the establishment of the McIntire School as a professional school to be administered as a separate unit of the University, distinct from the College.


The McIntire School Today

The School is a separate division of the University in the same sense as are the Schools of Architecture, Graduate Business Administration, Education, Engineering, Law and Medicine. The McIntire School confers the Bachelor of Science in Commerce and, as a Department of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, offers Master of Science degrees in Accounting and Management Information Systems. The bachelor's degree is conferred after a four-year program of studies in which the first two years are spent in an accredited college or university in courses approved by the McIntire School. In the 1996-97 session the undergraduate student body numbered 660 and the faculty 60.

The School is located in Monroe Hall on the central Grounds of the University. This building contains classrooms, seminar rooms, and administrative and faculty offices. Computer facilities located in the building include a microcomputer laboratory, multimedia classrooms and terminals linked to other University computing facilities. In addition to the facilities in Monroe Hall, the University's extensive libraries and computing systems are available to students of the McIntire School.

Address

The McIntire School of Commerce
Monroe Hall
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 924-3865


Accreditation

The McIntire School was elected to membership in the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business in 1925. In 1981 the School became accredited to offer programs at the graduate level as well as the undergraduate level. Accreditation is offered only to those schools which meet the strict academic standards and program requirements prescribed by this Assembly. In 1982, the School became one of the initial 13 schools in the nation to have both its undergraduate and graduate accounting programs accredited under new AACSB standards for the separate accreditation of accounting programs. All McIntire programs received accreditation by the AACSB in 1994.


Scholarships and Awards

Link to complete listing of McIntire School of Commerce Scholarships and Awards.


Student Organizations and Activities

The following organizations are available to students in the McIntire School of Commerce. Commerce students are also eligible for the University activities, service, and governmental organizations described in The Colonnades.

Link to complete listing of McIntire School of Commerce Student Organizations and Activities.


Career Opportunities and Resources

McIntire graduates pursue a variety of challenging and rewarding career opportunities throughout the United States and around the world. McIntire alumni enter such fields as accounting, finance, human resource management, management information systems, and marketing. They are employed in managerial roles in such diverse work settings as investment and commercial banking, manufacturing, advertising, retailing, consulting, government, sports, education, military, and law. The salaries and responsibilities commanded by graduating McIntire students consistently rank at the top for the nation's leading undergraduate schools of business. The Commerce Career Services Office provides a variety of services and assists students in identifying and achieving their career goals.

Available to our students is an extensive on-grounds recruiting program. Each year approximately 250 companies visit the University of Virginia to interview McIntire students for full-time employment. In addition to full-time employment opportunities, over 100 organizations either recruit on-grounds or list summer internships for third-year students. The option to attend graduate school immediately following graduation is one selected by approximately ten percent of each class. Students pursue graduate and professional degrees in law, accounting, management information systems, education, and other areas.

The McIntire School is justifiably proud of its academic program, and the career success of its 8,000 alumni represents a good measure of that pride. The entering third-year student and the finishing fourth-year student both have ample opportunity for direct assistance in plotting their own successful career futures after graduation.


Endowed Chairs

The endowed chair or professorship is the highest honor and rank that can be obtained in academic life. The accomplishment of a distinguished academician is recognized when he or she is named to an endowed professorship. The availability of endowed chairs and professorships makes it possible for the McIntire School to attract and retain eminent teachers and scholars in the disciplines of Commerce. The chairs and professorships which currently exist include:

Link to complete listing of McIntire School of Commerce Endowed Chairs.


Research Programs

Ongoing research is an important way for faculty members to keep abreast of the latest developments in their disciplines and to contribute to the advancement of knowledge. Faculty research is supported through the funding of summer research and pedagogy grants, and participation by faculty in the University's Sesquicentennial Associateship Program which provides a semester's leave to conduct approved research. Other forms of support include the establishment of summer research professorships available to faculty members at all ranks, and research opportunities through the Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, the Center for Financial Services Studies, the Center for Innovation in Business Learning, and the Center for the Management of Information Technology.

Link to complete listing of McIntire School of Commerce Research Programs.


