National Academy of Engineering
for Successor Generations: Thomas Jefferson and Ralph Bunche"
am happy to be here because it is both an honor and an obligation.
It’s an honor to be associated with what you are trying to
do. It’s an obligation in the sense that those of us who
want to claim that we want to advance human understanding, racial
harmony and issues of justice, we have an obligation to serve.
So in many ways I am here today to try to be of service, or in
the spirit of service, so that in effect coming out of this interaction,
we may find some common cause that will allow us to advance those
values upon which this University is built and those values that
we probably incorporate in our personal lives.
am happy to be here to be able to speak about Ralph Bunche. I
was born in Chicago in 1942 so coming out of Chicago as a young
Negro boy, the question was, well what are you going to do when
you grow up. Well if you were good in athletics, be Jackie Robinson.
I was not good in athletics. If you are good in math and science,
be the Black Apollo, Dr. Ernest Just. I was not so good in math
and science. I was left with, well be like Dr. Bunche. And what
is ironic is that if you look at my curriculum vitae, if you look
at my life experiences, I really have been prepared to understand
the message of Dr. Bunche and in some small respect, being here
and talking about Ralphe Bunche and his legacy is an opportunity
for me to answer those matriarchal voices of my family who said
make us proud and I can now say, well I am doing the work of Dr.
Bunche. I should also mention that Dr. Bunche was also a very active
board member of Phelps Stokes for over twenty years and he was
very, very adamant in using Phelps Stokes as a vehicle to accomplish
certain objectives that he couldn’t accomplish as Under Secretary
of the United Nations. And much of my work today is in the shadow
of the work of Dr. Ralph Bunche so to be able to come and talk
about him is both a honor and indeed an obligation.
the last reason that I happen to be here is to figure out what
do we do about successor generations and I do believe that the
best of what Thomas Jefferson stood for, the best of what Ralphe
Bunch stood for, the best of what the University of Virginia
stands for, and the best of what Phelps Stokes claims it to be
is that somehow or another we can find ways of sharing those
values and that knowledge so that overall result is that successor
generations can, in fact, move forward. The relay race for justice
and humanity is a relay race. Relay races are won and lost in
the exchange zones. If we do not figure out a way to more effectively
exchange, not only the knowledge, not only the values, but the
demonstration, the application of those values, if we don’t
do that to the next generation, than surely we have done a disservice
to ourselves and a disservice to the very sort of organizations
and writings that we in fact publicly commit ourselves to.
title of my talk is a daunting one, “Legacies for Successor
Generations: Thomas Jefferson and Ralph Bunche”. Now that
calls for a conceptual leap in popular minds. How in earth are
you going to connect Thomas Jefferson to Ralph Bunche other than
maybe Sally Hemings or whatever? Well the truth of the matter,
as I want to point out, Jefferson was a complex person. On the
one hand, certainly having beliefs about the inferiority of some
people, but yet at the same time, wanting to abolish a peculiar
institution that really denigrated the very notion of humanity.
In any case, the legacy of Jefferson certainly is captured in the
architecture of this campus. The principles of change, of invention,
of education that just permeate the wonderful things that have
been done here by himself and in his name. Well one of the things
that caught my attention as I googled Jefferson and the University
of Virginia was a quote and he says, “The march of events
has not been such as to render its completion practical within
the limits of time allotted to me and I leave its accomplishment
as the work of another generation. The abolishing of evil is not
impossible. It ought never therefore to be despaired of. Every
plan should be adopted. Every experiment tried which may do something
towards the ultimate object.” Of course when I read that
quote, I immediately interpreted, reinterpreted, and defined it
as his legacy that would fit my talk and so therefore I really
understood that as he talked about the ultimate objects, I knew
he meant full education and participation in a global community
that we are in. Similarly, that the work of another generation
will be the Ralph Bunche Society at the University of Virginia
and that all will be done in the service of the abolition of evil
and evil in the form of racism, blocked access, and inequality.