McIntire Small Business Institute

The McIntire School of Commerce Small Business Institute (SBI) enables students, under faculty supervision, to work with small businesses on specific projects. The SBI is conducted in cooperation with the Small Business Administration. Students gain "real world" experience and business owners/managers gain an objective and thorough analysis of their businesses. Cases written by McIntire students have won state, regional and national awards.


Executive Education Programs

An important aspect of the mission of the McIntire School of Commerce is serving the continuing education needs of the private and public sectors. The area of executive business education has been growing rapidly in recent years as businesses have realized the importance of keeping their managers exposed to the latest management concepts and developments. The McIntire School of Commerce seeks to address these education needs through three basic types of programs:

Affiliated Programs   The McIntire School of Commerce offers several educational programs in affiliation with major trade associations. Examples include the Consumer Bankers Association, the Virginia Bankers Association, and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

Open Enrollment Programs   The McIntire School of Commerce offers open enrollment business programs on a variety of topics to the general public at several locations in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in Washington, D.C., and in other states.

Customized Executive Education Programs   The McIntire School of Commerce works closely with individual firms and organizations in custom-designing and presenting programs to meet their unique needs.

Sponsored Lectures and Seminars   The McIntire School of Commerce encourages an exchange of ideas among business, banking, and government leaders through a continuing series of lectures, seminars, conferences, and workshops.

Executive-in-Residence   The McIntire School of Commerce encourages a "real world" perspective with its executive-in-residence program.


The McIntire School Advisory Board

The McIntire School of Commerce Advisory Board, founded in 1981, serves as a positive link between the School and the business and public communities which it serves. It also provides advice to the faculty and administration concerning ways to serve the dynamic and continually evolving needs of business, and it assists the Dean in the development of resources and the future direction of the School.


The McIntire School of Commerce Foundation

The McIntire Foundation Board of Trustees is organized with the general purpose of promoting the achievement and furthering the aims and purposes of the McIntire School of Commerce. Foremost among the purposes are executive education and development. In 1995, the responsibility of the Board expanded for the purpose of raising private funds, both capital and annual, for the School. It serves as a catalyst for the capital campaign as well as annual fundraising.


Academic Requirements

General Curriculum

Add/Drop Rules   Courses may be added only during the two weeks (14 calendar days) following final registration.

Courses may be dropped only during the McIntire School's drop period, not to exceed six weeks (42 calendar days) following final registration. After the six-week period students are not allowed to drop or withdraw from any Commerce or Non-Commerce courses.

In addition, required courses cannot be dropped at any time.

All Course Action forms must be approved by the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs of the McIntire School. Request forms are available in Room 136, Monroe Hall.

Attendance   Students are expected to attend all lectures and other prescribed activities of the courses for which they are registered. Although course attendance requirements are set by the course instructor, any student who is absent from more than 50 percent of the lectures will automatically receive a grade of F in that course.

Course Completion   No 400-level Commerce courses can be taken prior to satisfactory completion of: (1) the Humanities and Foreign Language prerequisites, and (2) all required third-year courses (see Degree Requirements).

Course Restrictions   Commerce students may elect to take no more than one credit of Physical Education or one credit of EDHS Physical Education related course as part of their 120-credit course of study.

Course Credit Requirements (Semester)   Students are normally expected to register for 15 credits. Special permission is required for registering for 12 to 14 credits. Special permission is also required to register for more than 17 credits, except that a student may register for three more credits than were passed the preceding semester, up to 21 total credits. Requests for exceptions must be received and granted by the Academic Performance (Rules) Committee prior to the end of the add/drop period.

A degree candidate needing 27 or fewer credits to meet degree requirements may, in either (not both) of the last two semesters of candidacy, carry as few as 12 credits. However, any student carrying less than 15 credits will not be eligible for the dean's list.

Credit/No Credit Option  Courses taken on a CR/NC basis before entering the McIntire School may be applied toward a student's degree requirements. After enrollment at McIntire, students may enroll in non-Commerce courses on a CR/NC basis, but  these courses cannot  be used to satisfy any  School or University requirement. This includes the School's course load requirement of 15 credits a semester. Commerce courses are not  offered on a CR/NC basis.

Dean's List   Any student who has passed at least 15 credits of graded work in the preceding semester, of which nine or more credits are Commerce courses, without failure in any course, and with a grade average in the top 20 percent of the School, will be placed on the Dean's List of Distinguished Students. Courses taken on a CR/NC basis may not be counted toward the 15-credit minimum. Any student receiving an F, NC, or NG during the semester is not eligible to be on the dean's list.


Degree Requirements

  1. Course Requirements (F-fall semester; S-spring semester)
    1. Prior to enrolling in the McIntire School, a student must complete the following courses:

      Course Suggested Year
      1. Commerce
      COMM 2012nd
      COMM 2022nd
      2. Non-Commerce
      ECON 2012nd
      ECON 2022nd
      ENWR 1011st
      MATH 111 or 121 1st
      MATH 1121st
      CS 120 or above1st or 2nd
      Humanities/Fine Arts (3-6 credits) [1]1st or 2nd
      Foreign Language (0-14 credits) [1] 1st or 2nd
      Social, Natural/Physical Sciences (0-3 credits) [1] 

      [1] Requirements as defined in this Record, College of Arts and Sciences chapter, area requirements section. Three humanities credits are required prior to enrollment. Three additional credits of humanities along with three credits of social, natural/physical sciences will be required before graduation and may be taken either before or after entering the McIntire School. The Humanities and Foreign Language prerequisites may, under unusual circumstances be completed during the third year or by transfer during summer.

    2. During the third year a student must complete the core curriculum in sequence during the fall and spring semesters. The following courses are the third-year core curriculum:

      Fall Semester
      COMM 325 Quantitative Analysis
      COMM 351 Fundamentals of Marketing
      COMM 361 Organizational Behavior
      COMM 371 Managerial Finance I
      Spring Semester
      COMM 326 Business Information Systems
      COMM 341 Commercial Law [2]
      COMM 372 Managerial Finance II
      COMM 384 Foundations of International Business

      [2] COMM 341 -- Commercial Law I may be taken prior to enrollment in the McIntire School or in the fourth year, and if taken at the University of Virginia will be included in the student's 45 Commerce credits.

    3. During the fourth year a student must declare a concentration. The following courses must be completed:
      1. Core: COMM 485 Strategic Management
      2. Concentration
        1. Accounting
          Third Year
          COMM 314 Cost Accounting
          COMM 311 Intermediate Accounting I
          Fourth Year
          COMM 312 Intermediate Acct II
          COMM 310 [3] Accounting Information Systems
          COMM 342 [4] Commercial Law II

          [3] COMM 320 may be substituted.
          [4] May be completed third or fourth year.

        2. Finance
          Fourth Year
          COMM 473 Investments: Equity Securities and Markets
          COMM 475 Fixed-Income Securities and Markets
          COMM 478 Financial Forecasting and Strategy

        3. International Business
          First or Second Year
          Area Studies [5] 6 credits
          [5] from approved list; humanities courses taken to fulfill the area studies requirements for the international business concentration may be counted toward the (six credit) humanities requirement.
          Fourth Year
          COMM 451 International Marketing
          COMM 469 International Management
          COMM 472 International Financial Analysis, or
          COMM 474 International Finance and Banking
          Students are encouraged to study abroad in a chosen country or region during the fall semester of their fourth year.

        4. Management
          Fourth Year
          COMM 462 Topics in Organizational Behavior
          Two other 400-level Management Courses

        5. Management Information Systems
          Third Year
          COMM 320 Business Software Development
          Fourth Year
          COMM 327 [6] Database Management Systems
          COMM 427 Systems Analysis and Design
          COMM 428 Data Communications
          [6] May be completed third or fourth year

        6. Marketing
          Third Year
          COMM 353 Marketing Techniques
          Fourth Year
          COMM 454 Marketing Analysis
          COMM 455 Marketing Strategies and Tactics
      3. Electives
        1. Commerce
          After Enrollment: Students are required to earn nine credits in Commerce electives from among 300- and 400-level courses after enrollment in McIntire. For students not concentrating in Accounting, two of the three courses must be in areas outside the primary concentration. Students (except those concentrating in accounting) may apply no more than five courses (15 credits) in their concentration toward degree requirements (excluding core courses).
          Students concentrating in accounting may take no more than three accounting courses as electives.
        2. Non-Commerce
          After enrollment:  Any courses necessary to complete 51 credit requirement.