Jefferson argues for an academical village, which is physically
embodied here in the Lawn and the Ranges and the marvelous landscaping
of this campus, but I think the notion was that in that academical
village, one would acquire certain habits of reflection, certain
habits of action that in fact would cause one to rise above the
narrow confines of our individual concerns in order to embrace
a broader concern for all humanity.
academical village would encourage people to achieve excellence
in all fields and the values of that village certainly would prepare
people to understand that they need to enter the new age with more
understanding and more good will. Now what is interesting about
this day and age and Tom Friedman in his book The
World is Flat sort of really makes this point, that through
the genius of science and technology we have shrunk the world and
so therefore the consequences of our actions, whether they be intended
or unintended, often are global. So the reality is that we are
increasingly living in a physical neighborhood where whether it
be climate or other actions or the environment, it has consequences
for us all. While we may live in a neighborhood, we have yet to
create a notion of brotherhood and the point is that if we are
increasingly dependent on each other and impacted on by our choices,
then how is it that we build a consensus of how we should live
together in this small confined neighborhood? If in fact we do
not come up with better standards of behavior rooted in the finest
legacies, if we don’t do that, then in fact, the opportunity
of creating a New World Order will be lost. We may end up duplicating
the worse of Old World Orders and I say the worse in the sense
of those arrangements and those understandings that in fact, have
led to greater inequalities, less freedom, and less democracy.
now very briefly, and I use this particularly with undergraduates,
so what is it about this neighborhood that you need to really pay
attention to? And most of you have heard these statistics so just
bear with me, but they comprise the wonderful
rhetoric of thirty-five thousand feet of Jefferson and Bunche.
But what can we say about this neighborhood? Let us pretend that
there are one hundred people in the neighborhood. In that neighborhood
of one hundred people, fifty-seven will be Asian. Twenty-one Europeans,
fourteen of whom come from the Western Hemisphere. And there will
be eight Africans. Fifty-two will be women. Seventy will be “non-White”.
Seventy will be non-Christian. Six people will control almost sixty
percent of the wealth of that neighborhood and all of them will
be from the United States. Eighty-nine will live in sub-standard
housing. Seventy will be unable to read. Fifty will suffer from
malnutrition. One will be near-death and one will be near-birth.
One will have a college education and one will own a computer.
if you live in that village of one hundred people with those
characteristics, here are some things that you might consider.
If you woke up this morning with more health than illness, you
are more blessed than the million who will not survive this week.
If you have never experienced the danger of battle, the loneliness
of imprisonment, the agony of torture, or the pains of starvation,
you are ahead of five hundred million people in this world. If
you can attend a church meeting without fear of harassment, arrest,
torture or death, you are more blessed than three billion people
in the world. If you have food in the refrigerator, clothes on
your back, a roof overhead and a place to sleep, you are richer
than seventy percent of the people in the world. If you have
money in the bank, in your purse, and in a spare change dish
on your dresser, you are among the top eight percent of the world’s
if that’s the village, if that’s the neighborhood
from which we will prepare successor generations, than how do we
make sense and how do we make choices about what we should do for
whom and why? And that’s where the legacy of someone like
Ralph Bunche is very relevant today. Bunche’s legacy can
basically be divided into three responses. The first is the need
to improve our understanding of global affairs and advancing human
rights so there is a whole section of his life that is focused
on that theme. The second involves recognizing the importance of
the United Nations and the third focuses on making morally right
choices. Let me take each of those three categories to quickly
summarize the legacy of Ralphe Bunche and its relevance for successor
generations in the neighborhood I just described.
father once told me that you have to have a straight stick to
know what a crooked stick is. Ralphe Bunche devoted his life
to try to create straight sticks and so his role in writing the
United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, that is a straight
stick. Now what a straight stick does in differentiating crooked
sticks, it does two things. A - it allows you to differentiate
right from wrong and increasingly in this neighborhood I just
described, people get confused of what’s right and what’s wrong.
But even if you do achieve in teaching people what’s right
from what’s wrong, that’s just part of the equation.