  2. Credit Requirements
    1. Total Credits -- A student must earn 120 credits for the Bachelor of Science in Commerce. Of the 120 credits:
      1. 57 credits must be in Commerce courses and ECON 201 and 202.
      2. 51 credits must be in non-Commerce courses (excluding ECON 201 and 202).
      3. 12 credits may be in either Commerce or non-Commerce.
    2. Credits after enrollment at McIntire:
      1. 57 credits.
      2. 45 credits in Commerce including:
        1. 27 credits of core courses.
        2. 9-15 credits of courses in a concentration
        3. a minimum of 6-9 credits (6 must be outside the concentration).

  3. Grade Requirements -- A student must achieve at least a 2.0 grade point average for:
    1. All coursework completed.
    2. All Commerce courses and ECON 201 and 202.
    3. Coursework taken during the semester immediately preceding graduation. Furthermore, a student must complete this semester in good academic standing (see Probation).

  4. Residency Requirement -- It is the philosophy of the McIntire School of Commerce that students should be broadly educated to deal with the complex issues of the business community and society at large. The School's program is designed to increase students' skills and build upon previous knowledge. In order to effectively achieve program goals, the School requires a student to be enrolled full-time for two academic years, completing a minimum of 57 hours. It is also required that students complete all core, concentration and elective Commerce courses at the McIntire School of Commerce (see Study Abroad section). Exceptions to this policy must be submitted to and approved by the McIntire (Rules) Academic Performance Committee.

Diploma with Distinction   Diplomas inscribed "with distinction" are awarded to Bachelor of Science in Commerce students who have a grade point average in the top 15 percent of the class based on work completed while enrolled in the School.

Examinations   Absence from examinations will not be excused except for sickness on the day of examination attested by a physician's certificate or for other cause approved by the faculty. An unexcused absence is counted as a failure.

A student who is excused from more than one-half of a semester's examinations due to illness may not be a member of a student organization which publicly represents the University until the examinations are taken. No student may remain in the McIntire School who misses all examinations in two consecutive semesters due to illness.

Special examinations may be taken by a student with an excused absence on a date to be arranged with the course instructor.

Exclusion from Courses   Any student who is making no real progress in a course, may, at any time during the semester, be excluded from the course (with a grade of F) by the dean upon recommendation of the course instructor.

Grade Changes   No grade may be changed after it has been submitted the the university registrar without the approval of the dean. The dean is not authorized by the faculty to change a grade submitted to the university registrar except when an instructor certifies that, because of errors in calculation or transcription, an incorrect grade has been submitted.

A McIntire School of Commerce instructor may establish a limit to the time allowed for a student to appeal a semesterís grade and request that it be changed. Time limits may vary from course to course, but in no case may they extend beyond the following semester. They may be any length of time less than one semester if so specified by the instructor in the course syllabus.

Incompletes   The symbol IN (incomplete) is used when additional course work is required or examinations need to be taken in order to fulfill the requirements of the course. IN automatically becomes a grade of F in ten days following the final examination date unless work in the course is completed satisfactorily in that time, or unless arrangements have been made, with permission of the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs for work to be made up later.

Independent Study  COMM 499, Independent Study in Commerce, may be taken only by fourth-year Commerce students who have obtained permission from the supervising faculty member prior to the Commerce add date. Students may take COMM 499 only once while they are Commerce students, for only one credit.

Leave of Absence   Upon the completion of any semester in the McIntire School, a Commerce student may take a leave of a year or more away from the University. Students taking a leave of absence may only return in the academic semester which follows the completed semester (e.g., a student who takes a leave after the fall semester, third year, must enroll in third-year courses in a subsequent spring semester).

A Commerce student may take a leave of absence by meeting with the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs and filing a Leave of Absence form in Room 136, Monroe Hall.

Readmission depends on a student's status at the time of leaving the McIntire School. Students having at least a 2.0 average in the McIntire School who are making satisfactory progress toward their degree may return in the appropriate semester as stated above. Students with less than a 2.0 average, or who have not been making satisfactory progress toward their degree (e.g., they have not completed or passed courses required at the level attained when they requested the leave of absence), may be required by the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs of the McIntire School to attend the University's Summer Session to take prescribed courses before readmission.

Any student who wishes to be readmitted following a leave of absence must submit a readmission request to the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs of the McIntire School by March 1 for fall semester and November 1 for spring semester.