The next part of the equation is you are then obligated and compelled
to respond to what is wrong. And that’s generally where we
lack courage. So people are great on ethics and differentiating
right from wrong, but in terms of okay you saw the wrong, what
are you going to do, well at that point we distance ourselves exceptionally.
So Ralph Bunche, he spent his life trying to come up with these
straight sticks along with the demand to act. Unfortunately, that
neighborhood I described impacts the choices that we have in our
lives, even here in Charlottesville. Now we know that the essence
of freedom is choice. The more choices you have, the more freedom
you have. How we go about making those choices, particularly collective
choices goes to the very heart of democracy. If you did not participate
in making those choices, your freedom has been diminished and democracy
has been diminished and that is particularly important to drive
home to those people who do not experience the lash of poverty
and illness, etcetera. Those who are blessed to live in Guilford
County, North Carolina or in Alexandria, Virginia where you are
buffered by some of these forces, but the point being is that we
all in fact suffer the consequences when we fail to participate
in making those choices and understanding the consequences. Bunche
was about that every single day.
go into this whole question of pre-emptive war and the amount
of money and resources that are being allocated to the War in
Iraq. The fact that those choices that were made are going to
have an impact for generations and generations, both in terms
of the lives directly impacted in Iraq and in the United States,
but more importantly for the people right here in the Charlottesville.
That when you take a look at the amount of time, energy, and money
that will be devoted, it means you will not have that time, money,
and other resources to devote to other issues having to do with
health, having to do with education, having to do with dying with
dignity, having to do with allowing a two-month old child to have
there is a great deal at stake, Bunche would argue, in an environment
where people may easily think that pre-emptive war, preventive
war, is the way to respond to the characteristics of that village
I described earlier. If you read Ralph Bunche’s address to
the Noble Peace Prize Committee when he received the Noble Peace
Prize, the ultimate paragraph of his speech describes the folly
of pre-emptive war. There is no evidence that pre-emptive war has
ever led to justice, to the so-called objectives. And tragically
we are seeing today, again why that does not work. We are now beginning
to see what Ralph Bunche would say is that as you extricate yourself
from this mess, you will be dependent on some kind of collective
vehicle called the United Nations or something else, with all of
it’s flaws, that living in this village of one hundred people
will now call for some collective effort to find the conditions
of peace, and stability, democracy and freedom.
successor generations must be prepared in fact, to do that. Unfortunately
in this village I described, there is another form of illness.
And these are the viruses called the “isms”. Racism,
sexism, classism - those ideologies that divide human beings. Those
practices and beliefs that destroy the unity of humankind. Now
what’s unfortunate is that those viruses are more powerful
and more dangerous than HIV/AIDS because these viruses mutate very,
very quickly. And by the time you figure out a vaccine, for one
variation, the virus is mutated and you hit again. So using that
metaphor, we have to find ways of continually developing vaccines.
Vaccines against undemocratic behavior. Vaccines against the lost
of freedom. Vaccines against the denigration of the human spirit.
We must create these vaccines and then we must find ways to quickly
distribute them. Bunche would say using that metaphor that is precisely
what international institutions based on straight sticks, declarations
of human rights, that is the way forward. Prepare your next generation
to improve that kind of performance.
Bunche was attacked for being, not quite a Communist, but this
notion of supporting the U.N. meant that he wasn’t proud
to be an American and Bunche’s response then is as relevant
today – what does it mean to be proud to be an American?
And why do some believe that supporting the strong U.N. automatically
means weakening the United States? Pride, according to Bunche,
is based upon, our pride should be based upon those principles
and practices enshrined in our current Constitution that promote
common welfare, democracy, equality before the law, along with
a Bill of Rights that protect such freedoms as speech, assembly,
and religion. Bunche was so proud of these promises that he wanted
to spread their effects and practices to all corners of the globe.
He believed that the United Nations represents an important vehicle
for accomplishing that goal. While the U.N. has its flaws and areas
for improvement, an alternative arena for spreading freedom and
democracy that is truly inclusive and reflective of the diversity
of humankind and the village I described, that does not exist.