Major/Minor in the College   A student enrolled at McIntire may earn a major or a minor in the College of Arts and Sciences. Prior permission must be obtained from the chair or director of undergraduate programs of the College department in which the student is seeking the major or minor.

In pursuing the above, students will not receive two degrees from the University. They would receive a B.S. in Commerce with a concentration and a minor (or major) appearing as degree information on the official transcript. In a case where a student has a double concentration, the College minor or major appears following the semester in which it was completed.

Students are responsible for completing the major or minor form (available in the College departments) and for obtaining the signature of the chair or director of the undergraduate programs. The form is to be submitted to the Registrar of the McIntire School, in Monroe Hall, who will monitor the satisfactory completion of requirements.

Physical Education   Covered in the Course Restrictions section.

Probation   Probation is a state of warning involving the withdrawal of certain privileges from the student. No student on probation may be a member of any organization which publicly represents the University. Probation will be incurred when a student:

  1. Passes less than 12 credits or earns less than a 2.0 grade point average in any one semester; or
  2. Carries less than 15 credits of graded work per semester without permission; or
  3. After two or more semesters in the McIntire School, has a grade point deficiency exceeding nine grade points, either in all Commerce courses attempted or in all courses attempted at the University.
Probation shall last for one semester under (1) above and for so long as the grade point deficiency exceeds nine grade points under (2). A student cannot normally be removed from probation by attending summer school. However, if summer school work completely eliminates a grade point deficiency, the Rules Committee of the McIntire School will consider a petition for removal from probation.

Students placed on probation for work completed in the semester preceding graduation may not be allowed to graduate.

Repeating Courses   No course, once passed (D- or better), can be repeated to improve the recorded grade.

Required Courses  See Degree Requirements.

Study Abroad   A student wishing to study abroad should visit the Office of Foreign Study (Minor Hall) to explore the various opportunities available. Information on several opportunities in business can also be obtained from the Office of Student Affairs in Monroe Hall. Because of the nature of the third-year curriculum, students should consider the summer between the third and fourth year or the fall semester of their fourth year as periods to study abroad.

Interested students should work with their faculty advisor, area coordinator, the Assistant Dean, and Registrar of the McIntire School to prepare an appropriate program of study. For McIntire students who are studying abroad on a McIntire approved program, a waiver of the University 54 credit residency requirement, and the McIntire 57 credit residency requirement will be granted, but in no case will students be allowed to complete less than three semesters or 45 credits in residence at McIntire.

Suspension   Suspension involves enforced withdrawal from the University and may be issued whenever a student:

  1. Passes fewer than nine credits or earns less than a 1.8 grade point average in one semester; or
  2. After two or more semesters in the McIntire School has cumulative grade point deficiency in excess of 12 grade points, either in all Commerce courses attempted or in all courses attempted at the University; or
  3. Incurs probation for the third time; or
  4. Incurs probation following a suspension.
A student who has been suspended only once must normally attend a full-time program at the University of Virginia Summer Session. Upon completion of this program, the student may apply to the Rules Committee for readmission. The application for readmission is to be submitted to the Rules Committee through the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs of the McIntire School. Readmission is not automatic. A student who is readmitted after suspension is placed on a probationary status for a period of one semester. No student who is suspended a second time may be readmitted.

Transfer Credit   Credit toward a degree will be allowed for approved work completed in an accredited college or university or in other schools of this University upon presentation of a satisfactory transcript of record. However, no credit will be given for a required upper-level Commerce course unless such course is taken in the McIntire School. In no case will the total transfer credit granted toward a degree in the School of Commerce be more than 63 credits or more than 33 credits completed in one academic year. No adjustment of transfer credit for prior coursework will be made after the first semester in the School. Students wishing to transfer credit for coursework taken after enrollment in the School must receive prior approval from the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs. In general, credit will not be granted for:

  1. Work completed with grade lower than C;
  2. Work completed elsewhere by re-examination;
  3. Correspondence or home-study courses;
  4. Business courses beyond the elementary courses in accounting and principles of economics; or
  5. More than one credit of physical or health education courses.
Withdrawal, Voluntary   An official application to withdraw from the University must be submitted to the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs of the McIntire School. The application must state the reason for the withdrawal and must be approved in writing by the Dean of the McIntire School or a designated representative.

The application must be endorsed by the Dean of Students (2nd floor, Peabody Hall). The completed withdrawal form, along with student identification cards, must be deposited with the Dean of Students at the time of withdrawal.

A student who withdraws for reasons of ill health must obtain permission from the Department of Student Health. Subsequent medical clearance from the Department of Student Health is among the requirements for readmission.

Failure to comply with these regulations will subject a student to suspension from the University by the Vice President for Student Affairs.

Any student who withdraws without having obtained permission is recorded as having been suspended.

A Commerce student who withdraws during the first semester in the McIntire School (fall semester, third year) will not be guaranteed readmission to the School. Also, students who withdraw after the drop date will receive grades of WP or WF in their courses.

Any Commerce student who subsequently wishes to re-enroll must submit a written request for readmission to the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs of the McIntire School by March 1 for fall semester and November 1 for spring semester. Commerce students may return only in the academic semester which follows the student's last successfully completed academic semester. For example, a student who withdraws during the spring semester, third year, must re-enroll in third-year courses in a subsequent spring semester. Readmission is not automatic and depends on the student's performance at the time of withdrawal.

Withdrawal, Enforced   The faculty of the McIntire School may impose enforced withdrawal when a student exhibits habitual delinquency in class, or any other fault which prevents the student from fulfilling the purposes implied by registration at the University.

Enforced withdrawal may also be imposed for failure to comply with University pre-entrance health requirements; or for failure to obtain medical leave or medical withdrawal in the case of repeated or prolonged absence from class as a result of illness.


Programs of Concentration

Accounting

The accounting program develops individuals, molding them into financial experts. Graduates work as business consultants, financial managers, independent auditors and tax advisors. McIntire's accounting program is widely recognized as one of the country's best and graduates are highly sought after. The program builds on the broad liberal arts background acquired during a student's first two years at the University. It is designed to give the student both a sound general business foundation and the analytical and conceptual skills essential to an understanding of current accounting practices.

Accountants supply quantitative information, primarily financial in nature, essential to decision making and control to various users. They also participate in making financial decisions that allocate scarce resources within and among private and public sector organizations to achieve both economic and social goals. These are the corporate financial managers. Equally important, accounting provides information to investors, creditors, the government, and society at large on management's stewardship and effective use of an organization's resources. Independent certified public accountants provide a wide variety of tax and consulting services to clients. CPAs also audit management's reports and determine whether they fairly present the facts.

The basic requirements for the accounting concentration are COMM 311, COMM 312, COMM 314, COMM 310, and COMM 342. Students seeking professional certification (e.g., certified public accountant, certified management accountant, or certified internal auditor) should consider these additional electives:

COMM 445
COMM 521
COMM 531
COMM 546

Students planning to enter the School's graduate accounting program (M.S.) and who graduate with 126 credits, or more, may take two 500-level courses and receive graduate credit for them toward the M.S. degree.

University of Virginia students who have been admitted to the McIntire School of Commerce may apply for and receive acceptance to the M.S. in Accounting degree program after having completed two semesters of study as a Commerce School student, earned good grades, submitted acceptable letters of recommendation, and earned GMAT scores that indicate a capacity to do graduate level work at the University of Virginia. Because this is a competitive admissions process, acceptance to the program is not guaranteed, but will ultimately hinge on the candidate's record of accomplishments.

The Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination -- Students planning to sit for the Uniform CPA examination should determine the requirements for admission to the examination by contacting their State Board of Accountancy. Persons seeking information concerning the requirements for admission to sit for the CPA examination in Virginia are referred to the Virginia State Board of Accountancy, Department of Commerce, 3600 W. Broad St., Richmond, Virginia 23230, or call 1-800-CPA-EXAM.


Finance

Financial management is responsible for the efficient acquisition and investment of a firm's funds, and thus plays a critically important role in the management of the corporate enterprise, both in domestic and multi-national firms. It is essential, therefore, that the student possess an understanding of both the functional and analytical methods of finance, and the operation of global financial systems.