Those who argue that a strong U.N. necessarily leads to a weakened
U.S. have their logic wrong. The exact reverse is true. Bunche
would say that if you are concerned with Homeland Security in the
United States, it has less to do with combating weapons of mass
destruction and terrorists. Rather, Homeland Security should be
the strengthening of the institutions and practices of freedom
The greatest defense of freedom and democracy is its practice.
That means removing obstacles to voter participation, eliminating
social discrimination and unfair treatment. And you should know
that the emergence of domestic terrorists leads to the kind of
abuse of the Liberty Seven. Who are the Liberty Seven? These seven
young black boys in Liberty City in Florida that the FBI and Homeland
Security people overheard them talking about being a revolutionary,
being a terrorist and proceeded to entrap them and then arrested
them as the latest terrorists and it was so outrageous that eventually
they had to drop the case, but what leads to that kind of confusion
and logic, what leads us to that is this notion that somehow or
another, security is based on force and the ability to compel rather
than impel people towards more fair and equitable treatment.
in 1940 Bunche was asked what were his wishes for the Negro,
a Harlem newspaper, and his first wish for the Negro, “I
wish that the American Negro would become more involved in international
affairs instead of just being complacent about his local problem.” We
who are African-Americans, obviously we must strive to place our
problems in perspective. We must stop dwelling on the unpleasant
things of life so that we can focus on what can be and what should
be. We must recall that the faces of hundreds of thousands of faceless
people who proceeded us and prepared the way for our progress demand
that we not wallow and whine. We have an obligation to become role
models who will not allow the grievous and slow healing wounds
of racial oppression to fester within us and then consume us with
self-hatred and self-destruction. Ever mindful of those conditions
of cruel and unjust punishment our African ancestors remained hopeful
and diligent in the pursuit of freedom and dignity. In their memory
we have no excuse for failing to advance the next generation.
when Bunche wished that we would become more involved in international
affairs he understood something very profound. If you have the
capacity to imagine yourself in the place of the other, no matter
how strange that person is, if you have the capacity to imagine
yourself in that person’s place and you work to alleviate
suffering, you will benefit two ways, at least two ways. First,
you of all you will feel better about yourself, your dignity and
self-respect. You will also begin to fashion alliances with the “stranger” who
may become an unexpected ally in your struggle to alleviate your
suffering. Indeed, sometimes a prophet has no honor in his own
country. Sometimes you must go abroad to validate yourself in your
own community. And finally, moving from a focus on self-interests
towards one of common interests ennobles us as human beings.
believed that the lost of self-respect and self-dignity leads
to the death of the soul. If our minds and bodies are controlled
by the limbic and neocortex systems of the brain,
ten what happens to us when those systems go haywire? What happens
when our unchecked emotions of hatred, bigotry, and fear lead to
acts of violence, lynching, or the killing of innocent women and
children? What happens when our unchecked logic leads to so-called
rational solutions such as slavery and the World War II Holocaust.
These behaviors may be the result of the failure of a master system
that regulates both the limbic, the feelings, and the neocortex,
the rational thought systems of the brain. Some would call that
master system the spiritual dimension of human existence. That
master system degenerates when the individual no longer respects
himself and therefore no longer respects the other. Equally, the
absence of honor and respect for oneself quickly leads to the dishonor
and disrespect of the other. When these conditions surface or obtain,
the soul dies.
Bunche will offer certain prescriptions for living in the global
village that I just described. And the first prescription would be
consult, consult, consult. And then consult. Then act. Then consult.
a collective action. It begins by saying how do we include others
in our discussion? How do we become more inclusive? And then it goes
immediately to the question, what are we going to do as opposed to
what am I going to do? The issues that we confront today of how do
we get along, those are the issues that are embedded in that village
of one hundred that I talked about. And how do we prepare ourselves
to be able to wrestle with those issues in such a way that we make
choices that enhances the human spirit, increases freedom and democracy,
that is the challenge and that is what successor generations deserve
to be prepared. If we do not do what we have to do to prepare them
then it is we who have let them down.