To achieve these goals, the program in finance presents an integrated treatment of the operational aspects of business and investment finance, the functions of financial institutions and the international capital markets, and the basic economic and legal framework of financial organizations. Primary emphasis is placed on the role of the global financial manager in achieving broad corporate objectives, including financial planning and control, and raising and investing funds. A variety of teaching pedagogies, including lecture, socratic, and case methods are employed in this process. The program is designed to meet the needs of students who look forward to specialized careers in corporate finance, financial counseling, investment management, or banking. International financial topics are incorporated throughout all finance courses as well as a specialized course held abroad, COMM 474. Students concentrating in finance are required to complete COMM 473, COMM 475, and COMM 478. Additional courses in accounting are recommended.


International Business

For business, the future is global. For managers, a knowledge of international business is imperative in an increasingly global business environment. The crossing of national boundaries increases the complexity of a business transaction given the differences between countries in accounting, banking, culture, currency, finance, governmental regulations, information systems, insurance, law, management, marketing, political systems, taxation, and transportation.

As a field of study, international business is broader in focus than the field of international trade. International business draws upon contributions from the traditional business disciplines of accounting, finance, management, management information systems, and marketing. It also draws from anthropology, culture, economics, geography, history, languages, law, politics, psychology, and sociology.

The required courses for a concentration in international business include COMM 451, COMM 469, and COMM 472 or COMM 474. Additionally, students must complete the foreign language requirement and at least two courses in area studies of other cultures in the College of Arts and Sciences. Students are encouraged to study abroad during the fall semester of their fourth year.


Management

Managerial, interpersonal, and organizational insight skills are a necessary complement to technical skills for long-term career success and satisfaction. The management concentration in the McIntire School develops and deepens those skills through a course of study of management theory and practice. Students choose a management concentration for a variety of reasons.

Some have a specific career area in mind, such as human resource management or entrepreneurship. Others choose management courses or a concentration to provide a balance to more technical courses of study in business. The flexibility of the management curriculum provides students with the ability to customize a program of study that meets their academic and career objectives.

The required courses for this concentration are three 400-level Management courses, of which at least one must be a COMM 462 course.


Management Information Systems

Information is an important organizational resource. Information is a primary input to the decision and control systems of modern management. The focus of the MIS concentration is upon the design, development, and implementation of effective systems for the collection, processing, and dissemination of information in support of organizational decision-making. This implies a conceptual integration of information sources, requirements, and interrelationships among the functional units of an organization. Because of the massive volume of information associated with the transactions of the organization and the large number of decisions ranging from operational control to strategic planning, the management information system will typically use computers.

The program in MIS is designed to prepare students to become effective systems analysts with a developed proficiency in state-of-the-art information technologies. Important areas for MIS-related knowledge and skill development include business software development (e.g., computer programming), systems analysis and design, database management, and data communications.

The required courses in the MIS concentration are: COMM 320, COMM 327, COMM 427 and COMM 428. Recommended electives include COMM 429 and selected computer science courses.


Marketing

The discipline of marketing is eclectic in nature, drawing from and interchanging with the quantitative and social sciences in developing and expanding its content. As such, the areas of accounting, economics, law, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and other related disciplines are drawn upon for the conceptual, theoretical, and empirical underpinnings of the marketing discipline.

What product to make or service to provide? how much? how to distribute it? how to inform people about its existence and communicate its merits? what price to charge? -- these are all marketing questions. Every organization, profit or nonprofit, must answer these questions in one form or another. It is the purpose of the marketing program to provide the student with the necessary concepts and background for examining these questions. The program's objectives are to make the student aware of the role of marketing in society and in the firm, where it interrelates with almost all organizational functions and influences virtually all plans and decisions.

The marketing program intends to introduce the student to the role of marketing both in the firm and in society. Case analyses, computer simulation, discussion groups, experiential exercises, research reports, seminars, field projects, lectures, outside speakers, and the McIntire Marketing Association (MMA), together with national marketing/advertising competitions, are utilized to accomplish this purpose. The marketing program is intended to meet the basic educational needs of students planning graduate study or entering profit or nonprofit organizations in such areas as client relations, sales, advertising and promotion, brand management, distribution, international marketing, marketing research, marketing consulting, logistics, purchasing, product management, retailing, and positions in the service industries.

Required courses for the marketing concentration are COMM 353, COMM 454 and COMM 455.